title

Data Structures and Algorithms in Python | Python Programming Tutorial | Python Training | Edureka

description

ðŸ”¥ Python Certification Training: https://www.edureka.co/data-science-python-certification-course
This Edureka video on ''Data Structures and Algorithms in Python" will help you understand all the Data Structures and Algorithms along with their implementations in Python. Here are the topics that are covered in this Python Programming Tutorial video:
1:12 Data Structures in Python
2:00 Built-in Data Structures
6:24 User-defined Data Structures
9:10 What are Algorithms?
10:40 Elements of a Good Algorithm
11:12 Algorithm Classes
11:52 Tree Traversal Algorithms
17:29 Sorting Algorithms
30:51 Searching Algorithms
35:38 Algorithm Analysis
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{'title': 'Data Structures and Algorithms in Python | Python Programming Tutorial | Python Training | Edureka', 'heatmap': [{'end': 427.232, 'start': 376.273, 'weight': 1}, {'end': 942.6, 'start': 913.209, 'weight': 0.721}, {'end': 1097.943, 'start': 1071.127, 'weight': 0.716}], 'summary': 'Tutorial on data structures and algorithms in python by edureka covers the significance of data structures and algorithms for interviews, python data structures (lists, dictionaries, tuples, sets), data structures and algorithms in python (stack, queue, trees, linked lists, graphs, hash maps), tree traversal methods (pre-order, in-order, post-order), and an overview of sorting algorithms (merge sort, bubble sort, insertion sort, selection sort, shell sort) with explanations and code demonstrations.', 'chapters': [{'end': 67.901, 'segs': [{'end': 67.901, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 12.389, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 16.774, 'text': 'The knowledge of data structures and algorithms is a sure-shot question for your interviews,', 'start': 12.389, 'duration': 4.385}, {'end': 20.278, 'text': 'and this is because it helps recruiters identify good programmers.', 'start': 16.774, 'duration': 3.504}, {'end': 23.882, 'text': 'So hey guys, welcome back to a whole new session from Edureka.', 'start': 20.939, 'duration': 2.943}, {'end': 29.849, 'text': "My name is Vajija and in this session we'll be learning about the most important pillars of programming, that is,", 'start': 24.243, 'duration': 5.606}, {'end': 32.072, 'text': 'data structures and algorithms in Python.', 'start': 29.849, 'duration': 2.223}, {'end': 38.938, 'text': 'In this session, we shall first take a look at what exactly are data structures followed by the types of data structures in Python.', 'start': 33.095, 'duration': 5.843}, {'end': 47.482, 'text': 'Then we shall take a deep look at what exactly are algorithms, qualities of good algorithms, algorithm classes, the various types of algorithms,', 'start': 39.358, 'duration': 8.124}, {'end': 51.064, 'text': 'namely tree traversals, sorting algorithms and searching algorithms.', 'start': 47.482, 'duration': 3.582}, {'end': 54.706, 'text': 'Finally, we shall take a look at algorithm analysis as well.', 'start': 51.644, 'duration': 3.062}, {'end': 61.589, 'text': 'So before we begin just make sure you subscribe to our channel and hit the bell icon to stay updated with all the latest Edureka videos.', 'start': 55.466, 'duration': 6.123}, {'end': 67.901, 'text': "Also, if you're looking for an online training certification in python check out the link given in the description box below.", 'start': 62.319, 'duration': 5.582}], 'summary': 'Data structures and algorithms in python are important for interviews, aiding in identifying good programmers.', 'duration': 55.512, 'max_score': 12.389, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB812389.jpg'}], 'start': 12.389, 'title': 'Data structures & algorithms in python', 'summary': 'Covers the importance of data structures and algorithms for interviews, and outlines the topics to be covered including data structures, algorithms, and algorithm analysis in python.', 'chapters': [{'end': 67.901, 'start': 12.389, 'title': 'Data structures & algorithms in python', 'summary': 'Covers the importance of data structures and algorithms for interviews, outlines the topics to be covered including data structures, algorithms, and algorithm analysis in python.', 'duration': 55.512, 'highlights': ['The knowledge of data structures and algorithms is important for interviews as it helps recruiters identify good programmers.', 'The session covers data structures, algorithm classes, types of algorithms, and algorithm analysis in Python.', 'The session also includes a focus on tree traversals, sorting algorithms, and searching algorithms in Python.', 'The importance of subscribing to the channel and seeking online training certification in Python is emphasized.']}], 'duration': 55.512, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB812389.jpg', 'highlights': ['The knowledge of data structures and algorithms is important for interviews as it helps recruiters identify good programmers.', 'The session covers data structures, algorithm classes, types of algorithms, and algorithm analysis in Python.', 'The session also includes a focus on tree traversals, sorting algorithms, and searching algorithms in Python.', 'The importance of subscribing to the channel and seeking online training certification in Python is emphasized.']}, {'end': 381.694, 'segs': [{'end': 116.12, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 90.845, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 98.329, 'text': 'So talking about the types of data structures in python python has implicit support for data structures, which enables you to store and access data.', 'start': 90.845, 'duration': 7.484}, {'end': 103.993, 'text': 'These structures are nothing but the lists, dictionaries, tuples and sets.', 'start': 99.15, 'duration': 4.843}, {'end': 110.356, 'text': 'python also allows its users to create their own data structures, enabling them to have full control over their functionality.', 'start': 103.993, 'duration': 6.363}, {'end': 116.12, 'text': 'The most prominent data structures are stack Q tree linked list and so on.', 'start': 111.117, 'duration': 5.003}], 'summary': 'Python has implicit support for data structures like lists, dictionaries, tuples, and sets, and also allows users to create their own data structures for full control.', 'duration': 25.275, 'max_score': 90.845, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB890845.jpg'}, {'end': 183.293, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 155.676, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 159.538, 'text': 'So in case you want to change delete or add on some elements to the list.', 'start': 155.676, 'duration': 3.862}, {'end': 160.619, 'text': 'You can do it easily.', 'start': 159.738, 'duration': 0.881}, {'end': 166.562, 'text': "So now let's jump onto a Jupiter notebook and see how you can actually create lists in python.", 'start': 161.399, 'duration': 5.163}, {'end': 169.364, 'text': 'lists and python can be created using the square brackets.', 'start': 166.562, 'duration': 2.802}, {'end': 177.329, 'text': 'So all you have to do is take a variable say a and then make use of the square brackets specify some values within this list.', 'start': 169.985, 'duration': 7.344}, {'end': 183.293, 'text': 'So as you can see on the screen, I have created a list a having values of multiple data types.', 'start': 178.09, 'duration': 5.203}], 'summary': 'Creating lists in python using square brackets and specifying values within the list.', 'duration': 27.617, 'max_score': 155.676, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB8155676.jpg'}, {'end': 269.261, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 245.677, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 252.441, 'text': "So all I'm going to do here is take a variable say see I'll take the regular brackets and I'll just insert some data in this.", 'start': 245.677, 'duration': 6.764}, {'end': 256.123, 'text': 'Now, let me just print this.', 'start': 255.162, 'duration': 0.961}, {'end': 260.696, 'text': "So as you can see over here, I've created a tuple.", 'start': 258.615, 'duration': 2.081}, {'end': 264.779, 'text': "So like I've already mentioned before tuples are not mutable.", 'start': 261.557, 'duration': 3.222}, {'end': 269.261, 'text': "So in case I try to add some element to this tuple, it's going to throw an error.", 'start': 265.399, 'duration': 3.862}], 'summary': 'Demonstrating the immutability of tuples in python.', 'duration': 23.584, 'max_score': 245.677, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB8245677.jpg'}, {'end': 316.23, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 291.618, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 299.161, 'text': 'an example of a dictionary can be a mapping of employee names and their employee IDs or the names of students, along with your student IDs.', 'start': 291.618, 'duration': 7.543}, {'end': 301.962, 'text': 'in python, dictionaries are created using the curly braces.', 'start': 299.161, 'duration': 2.801}, {'end': 306.524, 'text': "So now let's get back to our Jupiter notebook and see how you can actually create dictionaries.", 'start': 302.602, 'duration': 3.922}, {'end': 313.006, 'text': "So what I'm going to do is take a new variable say D and then I'll have to make use of the curly braces.", 'start': 307.284, 'duration': 5.722}, {'end': 316.23, 'text': 'The first thing that I have to specify over here is the key.', 'start': 313.809, 'duration': 2.421}], 'summary': 'Python dictionaries are created using curly braces to map keys and values.', 'duration': 24.612, 'max_score': 291.618, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB8291618.jpg'}, {'end': 365.264, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 332.459, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 335.441, 'text': 'Okay, so as you can see over here a dictionary has been created.', 'start': 332.459, 'duration': 2.982}, {'end': 341.564, 'text': 'So now moving on towards sets sets are a collection of unordered elements that are unique.', 'start': 336.221, 'duration': 5.343}, {'end': 349.158, 'text': 'This means that even if the data is repeated more than one time, it would be entered into the set only once.', 'start': 342.296, 'duration': 6.862}, {'end': 356.361, 'text': 'you can also perform various kinds of operations, such as Union intersection, difference, Etc, to create sets in python.', 'start': 349.158, 'duration': 7.203}, {'end': 358.021, 'text': 'You can make use of the curly braces.', 'start': 356.421, 'duration': 1.6}, {'end': 365.264, 'text': "I'll take a new variable say E and then I'll open up the curly braces and I'll just specify some values.", 'start': 358.741, 'duration': 6.523}], 'summary': 'In python, sets are collections of unique, unordered elements; operations like union, intersection, and difference can be performed. curly braces are used to create sets.', 'duration': 32.805, 'max_score': 332.459, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB8332459.jpg'}], 'start': 68.642, 'title': 'Python data structures', 'summary': 'Covers data structures in python including lists, dictionaries, tuples, and sets, emphasizing their importance in organizing, managing, and storing data. it also highlights creation, manipulation, mutability, and unique properties of each data structure.', 'chapters': [{'end': 132.739, 'start': 68.642, 'title': 'Data structures in python', 'summary': 'Introduces data structures in python, covering the importance of organizing, managing, and storing data, the types of data structures in python such as lists, dictionaries, tuples, and sets, and the first built-in data structure, lists, which are used to store data of different data types in a sequential manner.', 'duration': 64.097, 'highlights': ['Python has implicit support for data structures such as lists, dictionaries, tuples, and sets, enabling easy storage and access of data.', 'The chapter covers the types of data structures in Python, including built-in and user-defined structures, providing a comprehensive understanding of data organization and management.', 'Lists are the first built-in data structure discussed, used to store data of different data types in a sequential manner, emphasizing their importance in data organization and storage.']}, {'end': 381.694, 'start': 133.66, 'title': 'Python data structures', 'summary': 'Explains the creation and manipulation of lists, tuples, dictionaries, and sets in python, highlighting the use of indexes, mutability, and unique properties of each data structure.', 'duration': 248.034, 'highlights': ['Lists in Python can be easily created using square brackets and are mutable, allowing for addition, deletion, and modification of elements. Lists are mutable and can be created using square brackets, allowing for easy addition, deletion, and modification of elements.', 'Tuples in Python are immutable and are created using regular brackets, preventing the modification of elements once entered. Tuples are immutable and are created using regular brackets, preventing the modification of elements once entered.', 'Dictionaries in Python store key-value pairs and are created using curly braces, facilitating the storage of data such as employee names and IDs or student names and IDs. Dictionaries store key-value pairs and are created using curly braces, facilitating the storage of various data types.', 'Sets in Python are collections of unique, unordered elements and are created using curly braces, allowing for various operations such as union, intersection, and difference. Sets are collections of unique, unordered elements and support operations like union, intersection, and difference.']}], 'duration': 313.052, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB868642.jpg', 'highlights': ['The chapter covers the types of data structures in Python, including built-in and user-defined structures, providing a comprehensive understanding of data organization and management.', 'Python has implicit support for data structures such as lists, dictionaries, tuples, and sets, enabling easy storage and access of data.', 'Lists in Python can be easily created using square brackets and are mutable, allowing for addition, deletion, and modification of elements.', 'Dictionaries in Python store key-value pairs and are created using curly braces, facilitating the storage of data such as employee names and IDs or student names and IDs.', 'Sets in Python are collections of unique, unordered elements and are created using curly braces, allowing for various operations such as union, intersection, and difference.', 'Tuples in Python are immutable and are created using regular brackets, preventing the modification of elements once entered.']}, {'end': 701.594, 'segs': [{'end': 430.606, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 404.259, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 408.742, 'text': 'popping and accessing elements only from one point in a stack called as the top.', 'start': 404.259, 'duration': 4.483}, {'end': 412.824, 'text': 'This top is a pointer to the current position of the stack.', 'start': 409.422, 'duration': 3.402}, {'end': 421.289, 'text': 'stacks are prominently used in applications such as recursive programming, reversing words under mechanisms in word editors and so forth.', 'start': 412.824, 'duration': 8.465}, {'end': 427.232, 'text': 'queues a queue is also a linear data structure which is based on the principle of first in first out.', 'start': 421.289, 'duration': 5.943}, {'end': 430.606, 'text': 'Here the data entered first will be accessed first.', 'start': 427.904, 'duration': 2.702}], 'summary': 'Stacks access elements from the top, used in recursive programming. queues operate on first in first out principle.', 'duration': 26.347, 'max_score': 404.259, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB8404259.jpg'}, {'end': 470.257, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 446.737, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 453.702, 'text': 'queues are used as network buffers of traffic congestion management, used in operating systems for job scheduling and many more.', 'start': 446.737, 'duration': 6.965}, {'end': 458.933, 'text': 'Trees trees are the other hand a nonlinear data structures which have roots and nodes.', 'start': 454.412, 'duration': 4.521}, {'end': 465.175, 'text': 'The root is the node from where the data originates and the nodes are the other data points that are available to us.', 'start': 459.654, 'duration': 5.521}, {'end': 470.257, 'text': 'The note that proceeds is the parent and the note that is after is called as the child.', 'start': 466.156, 'duration': 4.101}], 'summary': 'Queues manage traffic congestion, while trees are nonlinear data structures with roots and nodes.', 'duration': 23.52, 'max_score': 446.737, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB8446737.jpg'}, {'end': 509.225, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 484.941, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 491.342, 'text': 'Link lists are linear data structures, which are not stored consequently but are linked with each other using pointers.', 'start': 484.941, 'duration': 6.401}, {'end': 496.683, 'text': 'The note of a link list is composed of data and a pointer called the next.', 'start': 492.142, 'duration': 4.541}, {'end': 503.164, 'text': 'these structures are most widely used in image viewing applications, music player applications and so forth.', 'start': 496.683, 'duration': 6.481}, {'end': 509.225, 'text': 'graphs graphs are used to store data, collection of points called as the vertices and the edges.', 'start': 503.164, 'duration': 6.061}], 'summary': 'Linear data structures like link lists are widely used in various applications. graphs are used to store data and collections of points.', 'duration': 24.284, 'max_score': 484.941, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB8484941.jpg'}, {'end': 544.05, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 521.102, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 528.486, 'text': 'many applications, such as Google Maps, Uber and many more, make use of graphs to find the least distance and increase profits in the best ways.', 'start': 521.102, 'duration': 7.384}, {'end': 534.108, 'text': 'So now talking about hash maps hash maps are the same as what dictionaries are in Python.', 'start': 529.206, 'duration': 4.902}, {'end': 540.05, 'text': 'They can be used to implement applications such as phone books populate data according to the lists and much more.', 'start': 534.688, 'duration': 5.362}, {'end': 544.05, 'text': 'To know more about the data structures and their implementations in Python.', 'start': 540.689, 'duration': 3.361}], 'summary': 'Applications like google maps, uber use graphs to find least distance and increase profits. hash maps are similar to python dictionaries and can be used to implement applications such as phone books.', 'duration': 22.948, 'max_score': 521.102, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB8521102.jpg'}, {'end': 581.354, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 556.353, 'weight': 7, 'content': [{'end': 563.315, 'text': 'algorithms are rules or instructions that are formulated in a finite, sequential order to solve problems and get the required results.', 'start': 556.353, 'duration': 6.962}, {'end': 569.317, 'text': 'They give the pseudocode for problems and can be implemented in several languages as they are not language specific.', 'start': 564.075, 'duration': 5.242}, {'end': 573.272, 'text': 'Okay, So how do you actually write algorithms?', 'start': 570.171, 'duration': 3.101}, {'end': 579.254, 'text': 'algorithms are generally written as a combination of user understandable language and some common programming languages.', 'start': 573.272, 'duration': 5.982}, {'end': 581.354, 'text': 'They commonly written down in steps.', 'start': 579.934, 'duration': 1.42}], 'summary': 'Algorithms are finite, sequential rules for problem-solving, written in user-understandable and programming languages.', 'duration': 25.001, 'max_score': 556.353, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB8556353.jpg'}, {'end': 682.24, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 638.05, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 646.794, 'text': "Okay So now let's move on and see what are the elements of good algorithms the steps of an algorithm need to be finite clear and understandable.", 'start': 638.05, 'duration': 8.744}, {'end': 652.156, 'text': 'There should be a clear and precise description about the inputs and the outputs.', 'start': 647.494, 'duration': 4.662}, {'end': 658.219, 'text': 'each step must have a defined output that will depend only on the inputs of that step or the preceding steps.', 'start': 652.156, 'duration': 6.063}, {'end': 664.255, 'text': 'The algorithm should be flexible enough to mold it in order to allow a number of solutions.', 'start': 658.934, 'duration': 5.321}, {'end': 669.377, 'text': 'The steps should make use of a general programming fundamentals and should not be language specific.', 'start': 664.875, 'duration': 4.502}, {'end': 674.318, 'text': "So the next thing that we'll be discussing over here is algorithm classes.", 'start': 670.157, 'duration': 4.161}, {'end': 682.24, 'text': 'algorithms can be broadly classified as divide and conquer algorithms, dynamic programming algorithms and the greedy algorithms.', 'start': 674.318, 'duration': 7.922}], 'summary': 'Good algorithms have finite, clear steps, flexible, and language-independent. they can be classified as divide and conquer, dynamic programming, and greedy algorithms.', 'duration': 44.19, 'max_score': 638.05, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB8638050.jpg'}], 'start': 382.575, 'title': 'Data structures and python algorithms', 'summary': 'Discusses stack, queue, trees, linked lists, graphs, and hash maps, including examples of their real-world uses. it also covers algorithms in python, including their classification and elements of good algorithms.', 'chapters': [{'end': 540.05, 'start': 382.575, 'title': 'User-defined data structures', 'summary': 'Discusses stack, queue, trees, linked lists, graphs, and hash maps, their operations, applications, and real-world uses, including examples such as recursive programming, traffic congestion management, and applications like google maps and uber.', 'duration': 157.475, 'highlights': ['Stacks: Based on the principle of last in first out, used in applications such as recursive programming, reversing words under mechanisms in word editors.', 'Queues: Based on the principle of first in first out, used in network buffers of traffic congestion management, job scheduling in operating systems.', 'Graphs: Used in applications such as Google Maps, Uber to find the least distance and increase profits in the best ways.', 'Hash Maps: Used to implement applications such as phone books, populate data according to the lists, and much more.', 'Linked Lists: Used in image viewing applications, music player applications, and are linked with each other using pointers.']}, {'end': 701.594, 'start': 540.689, 'title': 'Python algorithms overview', 'summary': 'Discusses algorithms in python, covering their definition, formulation, and elements of good algorithms, as well as classifying them into divide and conquer, dynamic programming, and greedy algorithms.', 'duration': 160.905, 'highlights': ['Algorithms are rules or instructions formulated in a finite, sequential order to solve problems and give the pseudocode for problems. Algorithms are formulated as finite, sequential rules to solve problems, providing the pseudocode, and can be implemented in multiple languages.', 'The steps of an algorithm need to be finite, clear, and understandable, with a clear and precise description about the inputs and outputs. Good algorithms require finite, clear, and understandable steps, with precise descriptions of inputs and outputs.', 'Algorithms can be broadly classified as divide and conquer, dynamic programming, and greedy algorithms. Algorithms can be classified into divide and conquer, dynamic programming, and greedy algorithms, each with distinct problem-solving approaches.']}], 'duration': 319.019, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB8382575.jpg', 'highlights': ['Graphs: Used in applications such as Google Maps, Uber to find the least distance and increase profits in the best ways.', 'Hash Maps: Used to implement applications such as phone books, populate data according to the lists, and much more.', 'Linked Lists: Used in image viewing applications, music player applications, and are linked with each other using pointers.', 'Queues: Based on the principle of first in first out, used in network buffers of traffic congestion management, job scheduling in operating systems.', 'Stacks: Based on the principle of last in first out, used in applications such as recursive programming, reversing words under mechanisms in word editors.', 'Algorithms can be broadly classified as divide and conquer, dynamic programming, and greedy algorithms. Algorithms can be classified into divide and conquer, dynamic programming, and greedy algorithms, each with distinct problem-solving approaches.', 'The steps of an algorithm need to be finite, clear, and understandable, with a clear and precise description about the inputs and outputs. Good algorithms require finite, clear, and understandable steps, with precise descriptions of inputs and outputs.', 'Algorithms are rules or instructions formulated in a finite, sequential order to solve problems and give the pseudocode for problems. Algorithms are formulated as finite, sequential rules to solve problems, providing the pseudocode, and can be implemented in multiple languages.']}, {'end': 1044.701, 'segs': [{'end': 726.888, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 701.594, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 708.757, 'text': 'greedy algorithms involves taking the easiest step while solving a problem without having to worry about the complexity of the future steps.', 'start': 701.594, 'duration': 7.163}, {'end': 713.56, 'text': "So now let's move on and take a look at the tree traversal algorithms in python.", 'start': 709.758, 'duration': 3.802}, {'end': 719.905, 'text': 'As mentioned earlier, trees in python are nonlinear data structures having roots and nodes.', 'start': 714.622, 'duration': 5.283}, {'end': 726.888, 'text': 'tree traversal refers to visiting each node present in the tree exactly once in order to update or check them.', 'start': 719.905, 'duration': 6.983}], 'summary': 'Greedy algorithms prioritize easiest steps, while tree traversal in python involves visiting each node exactly once for updates or checks.', 'duration': 25.294, 'max_score': 701.594, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB8701594.jpg'}, {'end': 764.58, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 741.923, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 749.609, 'text': 'In order traversal refers to traversing a tree in such a way that you first visit the left nodes, followed by the root and then the right nodes.', 'start': 741.923, 'duration': 7.686}, {'end': 755.533, 'text': 'you begin your traversal from all nodes in the left sub tree, then move towards the root and finally the right sub tree.', 'start': 749.609, 'duration': 5.924}, {'end': 764.58, 'text': 'So in the tree that you see on the screen over here, note 4 will be visited first, followed by 2, 5, 1 and then 3.', 'start': 756.434, 'duration': 8.146}], 'summary': 'In-order traversal visits left, root, and right nodes, with 4, 2, 5, 1, and 3 being visited in the given tree.', 'duration': 22.657, 'max_score': 741.923, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB8741923.jpg'}, {'end': 816.649, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 792.633, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 801.506, 'text': 'So when the left sub tree is completed I move towards the root In this case the root is 1 and then I move towards the next node, which is 3.', 'start': 792.633, 'duration': 8.873}, {'end': 802.746, 'text': 'I hope you guys are clear with this.', 'start': 801.506, 'duration': 1.24}, {'end': 805.607, 'text': 'So now to show an example of this.', 'start': 803.786, 'duration': 1.821}, {'end': 807.267, 'text': 'Let me get back to my Jupiter notebook.', 'start': 805.687, 'duration': 1.58}, {'end': 813.108, 'text': "So as you can see on the screen, I've already created a tree by creating a class called as the node.", 'start': 808.107, 'duration': 5.001}, {'end': 816.649, 'text': 'Now this class will help me build each node in my tree.', 'start': 813.908, 'duration': 2.741}], 'summary': 'Demonstrating tree traversal and node creation in a jupiter notebook.', 'duration': 24.016, 'max_score': 792.633, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB8792633.jpg'}, {'end': 942.6, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 913.209, 'weight': 0.721, 'content': [{'end': 914.97, 'text': 'So now let me just execute this function.', 'start': 913.209, 'duration': 1.761}, {'end': 924.336, 'text': 'So, as you can see over here, the order is 4, 2, 5, 1, 3, which means starting from the left node, go to the root, followed by the right,', 'start': 915.651, 'duration': 8.685}, {'end': 928.979, 'text': 'and when the left subtree is over, go to the root node, again followed by the right subtree.', 'start': 924.336, 'duration': 4.643}, {'end': 931.1, 'text': 'So I hope you guys have understood this.', 'start': 929.599, 'duration': 1.501}, {'end': 935.963, 'text': 'Okay So now moving on towards the next traversal, which is the pre-order traversal.', 'start': 932.02, 'duration': 3.943}, {'end': 942.6, 'text': 'In a pre-order traversal the root node is visited first followed by the left sub tree and then the right sub tree.', 'start': 936.838, 'duration': 5.762}], 'summary': 'Explaining the order of traversal in a binary tree, using an example of 4, 2, 5, 1, 3, and introducing pre-order traversal.', 'duration': 29.391, 'max_score': 913.209, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB8913209.jpg'}, {'end': 986.788, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 956.425, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 963.087, 'text': "So as you can see if root is present, I'll print the root node first then visit the left child and then the right child.", 'start': 956.425, 'duration': 6.662}, {'end': 966.793, 'text': 'Okay Now, let me just execute this Okay.', 'start': 963.927, 'duration': 2.866}, {'end': 973.858, 'text': 'So, as you can see over here, pre-order traversal is 1, 2, 4, 5, 3, that is, starting from the root node 1.', 'start': 966.813, 'duration': 7.045}, {'end': 979.462, 'text': 'it will go to the left sub child, which is 2, and then to 4, which is the left sub child of 2.', 'start': 973.858, 'duration': 5.604}, {'end': 986.788, 'text': "following that it's going to visit root 5 and after this, when the left sub tree and the root node is over, it will visit the right sub tree,", 'start': 979.462, 'duration': 7.326}], 'summary': 'Pre-order traversal: 1, 2, 4, 5, 3. explaining tree traversal process.', 'duration': 30.363, 'max_score': 956.425, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB8956425.jpg'}, {'end': 1021.962, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 998.866, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 1007.852, 'text': 'So in this tree over here for a post-order traversal, it will start at 4, move towards 5 and then go to 2, 3 and then 1.', 'start': 998.866, 'duration': 8.986}, {'end': 1014.457, 'text': 'So it will be left, right, root and when the left subtree is over, it will move on towards the right subtree.', 'start': 1007.852, 'duration': 6.605}, {'end': 1021.962, 'text': "In the right subtree, there's just one node present which is 3 and after visiting 3, it will move on to 1 which is the root node.", 'start': 1015.177, 'duration': 6.785}], 'summary': 'Post-order traversal: 4, 5, 2, 3, 1', 'duration': 23.096, 'max_score': 998.866, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB8998866.jpg'}], 'start': 701.594, 'title': 'Tree traversal methods', 'summary': 'Introduces and discusses tree traversal methods such as pre-order, in-order, and post-order traversals in python, with examples, code demonstrations, and resulting traversal sequences, including pre-order 1, 2, 4, 5, 3, post-order 4, 5, 2, 3, 1, and in-order 4, 2, 5, 1, 3.', 'chapters': [{'end': 914.97, 'start': 701.594, 'title': 'Tree traversal algorithms in python', 'summary': 'Introduces tree traversal algorithms in python, focusing on in-order traversal, which involves visiting the left nodes, then the root, and finally the right nodes, illustrated with an example of a tree and code implementation.', 'duration': 213.376, 'highlights': ['In-order traversal involves visiting left nodes, then the root, and finally the right nodes, as demonstrated with an example of visiting nodes 4, 2, 5, 1, and 3 in a tree. In-order traversal is explained, demonstrating the order of visiting nodes in a tree, which provides a clear understanding of the traversal process.', 'Creation of a tree using a Python class, with a root node and its left and right children, is demonstrated, providing a clear example of building a tree structure. The process of creating a tree using a Python class is detailed, including the creation of a root node and its left and right children, offering practical insights into building tree structures.', 'Implementation of an in-order traversal function in Python is showcased, emphasizing the process of traversing the tree in an in-order fashion, starting from the left child, then visiting the root, and finally the right child. The implementation of an in-order traversal function in Python is demonstrated, highlighting the step-by-step process of traversing the tree in an in-order fashion, providing practical insights into coding tree traversal algorithms.']}, {'end': 1044.701, 'start': 915.651, 'title': 'Tree traversal methods', 'summary': 'Discusses tree traversal methods including pre-order, in-order, and post-order traversals, with examples and code demonstrations. it explains the sequence of visiting nodes and the resulting traversals, such as pre-order being 1, 2, 4, 5, 3, post-order being 4, 5, 2, 3, 1, and in-order being 4, 2, 5, 1, 3.', 'duration': 129.05, 'highlights': ['The pre-order traversal sequence is 1, 2, 4, 5, 3, starting from the root node and visiting left and right sub-trees in that order.', 'The post-order traversal sequence is 4, 5, 2, 3, 1, starting from the left, moving to the right, and finally visiting the root node.', 'The in-order traversal sequence is 4, 2, 5, 1, 3, starting from the left node, visiting the root, followed by the right, and transitioning between left sub-tree, root node, and right sub-tree.']}], 'duration': 343.107, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB8701594.jpg', 'highlights': ['Demonstrates in-order traversal by visiting left nodes, then the root, and finally the right nodes.', 'Showcases creation of a tree using a Python class, with a root node and its left and right children.', 'Highlights implementation of an in-order traversal function in Python, emphasizing the step-by-step process.', 'Explains pre-order traversal sequence as 1, 2, 4, 5, 3, starting from the root node and visiting sub-trees.', 'Describes post-order traversal sequence as 4, 5, 2, 3, 1, starting from the left, moving to the right, and visiting the root node.', 'Details in-order traversal sequence as 4, 2, 5, 1, 3, starting from the left node, visiting the root, followed by the right.']}, {'end': 1811.23, 'segs': [{'end': 1070.386, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1044.705, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 1050.309, 'text': 'So I hope you guys are clear with this topic now moving on towards the very important sorting algorithms.', 'start': 1044.705, 'duration': 5.604}, {'end': 1055.601, 'text': 'Sorting algorithms are used to sort data into some given order.', 'start': 1051.38, 'duration': 4.221}, {'end': 1061.863, 'text': 'sorting algorithms can be classified into five types, that is, merge sort algorithms, bubble sort, insertion, sort,', 'start': 1055.601, 'duration': 6.262}, {'end': 1064.024, 'text': 'selection sort and the shell sort algorithms.', 'start': 1061.863, 'duration': 2.161}, {'end': 1070.386, 'text': "Now one thing I want you guys to note over here is that I'll be sorting all these problems into the ascending order.", 'start': 1064.924, 'duration': 5.462}], 'summary': 'Sorting algorithms classify into 5 types for ascending order.', 'duration': 25.681, 'max_score': 1044.705, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB81044704.jpg'}, {'end': 1097.943, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 1071.127, 'weight': 0.716, 'content': [{'end': 1078.549, 'text': "So the first algorithm that we'll be discussing over here is the merge sort algorithm the mud sort algorithm follows the divide and conquer rule.", 'start': 1071.127, 'duration': 7.422}, {'end': 1087.556, 'text': 'Here, the given list of items is first divided into smaller lists until it reaches a point where each list consists exactly of one element.', 'start': 1079.19, 'duration': 8.366}, {'end': 1091.239, 'text': 'by default, a list consisting of one element will be sorted,', 'start': 1087.556, 'duration': 3.683}, {'end': 1097.943, 'text': 'and the Mozart algorithm then compares adjacent lists and reorders them in the desired sequence in my example.', 'start': 1091.239, 'duration': 6.704}], 'summary': 'Discussed merge sort algorithm following divide and conquer rule.', 'duration': 26.816, 'max_score': 1071.127, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB81071127.jpg'}, {'end': 1344.341, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1318.333, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 1324.956, 'text': 'bubble sort is a comparison algorithm that first compares and then sorts adjacent elements if they are not in the specified order.', 'start': 1318.333, 'duration': 6.623}, {'end': 1333.077, 'text': 'So, in general, a bubble search algorithm can have three steps, where, in the first step will be to start at the first element, that is,', 'start': 1325.754, 'duration': 7.323}, {'end': 1339.759, 'text': 'the element present at index 0, and then progressively compare adjacent elements at step 2,', 'start': 1333.077, 'duration': 6.682}, {'end': 1344.341, 'text': 'check if the current element and the next element are in the specified order or not.', 'start': 1339.759, 'duration': 4.582}], 'summary': 'Bubble sort is a comparison algorithm that sorts adjacent elements to be in specified order.', 'duration': 26.008, 'max_score': 1318.333, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB81318333.jpg'}, {'end': 1384.289, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1359.648, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 1365.749, 'text': "All I've done over here is created a bubble sort function which accepts a list as its parameter,", 'start': 1359.648, 'duration': 6.101}, {'end': 1372.01, 'text': "and then I've taken a variable B to which I've assigned the value of length of a minus 1.", 'start': 1365.749, 'duration': 6.261}, {'end': 1378.551, 'text': 'now this is because for every list I will have n minus 1 iterations, where n is the length of the list.', 'start': 1372.01, 'duration': 6.541}, {'end': 1384.289, 'text': "since I've named the list as a, the number of iterations will be length of a minus 1..", 'start': 1378.551, 'duration': 5.738}], 'summary': 'Created a bubble sort function for list with n-1 iterations', 'duration': 24.641, 'max_score': 1359.648, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB81359648.jpg'}, {'end': 1439.253, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1407.298, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 1409.039, 'text': "Now, let's see what happens when I execute this.", 'start': 1407.298, 'duration': 1.741}, {'end': 1413.901, 'text': "So as you can see over here, I've got the sorted list using the bubble sort function.", 'start': 1409.979, 'duration': 3.922}, {'end': 1419.225, 'text': 'So now moving on towards the next, which is the insertion sort algorithm.', 'start': 1415.003, 'duration': 4.222}, {'end': 1426.348, 'text': 'the insertion sort picks one element at a time and then places it at the exact spot where it belongs to.', 'start': 1419.225, 'duration': 7.123}, {'end': 1434.031, 'text': 'so the insertion sort algorithm can be summarized in three steps, wherein the first step would be to compare the first element with the next element,', 'start': 1426.348, 'duration': 7.683}, {'end': 1439.253, 'text': 'that is, the key, and if the element to the left and the key element are not in order.', 'start': 1434.031, 'duration': 5.222}], 'summary': 'Demonstrating bubble sort and explaining insertion sort algorithm in 3 steps.', 'duration': 31.955, 'max_score': 1407.298, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB81407298.jpg'}, {'end': 1634.694, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1608.114, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 1612.176, 'text': 'then it searches in the unsorted list again to find the smallest element,', 'start': 1608.114, 'duration': 4.062}, {'end': 1616.279, 'text': 'pick that up and place it towards the right of the first element in the sorted list.', 'start': 1612.176, 'duration': 4.103}, {'end': 1623.525, 'text': 'So the steps for selection sort algorithm would be to make the first element as the minimum and compare it with the next element.', 'start': 1617, 'duration': 6.525}, {'end': 1629.93, 'text': 'If the next element is less than the selected element mark that as the minimum and compare it with the next element.', 'start': 1624.306, 'duration': 5.624}, {'end': 1634.694, 'text': 'This process is repeated until you compare all elements of the unsorted list.', 'start': 1630.691, 'duration': 4.003}], 'summary': 'Selection sort algorithm: find and place smallest element, repeat for all unsorted elements.', 'duration': 26.58, 'max_score': 1608.114, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB81608114.jpg'}, {'end': 1801.248, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1773.402, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 1778.486, 'text': 'Please make a note over here that for odd number list the whole part of the quotient will be taken as the gap.', 'start': 1773.402, 'duration': 5.084}, {'end': 1782.032, 'text': 'The shell sort algorithm can be summarized into four steps.', 'start': 1779.19, 'duration': 2.842}, {'end': 1786.696, 'text': 'The first will be to find the value of gap by dividing the number of elements by 2.', 'start': 1782.713, 'duration': 3.983}, {'end': 1794.943, 'text': 'then you divide the given sub array into smaller sub arrays having equal gap intervals using the insertion sort function.', 'start': 1786.696, 'duration': 8.247}, {'end': 1795.823, 'text': 'sort the sub arrays.', 'start': 1794.943, 'duration': 0.88}, {'end': 1801.248, 'text': 'Finally you repeat steps 1 2 and 3 until the complete array is sorted.', 'start': 1796.584, 'duration': 4.664}], 'summary': 'Shell sort: divide array, sort sub arrays, repeat steps until sorted.', 'duration': 27.846, 'max_score': 1773.402, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB81773402.jpg'}], 'start': 1044.705, 'title': 'Sorting algorithms overview', 'summary': 'Introduces five types of sorting algorithms, including merge sort, and provides a detailed explanation of the merge sort algorithm. it also covers bubble sort, insertion sort, selection sort, and shell sort algorithms, explaining their key steps and their implementation in python.', 'chapters': [{'end': 1358.768, 'start': 1044.705, 'title': 'Sorting algorithms overview', 'summary': 'Introduces five types of sorting algorithms, including merge sort, and provides a detailed explanation of the merge sort algorithm which follows the divide and conquer rule, recursively merging sub lists to create a single sorted list, and demonstrates its functionality with a program. it also briefly mentions the bubble sort algorithm and its comparison steps.', 'duration': 314.063, 'highlights': ['The chapter introduces five types of sorting algorithms, including merge sort, and provides a detailed explanation of the merge sort algorithm which follows the divide and conquer rule, recursively merging sub lists to create a single sorted list, and demonstrates its functionality with a program. introduces five types of sorting algorithms, including merge sort, detailed explanation of merge sort algorithm, recursion to create a single sorted list', 'The chapter explains the bubble sort algorithm as a comparison algorithm that first compares and then sorts adjacent elements if they are not in the specified order, outlining the three steps of the algorithm. explains the bubble sort algorithm as a comparison algorithm, outlines the three steps of the algorithm']}, {'end': 1811.23, 'start': 1359.648, 'title': 'Sorting algorithms overview', 'summary': 'Covers bubble sort, insertion sort, selection sort, and shell sort algorithms, explaining their key steps and their implementation in python.', 'duration': 451.582, 'highlights': ['Bubble Sort Algorithm Described the bubble sort algorithm, highlighting the number of iterations required for a list of length n and demonstrated the sorting of a random list using the bubble sort function.', "Insertion Sort Algorithm Explained the insertion sort algorithm's three steps and demonstrated the sorting of a random list using the insertion sort function, including the option to sort in descending order.", "Selection Sort Algorithm Covered the selection sort algorithm's steps and demonstrated the sorting of a random list using the selection sort function, including the concept of finding the minimum value in the unsorted list.", "Shell Sort Algorithm Outlined the shell sort algorithm's steps, including the process of dividing the unsorted list into subarrays with equal gap intervals and demonstrated the implementation of the shell sort algorithm in Python."]}], 'duration': 766.525, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB81044704.jpg', 'highlights': ['Introduces five types of sorting algorithms, including merge sort, and provides a detailed explanation of the merge sort algorithm which follows the divide and conquer rule, recursively merging sub lists to create a single sorted list, and demonstrates its functionality with a program.', 'Explains the bubble sort algorithm as a comparison algorithm that first compares and then sorts adjacent elements if they are not in the specified order, outlining the three steps of the algorithm.', 'Described the bubble sort algorithm, highlighting the number of iterations required for a list of length n and demonstrated the sorting of a random list using the bubble sort function.', "Explained the insertion sort algorithm's three steps and demonstrated the sorting of a random list using the insertion sort function, including the option to sort in descending order.", "Covered the selection sort algorithm's steps and demonstrated the sorting of a random list using the selection sort function, including the concept of finding the minimum value in the unsorted list.", "Outlined the shell sort algorithm's steps, including the process of dividing the unsorted list into subarrays with equal gap intervals and demonstrated the implementation of the shell sort algorithm in Python."]}, {'end': 2218.987, 'segs': [{'end': 1838.682, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1812.03, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 1819.295, 'text': "Now the first thing that I'm going to do over here is find the gap by dividing n by 2 where n is the number of elements present in my array.", 'start': 1812.03, 'duration': 7.265}, {'end': 1825.899, 'text': 'So, while this gap is greater than 0 for every element in the range of gap until the last element,', 'start': 1820.116, 'duration': 5.783}, {'end': 1834.225, 'text': "if the elements present after gap intervals are greater than Y, all I'm going to do is follow the insertion sort algorithm and swap the elements.", 'start': 1825.899, 'duration': 8.326}, {'end': 1838.682, 'text': "After I've checked for all the elements that are present within the gap intervals.", 'start': 1835.18, 'duration': 3.502}], 'summary': 'Gap of n/2 used to apply insertion sort algorithm and swap elements if greater than y.', 'duration': 26.652, 'max_score': 1812.03, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB81812030.jpg'}, {'end': 1912.727, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1871.158, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 1878.143, 'text': 'The linear search algorithm is used to successfully search for a given element by comparing it with each element of the given array.', 'start': 1871.158, 'duration': 6.985}, {'end': 1882.807, 'text': 'It is one of the simplest searching algorithms and very time-consuming,', 'start': 1878.904, 'duration': 3.903}, {'end': 1886.95, 'text': "but still it's very important in order to understand other searching algorithms.", 'start': 1882.807, 'duration': 4.143}, {'end': 1890.82, 'text': 'The linear search algorithm can be summarized into three steps.', 'start': 1887.859, 'duration': 2.961}, {'end': 1898.282, 'text': 'The first will be to create a function that is going to accept a data list, the length of the list and the key element.', 'start': 1891.48, 'duration': 6.802}, {'end': 1905.085, 'text': 'at step 2 if an element present in the given list matches the key element, return the corresponding index number.', 'start': 1898.282, 'duration': 6.803}, {'end': 1909.146, 'text': 'step 3 if the element is not found, return minus 1..', 'start': 1905.085, 'duration': 4.061}, {'end': 1912.727, 'text': "So as you can see on the screen, I've already created a linear search function over here.", 'start': 1909.146, 'duration': 3.581}], 'summary': 'Linear search algorithm compares each element to find the key element in the given array. it involves three steps and returns corresponding index or -1 if not found.', 'duration': 41.569, 'max_score': 1871.158, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB81871158.jpg'}, {'end': 2004.659, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1975.559, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 1981.162, 'text': "So now let's move on towards the last algorithm that we will be discussing in this session, which is the binary search algorithm.", 'start': 1975.559, 'duration': 5.603}, {'end': 1989.907, 'text': 'The binary search algorithm is used to search for some given element in a sorted array by making use of the decrease and conquer algorithm here.', 'start': 1982.002, 'duration': 7.905}, {'end': 1995.79, 'text': 'The key is looked up for by first comparing it with the middle element and then dividing the array into half.', 'start': 1990.187, 'duration': 5.603}, {'end': 1997.657, 'text': 'The left half is searched.', 'start': 1996.477, 'duration': 1.18}, {'end': 2004.659, 'text': 'if the element to be searched is smaller than the middle element and vice versa, the appropriate sub arrays are again divided into half,', 'start': 1997.657, 'duration': 7.002}], 'summary': 'Binary search algorithm searches sorted array using divide and conquer.', 'duration': 29.1, 'max_score': 1975.559, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB81975559.jpg'}, {'end': 2174.109, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2146.707, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 2151.47, 'text': 'These analysis are referred to as a priory analysis or a posteriori analysis.', 'start': 2146.707, 'duration': 4.763}, {'end': 2156.596, 'text': 'A priori analysis is also called as the theoretical analysis here.', 'start': 2152.333, 'duration': 4.263}, {'end': 2168.665, 'text': 'The efficiency of algorithms is measured by presuming that all of the factors are constant and do not affect the implementation of the algorithm in a posteriori analysis or the empirical analysis.', 'start': 2156.896, 'duration': 11.769}, {'end': 2174.109, 'text': 'the algorithms, after being implemented using some programming language, is executed on some computer.', 'start': 2168.665, 'duration': 5.444}], 'summary': 'Efficiency of algorithms is measured through a priori and posteriori analysis.', 'duration': 27.402, 'max_score': 2146.707, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB82146707.jpg'}], 'start': 1812.03, 'title': 'Sorting and searching algorithms', 'summary': 'Covers sorting algorithms with a focus on gap insertion sort, introduces linear and binary search algorithms, and demonstrates a linear search function. it also delves into the binary search algorithm, its application in searching for elements in a sorted array, and algorithm analysis, including a priori and a posteriori analysis.', 'chapters': [{'end': 1974.558, 'start': 1812.03, 'title': 'Sorting and searching algorithms', 'summary': 'Covers sorting algorithms with a focus on gap insertion sort and introduces searching algorithms such as linear search and binary search, with a demonstration of a linear search function.', 'duration': 162.528, 'highlights': ['The chapter begins with the explanation of finding the gap by dividing n by 2 in the array for gap insertion sort and executing the function to produce a sorted list. The function starts by finding the gap by dividing n by 2 and then follows the insertion sort algorithm to swap elements, resulting in a sorted list.', 'The session then moves on to discuss various types of searching algorithms, including linear search and binary search, highlighting the importance of understanding linear search as a foundational concept. The chapter introduces different search algorithms, emphasizing the significance of understanding linear search as a fundamental concept for other search algorithms.', 'A linear search function is demonstrated, where it accepts a data list, length of the list, and key element, and returns the index number if the element is found, else returns -1. The demonstrated linear search function accepts a data list, length of the list, and key element, and returns the index number if the element is found, else returns -1.']}, {'end': 2218.987, 'start': 1975.559, 'title': 'Binary search algorithm', 'summary': 'Covers the binary search algorithm, which is used to search for elements in a sorted array and is demonstrated with a sample list of 8 elements. it also discusses algorithm analysis, including a priori and a posteriori analysis.', 'duration': 243.428, 'highlights': ['The binary search algorithm is used to search for some given element in a sorted array by making use of the decrease and conquer algorithm here. Explains the purpose of the binary search algorithm and its application in searching for elements in a sorted array.', 'The binary search algorithm is used to search for some given element in a sorted array by making use of the decrease and conquer algorithm here. Provides an overview of the binary search algorithm, emphasizing the process of comparing the key with the middle element and dividing the array into half.', 'The efficiency of algorithms is measured by presuming that all of the factors are constant and do not affect the implementation of the algorithm. Discusses the theoretical analysis of algorithms, highlighting that efficiency is measured by presuming constant factors.', 'The efficiency of algorithms is measured by presuming that all of the factors are constant and do not affect the implementation of the algorithm. Explains the importance of a priori analysis in measuring the efficiency of algorithms by assuming constant factors.']}], 'duration': 406.957, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/xOuRE3IuEB8/pics/xOuRE3IuEB81812030.jpg', 'highlights': ['The function starts by finding the gap by dividing n by 2 and then follows the insertion sort algorithm to swap elements, resulting in a sorted list.', 'The chapter introduces different search algorithms, emphasizing the significance of understanding linear search as a fundamental concept for other search algorithms.', 'A linear search function is demonstrated, where it accepts a data list, length of the list, and key element, and returns the index number if the element is found, else returns -1.', 'The binary search algorithm is used to search for some given element in a sorted array by making use of the decrease and conquer algorithm here.', 'The efficiency of algorithms is measured by presuming that all of the factors are constant and do not affect the implementation of the algorithm.', 'Provides an overview of the binary search algorithm, emphasizing the process of comparing the key with the middle element and dividing the array into half.']}], 'highlights': ['The tutorial emphasizes the importance of data structures and algorithms for interviews.', 'The session covers data structures, algorithm classes, types of algorithms, and algorithm analysis in Python.', 'The session includes a focus on tree traversals, sorting algorithms, and searching algorithms in Python.', 'The importance of subscribing to the channel and seeking online training certification in Python is emphasized.', 'Python has implicit support for data structures such as lists, dictionaries, tuples, and sets, enabling easy storage and access of data.', 'Lists in Python can be easily created using square brackets and are mutable, allowing for addition, deletion, and modification of elements.', 'Dictionaries in Python store key-value pairs and are created using curly braces, facilitating the storage of data such as employee names and IDs or student names and IDs.', 'Sets in Python are collections of unique, unordered elements and are created using curly braces, allowing for various operations such as union, intersection, and difference.', 'Tuples in Python are immutable and are created using regular brackets, preventing the modification of elements once entered.', 'Graphs are used in applications such as Google Maps, Uber to find the least distance and increase profits in the best ways.', 'Hash Maps are used to implement applications such as phone books, populate data according to the lists, and much more.', 'Linked Lists are used in image viewing applications, music player applications, and are linked with each other using pointers.', 'Queues are based on the principle of first in first out, used in network buffers of traffic congestion management, job scheduling in operating systems.', 'Stacks are based on the principle of last in first out, used in applications such as recursive programming, reversing words under mechanisms in word editors.', 'Algorithms can be broadly classified as divide and conquer, dynamic programming, and greedy algorithms.', 'The steps of an algorithm need to be finite, clear, and understandable, with a clear and precise description about the inputs and outputs.', 'Algorithms are rules or instructions formulated in a finite, sequential order to solve problems and give the pseudocode for problems.', 'Demonstrates in-order traversal by visiting left nodes, then the root, and finally the right nodes.', 'Showcases creation of a tree using a Python class, with a root node and its left and right children.', 'Highlights implementation of an in-order traversal function in Python, emphasizing the step-by-step process.', 'Explains pre-order traversal sequence as 1, 2, 4, 5, 3, starting from the root node and visiting sub-trees.', 'Describes post-order traversal sequence as 4, 5, 2, 3, 1, starting from the left, moving to the right, and visiting the root node.', 'Introduces five types of sorting algorithms, including merge sort, and provides a detailed explanation of the merge sort algorithm which follows the divide and conquer rule, recursively merging sub lists to create a single sorted list, and demonstrates its functionality with a program.', 'Explains the bubble sort algorithm as a comparison algorithm that first compares and then sorts adjacent elements if they are not in the specified order, outlining the three steps of the algorithm.', 'Described the bubble sort algorithm, highlighting the number of iterations required for a list of length n and demonstrated the sorting of a random list using the bubble sort function.', "Explained the insertion sort algorithm's three steps and demonstrated the sorting of a random list using the insertion sort function, including the option to sort in descending order.", "Covered the selection sort algorithm's steps and demonstrated the sorting of a random list using the selection sort function, including the concept of finding the minimum value in the unsorted list.", "Outlined the shell sort algorithm's steps, including the process of dividing the unsorted list into subarrays with equal gap intervals and demonstrated the implementation of the shell sort algorithm in Python.", 'The function starts by finding the gap by dividing n by 2 and then follows the insertion sort algorithm to swap elements, resulting in a sorted list.', 'The chapter introduces different search algorithms, emphasizing the significance of understanding linear search as a fundamental concept for other search algorithms.', 'A linear search function is demonstrated, where it accepts a data list, length of the list, and key element, and returns the index number if the element is found, else returns -1.', 'The binary search algorithm is used to search for some given element in a sorted array by making use of the decrease and conquer algorithm here.', 'The efficiency of algorithms is measured by presuming that all of the factors are constant and do not affect the implementation of the algorithm.', 'Provides an overview of the binary search algorithm, emphasizing the process of comparing the key with the middle element and dividing the array into half.']}