title

Scott Aaronson: Quantum Computing | Lex Fridman Podcast #72

description

Scott Aaronson is a professor at UT Austin, director of its Quantum Information Center, and previously a professor at MIT. His research interests center around the capabilities and limits of quantum computers and computational complexity theory more generally.
This episode is presented by Cash App. Download it & use code "LexPodcast":
Cash App (App Store): https://apple.co/2sPrUHe
Cash App (Google Play): https://bit.ly/2MlvP5w
This episode is also supported by the Techmeme Ride Home podcast.
Get it on Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2vIbh1k
or find it by searching "Ride Home" in your podcast app.
PODCAST INFO:
Podcast website:
https://lexfridman.com/podcast
Apple Podcasts:
https://apple.co/2lwqZIr
Spotify:
https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8
RSS:
https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/
Full episodes playlist:
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLrAXtmErZgOdP_8GztsuKi9nrraNbKKp4
Clips playlist:
https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLrAXtmErZgOeciFP3CBCIEElOJeitOr41
OUTLINE:
0:00 - Introduction
5:07 - Role of philosophy in science
29:27 - What is a quantum computer?
41:12 - Quantum decoherence (noise in quantum information)
49:22 - Quantum computer engineering challenges
51:00 - Moore's Law
56:33 - Quantum supremacy
1:12:18 - Using quantum computers to break cryptography
1:17:11 - Practical application of quantum computers
1:22:18 - Quantum machine learning, questinable claims, and cautious optimism
1:30:53 - Meaning of life
CONNECT:
- Subscribe to this YouTube channel
- Twitter: https://twitter.com/lexfridman
- LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/lexfridman
- Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/LexFridmanPage
- Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/lexfridman
- Medium: https://medium.com/@lexfridman
- Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman

detail

{'title': 'Scott Aaronson: Quantum Computing | Lex Fridman Podcast #72', 'heatmap': [{'end': 4049.704, 'start': 3985.954, 'weight': 1}], 'summary': 'Scott aronson, a professor at ut austin and director of its quantum information center, discusses quantum computing, computational complexity theory, quantum supremacy, quantum cryptography, brain modeling, and future prospects, highlighting the potential for a thousandfold improvement in computing power and the impact on economic progress.', 'chapters': [{'end': 117.613, 'segs': [{'end': 67.331, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 0.069, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 4.991, 'text': 'The following is a conversation with Scott Aronson, a professor at UT Austin,', 'start': 0.069, 'duration': 4.922}, {'end': 9.233, 'text': 'director of its Quantum Information Center and previously a professor at MIT.', 'start': 4.991, 'duration': 4.242}, {'end': 16.997, 'text': 'His research interests center around the capabilities and limits of quantum computers and computational complexity theory more generally.', 'start': 10.073, 'duration': 6.924}, {'end': 22.379, 'text': 'He is an excellent writer and one of my favorite communicators of computer science in the world.', 'start': 17.837, 'duration': 4.542}, {'end': 28.599, 'text': 'We only had about an hour and a half for this conversation, so I decided to focus on quantum computing.', 'start': 23.373, 'duration': 5.226}, {'end': 40.832, 'text': 'But I can see us talking again in the future on this podcast at some point about computational complexity theory and all the complexity classes that Scott catalogs in his amazing Complexity Zoo Wiki.', 'start': 29.199, 'duration': 11.633}, {'end': 46.09, 'text': "As a quick aside, based on questions and comments I've received.", 'start': 42.469, 'duration': 3.621}, {'end': 52.713, 'text': 'my goal with these conversations is to try to be in the background without ego, and do three things.', 'start': 46.09, 'duration': 6.623}, {'end': 59.816, 'text': 'One, let the guests shine and try to discover together the most beautiful insights in their work and in their mind.', 'start': 53.613, 'duration': 6.203}, {'end': 67.331, 'text': "Two, try to play devil's advocate just enough to provide a creative tension in exploring ideas through conversation.", 'start': 60.785, 'duration': 6.546}], 'summary': 'Conversation with scott aronson, focusing on quantum computing and computational complexity theory.', 'duration': 67.262, 'max_score': 0.069, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM69.jpg'}], 'start': 0.069, 'title': 'Scott aronson on quantum computing', 'summary': "Delves into a discussion with scott aronson, a professor at ut austin and director of its quantum information center, providing insights into quantum computing and computational complexity theory, with a focus on allowing the guest to shine, playing devil's advocate, and asking basic questions about terminology and concepts.", 'chapters': [{'end': 117.613, 'start': 0.069, 'title': 'Scott aronson on quantum computing', 'summary': "Explores a conversation with scott aronson, a professor at ut austin and director of its quantum information center, focusing on quantum computing and computational complexity theory, while aiming to let the guest shine, play devil's advocate, and ask basic questions about terminology and concepts.", 'duration': 117.544, 'highlights': ['Scott Aronson is a professor at UT Austin, director of its Quantum Information Center, and previously a professor at MIT, with research interests in quantum computers and computational complexity theory.', 'The conversation primarily focuses on quantum computing due to time constraints, with potential for future discussions on computational complexity theory and the Complexity Zoo Wiki.', "The host's goal in the conversations is to let the guests shine, play devil's advocate, and ask basic questions about terminology and concepts, aiming to draw insightful threads from computer science to neuroscience, physics, philosophy, and artificial intelligence."]}], 'duration': 117.544, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM69.jpg', 'highlights': ['Scott Aronson is a professor at UT Austin, director of its Quantum Information Center, and previously a professor at MIT, with research interests in quantum computers and computational complexity theory.', 'The conversation primarily focuses on quantum computing due to time constraints, with potential for future discussions on computational complexity theory and the Complexity Zoo Wiki.', "The host's goal in the conversations is to let the guests shine, play devil's advocate, and ask basic questions about terminology and concepts, aiming to draw insightful threads from computer science to neuroscience, physics, philosophy, and artificial intelligence."]}, {'end': 1414.564, 'segs': [{'end': 274.398, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 205.202, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 211.089, 'text': 'making trading more accessible for new investors and diversification much easier.', 'start': 205.202, 'duration': 5.887}, {'end': 217.896, 'text': 'So again, if you get Cash App from the App Store or Google Play and use the code LEXPODCAST,', 'start': 211.75, 'duration': 6.146}, {'end': 229.347, 'text': "you'll get $10 and Cash App will also donate $10 to FIRST one of my favorite organizations that is helping to advance robotics and STEM education for young people around the world.", 'start': 217.896, 'duration': 11.451}, {'end': 234.893, 'text': 'This episode is also supported by the Tech Meme Ride Home Podcast.', 'start': 230.588, 'duration': 4.305}, {'end': 239.438, 'text': "It's a technology podcast I've been listening to for a while and really enjoying.", 'start': 235.776, 'duration': 3.662}, {'end': 246.322, 'text': 'It goes straight to the point, gives you the tech news you need to know, and provides minimal but essential context.', 'start': 240.319, 'duration': 6.003}, {'end': 252.366, 'text': "It's released every day by 5 p.m. Eastern and is only about 15 to 20 minutes long.", 'start': 247.163, 'duration': 5.203}, {'end': 257.129, 'text': 'For fun, I like building apps on smartphones, most on Android.', 'start': 253.467, 'duration': 3.662}, {'end': 260.341, 'text': "So I'm always a little curious about new flagship phones that come out.", 'start': 257.759, 'duration': 2.582}, {'end': 264.927, 'text': 'I saw that Samsung announced the new Galaxy S20.', 'start': 261.163, 'duration': 3.764}, {'end': 274.398, 'text': 'And of course, right away, Tech Meme Ride Home has a new episode that summarizes all that I needed to know about this new device.', 'start': 265.648, 'duration': 8.75}], 'summary': 'Cash app makes trading accessible, offers $10 promo, and supports stem education. tech meme ride home provides concise tech news.', 'duration': 69.196, 'max_score': 205.202, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM205202.jpg'}, {'end': 401.291, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 375.131, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 382.98, 'text': 'Why should we computer scientists, mathematicians, physicists care about philosophy, do you think? Well, I would reframe the question a little bit.', 'start': 375.131, 'duration': 7.849}, {'end': 393.146, 'text': "I mean philosophy, almost by definition, is the subject that's concerned with the biggest questions that you could possibly ask, right?", 'start': 383.04, 'duration': 10.106}, {'end': 395.968, 'text': 'So you know the ones you mentioned right?', 'start': 393.186, 'duration': 2.782}, {'end': 398.129, 'text': 'Are we living in a simulation??', 'start': 396.428, 'duration': 1.701}, {'end': 401.291, 'text': 'Are we alone in the universe??', 'start': 398.149, 'duration': 3.142}], 'summary': 'Philosophy addresses big questions in science and prompts curiosity.', 'duration': 26.16, 'max_score': 375.131, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM375131.jpg'}, {'end': 545.014, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 498.522, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 505.665, 'text': 'hopefully even you know changing our understanding of these philosophical questions, sometimes even more than philosophy itself does.', 'start': 498.522, 'duration': 7.143}, {'end': 509.766, 'text': 'Why do you think computer scientists avoid these questions?', 'start': 506.701, 'duration': 3.065}, {'end': 514.214, 'text': "We'll run away from them a little bit, at least in a technical scientific discourse.", 'start': 510.527, 'duration': 3.687}, {'end': 519.984, 'text': "Well, I'm not sure if they do so more than any other scientists do.", 'start': 514.621, 'duration': 5.363}, {'end': 531.688, 'text': 'I mean, Alan Turing was famously interested, and one of his two most famous papers was in a philosophy journal, Mind.', 'start': 520.563, 'duration': 11.125}, {'end': 535.349, 'text': 'It was the one where he proposed the Turing test.', 'start': 532.068, 'duration': 3.281}, {'end': 540.751, 'text': "He took Wittgenstein's course at Cambridge, argued with him.", 'start': 535.709, 'duration': 5.042}, {'end': 545.014, 'text': "I just recently learned that little bit and it's actually fascinating.", 'start': 541.471, 'duration': 3.543}], 'summary': "Computer scientists engage with philosophical questions, as seen with alan turing's interest and the turing test.", 'duration': 46.492, 'max_score': 498.522, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM498522.jpg'}, {'end': 880.964, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 853.906, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 861.531, 'text': "You write that usually the only way to make progress on the big questions, like the philosophical questions we're talking about now,", 'start': 853.906, 'duration': 7.625}, {'end': 863.892, 'text': 'is to pick off smaller sub-questions.', 'start': 861.531, 'duration': 2.361}, {'end': 868.395, 'text': 'Ideally, sub-questions that you can attack using math, empirical observation, or both.', 'start': 864.432, 'duration': 3.963}, {'end': 870.957, 'text': 'you define the idea of a Q prime.', 'start': 869.135, 'duration': 1.822}, {'end': 880.964, 'text': 'So, given an unanswerable philosophical riddle, Q replace it with a, merely in quotes, scientific or mathematical question.', 'start': 871.397, 'duration': 9.567}], 'summary': 'To make progress on big philosophical questions, break them down into smaller, answerable scientific or mathematical questions.', 'duration': 27.058, 'max_score': 853.906, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM853906.jpg'}, {'end': 1079.743, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1049.181, 'weight': 7, 'content': [{'end': 1050.642, 'text': 'you know issues of, uh.', 'start': 1049.181, 'duration': 1.461}, {'end': 1054.124, 'text': 'uh, what is the computational substrate of the brain, you know?', 'start': 1050.642, 'duration': 3.482}, {'end': 1062.348, 'text': 'or, uh, can you understand the brain, you know, just at the sort of level of the neurons you know, at sort of the abstraction of a neural network?', 'start': 1054.124, 'duration': 8.224}, {'end': 1068.071, 'text': 'or do you need to go deeper to the you know molecular level and ultimately even to the quantum level?', 'start': 1062.348, 'duration': 5.723}, {'end': 1072.215, 'text': 'right, and of course, that would put limits on predictability if you did.', 'start': 1068.071, 'duration': 4.144}, {'end': 1079.743, 'text': 'You need to reduce the mind to a computational device, formalize it,', 'start': 1072.235, 'duration': 7.508}], 'summary': 'Exploring the computational substrate of the brain and its predictability limits.', 'duration': 30.562, 'max_score': 1049.181, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM1049181.jpg'}], 'start': 118.84, 'title': 'Ai podcast ad highlights', 'summary': "Covers ad highlights, promoting cash app and tech meme ride home podcast with $10 offer using code lexpodcast. it also provides brief summaries of the podcast and samsung's galaxy s20.", 'chapters': [{'end': 301.557, 'start': 118.84, 'title': 'Ai podcast ad highlights', 'summary': "Discusses ad highlights, including the promotion of cash app and the tech meme ride home podcast, offering $10 when using the code lexpodcast, and providing brief summaries of the tech meme ride home podcast and samsung's galaxy s20.", 'duration': 182.717, 'highlights': ['Cash App promotion offering $10 when using the code LEXPODCAST and donating $10 to FIRST organization, advancing robotics and STEM education.', 'Promotion of the Tech Meme Ride Home podcast, providing essential tech news and context, released daily by 5 p.m. Eastern, and featuring bonus weekend episodes with notable interviews.', 'Brief summary of the Tech Meme Ride Home podcast, focusing on essential tech news and minimal but essential context, with episodes lasting 15 to 20 minutes.', "Summary of Samsung's Galaxy S20, presented in a new episode of the Tech Meme Ride Home podcast, offering a concise overview of the new device and its features."]}, {'end': 498.522, 'start': 307.7, 'title': 'The relevance of philosophy in technical disciplines', 'summary': 'Explores the importance of philosophy in technical disciplines, highlighting the intersection between philosophical questions and technical progress, and emphasizing the value of philosophical inquiry in reframing understanding.', 'duration': 190.822, 'highlights': ['Philosophical questions such as the nature of truth, super intelligence, time travel, and the possibility of living in a simulation are essential in broadening understanding and motivation for intellectual pursuit.', 'The study of philosophy reframes understanding of technical and empirical questions, although it may not necessarily resolve philosophical inquiries.', 'The philosophical background shapes the curiosity and motivation for intellectual pursuit, while technical disciplines provide tools for making progress.', 'The scientific revolution emphasized the importance of focusing on narrower, technical, and empirical questions to make tangible progress and occasionally gain insights into philosophical inquiries.']}, {'end': 1025.452, 'start': 498.522, 'title': 'Computer scientists and philosophical questions', 'summary': 'Discusses the engagement of computer scientists and philosophers in addressing philosophical questions, highlighting the historical interactions between alan turing and wittgenstein, the approach of scientists towards philosophical questions, and the concept of replacing unanswerable philosophical riddles with scientific or mathematical questions. it also emphasizes the role of theoretical computer science in reframing philosophical inquiries into solvable sub-questions.', 'duration': 526.93, 'highlights': ["The historical interactions between Alan Turing and Wittgenstein, including their debates and influence on each other, are highlighted, revealing the convergence of philosophical and scientific thinking. The transcript delves into the historical connection between Alan Turing and Wittgenstein, shedding light on their debates and influence on each other's thinking, showcasing the convergence of philosophical and scientific perspectives.", "The approach of scientists towards philosophical questions is discussed, emphasizing their tendency to relate such inquiries back to recent research and their inclination to focus on concrete aspects rather than delving deeply into the philosophical concepts. The chapter explores the scientists' approach to philosophical questions, portraying their inclination to connect inquiries to recent research and prioritize concrete aspects, rather than extensively exploring philosophical concepts.", 'The concept of replacing unanswerable philosophical riddles with scientific or mathematical questions is introduced, highlighting the strategy of addressing sub-questions using math and empirical observation to make progress on larger philosophical inquiries. The transcript outlines the concept of replacing unanswerable philosophical riddles with scientific or mathematical questions, emphasizing the strategy of addressing sub-questions using math and empirical observation to advance understanding of larger philosophical inquiries.']}, {'end': 1414.564, 'start': 1025.452, 'title': 'Predicting human behavior and free will', 'summary': 'Delves into the question of predicting human behavior and the implications for free will, exploring the computational substrate of the brain, the limits of predictability at molecular and quantum levels, and the impact of randomness and probabilities on philosophical questions about free will.', 'duration': 389.112, 'highlights': ['The limits of predictability at molecular and quantum levels and the computational substrate of the brain The discussion explores whether understanding the brain at the molecular or quantum level is necessary for accurate prediction, highlighting the potential limits of predictability and the computational basis of the brain.', 'The impact of randomness and probabilities on philosophical questions about free will The presence of randomness in neural processes and the calculation of probabilities are examined in relation to their implications for free will, raising questions about the significance of randomness in mechanistic processes.', 'The inherently destructive nature of making measurements on a quantum state The destructive nature of measuring a quantum state is discussed, emphasizing the fundamental change in state that occurs when making measurements, impacting the ability to accurately predict human behavior.']}], 'duration': 1295.724, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM118840.jpg', 'highlights': ['Cash App promotion offering $10 when using the code LEXPODCAST and donating $10 to FIRST organization, advancing robotics and STEM education.', 'Promotion of the Tech Meme Ride Home podcast, providing essential tech news and context, released daily by 5 p.m. Eastern, and featuring bonus weekend episodes with notable interviews.', "Brief summary of Samsung's Galaxy S20, presented in a new episode of the Tech Meme Ride Home podcast, offering a concise overview of the new device and its features.", 'Philosophical questions such as the nature of truth, super intelligence, time travel, and the possibility of living in a simulation are essential in broadening understanding and motivation for intellectual pursuit.', 'The study of philosophy reframes understanding of technical and empirical questions, although it may not necessarily resolve philosophical inquiries.', 'The historical interactions between Alan Turing and Wittgenstein, including their debates and influence on each other, are highlighted, revealing the convergence of philosophical and scientific thinking.', 'The concept of replacing unanswerable philosophical riddles with scientific or mathematical questions is introduced, highlighting the strategy of addressing sub-questions using math and empirical observation to make progress on larger philosophical inquiries.', 'The limits of predictability at molecular and quantum levels and the computational substrate of the brain The discussion explores whether understanding the brain at the molecular or quantum level is necessary for accurate prediction, highlighting the potential limits of predictability and the computational basis of the brain.']}, {'end': 2253.092, 'segs': [{'end': 1483.13, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1415.685, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 1425.15, 'text': "And so you could say well, maybe in trying to build a model of someone's brain that was accurate enough to actually make, let's say,", 'start': 1415.685, 'duration': 9.465}, {'end': 1430.032, 'text': 'even well-calibrated probabilistic predictions of their future behavior,', 'start': 1425.15, 'duration': 4.882}, {'end': 1435.115, 'text': 'maybe you would have to make measurements that were just so accurate that you would just fundamentally alter their brain.', 'start': 1430.032, 'duration': 5.083}, {'end': 1437.937, 'text': 'Okay Or, or, or, or maybe not.', 'start': 1435.655, 'duration': 2.282}, {'end': 1439.618, 'text': 'Maybe you only you know you.', 'start': 1437.997, 'duration': 1.621}, {'end': 1445.703, 'text': 'it would suffice to just make some nanorobots that just measured some sort of much larger scale.', 'start': 1439.618, 'duration': 6.085}, {'end': 1448.325, 'text': 'you know macroscopic behavior.', 'start': 1445.703, 'duration': 2.622}, {'end': 1453.389, 'text': 'Like, you know, is, you know, what is this neuron doing? What is that neuron doing? Maybe that would be enough.', 'start': 1448.405, 'duration': 4.984}, {'end': 1455.631, 'text': 'See, but now you know, I I what I.', 'start': 1453.91, 'duration': 1.721}, {'end': 1461.236, 'text': "what I claim is that we're now asking a question, you know, in which you know it is it is.", 'start': 1455.631, 'duration': 5.605}, {'end': 1464.198, 'text': 'it is possible to envision what progress on it would look like.', 'start': 1461.236, 'duration': 2.962}, {'end': 1470.604, 'text': 'Yeah, but just as you said, that question may be slightly detached from the philosophical question,', 'start': 1464.622, 'duration': 5.982}, {'end': 1475.507, 'text': 'in the sense if consciousness somehow has a role to the experience of free will.', 'start': 1470.604, 'duration': 4.903}, {'end': 1483.13, 'text': "Because ultimately, when we're talking about free will, we're also talking about not just the predictability of our actions,", 'start': 1476.027, 'duration': 7.103}], 'summary': 'Building an accurate brain model for probabilistic predictions without altering the brain; nanorobots measuring macroscopic behavior could suffice.', 'duration': 67.445, 'max_score': 1415.685, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM1415685.jpg'}, {'end': 1567.615, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1544.163, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 1551.487, 'text': "and and even if that was done, it's you know, maybe people would still argue about the hard problem of consciousness, right, and yet you know,", 'start': 1544.163, 'duration': 7.324}, {'end': 1553.128, 'text': 'my my claim is a little different.', 'start': 1551.487, 'duration': 1.641}, {'end': 1561.992, 'text': "my claim is that in a world where there were human level AIs, where we'd been even overtaken by such AIs,", 'start': 1553.128, 'duration': 8.864}, {'end': 1567.615, 'text': 'the entire discussion of the hard problem of consciousness would have a different character, right?', 'start': 1561.992, 'duration': 5.623}], 'summary': 'In a world with human-level ais, the discussion of consciousness would change.', 'duration': 23.452, 'max_score': 1544.163, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM1544163.jpg'}, {'end': 1982.896, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1956.788, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 1967.491, 'text': 'The amplitudes can change in time by rules that are different from the normal rules of probability and that are alien to our everyday experience.', 'start': 1956.788, 'duration': 10.703}, {'end': 1976.234, 'text': "So anytime anyone ever tells you anything about the weirdness of the quantum world, or, assuming that they're not lying to you,", 'start': 1967.851, 'duration': 8.383}, {'end': 1982.896, 'text': 'they are telling you yet another consequence of nature being described by these amplitudes.', 'start': 1976.234, 'duration': 6.662}], 'summary': 'Quantum world is described by amplitudes, not normal rules of probability, leading to weird consequences.', 'duration': 26.108, 'max_score': 1956.788, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM1956788.jpg'}, {'end': 2105.628, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2074.225, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 2076.505, 'text': 'And now I can tell you what a quantum computer is.', 'start': 2074.225, 'duration': 2.28}, {'end': 2087.152, 'text': 'Okay, a quantum computer is a computer that tries to exploit exactly these phenomena superposition,', 'start': 2076.525, 'duration': 10.627}, {'end': 2094.078, 'text': 'amplitudes and interference in order to solve certain problems much faster than we know how to solve them otherwise.', 'start': 2087.152, 'duration': 6.926}, {'end': 2099.823, 'text': "So it's the basic building block of a quantum computer is what we call a quantum bit or a qubit.", 'start': 2094.538, 'duration': 5.285}, {'end': 2105.628, 'text': 'That just means a bit that has some amplitude for being zero and some other amplitude for being one.', 'start': 2100.223, 'duration': 5.405}], 'summary': 'Quantum computers exploit superposition and interference to solve problems faster using qubits.', 'duration': 31.403, 'max_score': 2074.225, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM2074225.jpg'}], 'start': 1415.685, 'title': 'Brain models and quantum computing', 'summary': 'Covers challenges in accurate brain modeling and the potential of quantum computing, emphasizing faster problem-solving and philosophical implications, such as the relation to free will and consciousness.', 'chapters': [{'end': 1461.236, 'start': 1415.685, 'title': 'Building accurate brain models', 'summary': 'Discusses the challenges of building an accurate brain model for making well-calibrated probabilistic predictions without fundamentally altering the brain, suggesting the use of nanorobots for measuring macroscopic behavior.', 'duration': 45.551, 'highlights': ["Making accurate brain measurements that could alter the brain's fundamental structure for well-calibrated probabilistic predictions", 'Suggesting the use of nanorobots for measuring macroscopic behavior like neuron activities', 'Challenges of building an accurate brain model for making future behavior predictions']}, {'end': 2253.092, 'start': 1461.236, 'title': 'Quantum computing and philosophical implications', 'summary': 'Discusses the philosophical implications of quantum computing and its relation to free will and consciousness, as well as provides a detailed explanation of the principles of quantum mechanics and quantum computing, emphasizing the potential of quantum computers in solving problems much faster than conventional computers.', 'duration': 791.856, 'highlights': ['The chapter discusses the philosophical implications of quantum computing and its relation to free will and consciousness. The discussion revolves around the potential transformation of the discussions on free will and consciousness in a world with human-level AIs and the impact of a prediction machine on the experience of free will.', 'A detailed explanation of the principles of quantum mechanics and quantum computing is provided, emphasizing the potential of quantum computers in solving problems much faster than conventional computers. The principles of quantum mechanics, such as amplitudes, superposition, and interference, are explained, highlighting the potential of quantum computers to exploit these phenomena to solve problems much faster than conventional computers.', 'The discussion of philosophical questions ultimately ties back to the hard problem of consciousness and the implications of AI on these discussions. The philosophical questions, including free will and consciousness, are linked back to the hard problem of consciousness and the potential impact of AI on these discussions, raising questions about the demonstration of consciousness, intelligence, and free will.']}], 'duration': 837.407, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM1415685.jpg', 'highlights': ['Challenges of building an accurate brain model for making future behavior predictions', 'Suggesting the use of nanorobots for measuring macroscopic behavior like neuron activities', "Making accurate brain measurements that could alter the brain's fundamental structure for well-calibrated probabilistic predictions", 'The potential transformation of the discussions on free will and consciousness in a world with human-level AIs', 'The potential of quantum computers in solving problems much faster than conventional computers', 'The principles of quantum mechanics, such as amplitudes, superposition, and interference, are explained', 'The philosophical questions, including free will and consciousness, are linked back to the hard problem of consciousness and the potential impact of AI on these discussions']}, {'end': 3367.349, 'segs': [{'end': 2471.953, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2446.871, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 2452.197, 'text': 'But eventually, where we hope to get is to what are called error-corrected quantum computers.', 'start': 2446.871, 'duration': 5.326}, {'end': 2458.542, 'text': 'where the qubits really do behave like perfect abstract qubits for as long as we want them to.', 'start': 2452.677, 'duration': 5.865}, {'end': 2466.589, 'text': 'And in that future, a future that we can already sort of prove theorems about or think about today,', 'start': 2459.042, 'duration': 7.547}, {'end': 2471.953, 'text': 'but in that future the logic of it really does become decoupled from the hardware.', 'start': 2466.589, 'duration': 5.364}], 'summary': 'Error-corrected quantum computers aim for perfect abstract qubits, with decoupled logic from hardware.', 'duration': 25.082, 'max_score': 2446.871, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM2446871.jpg'}, {'end': 2689.234, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2662.494, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 2666.957, 'text': 'which was called the theory of quantum error correction and quantum fault tolerance.', 'start': 2662.494, 'duration': 4.463}, {'end': 2681.367, 'text': 'And the upshot of that theory is that if I want to build a reliable quantum computer and scale it up to an arbitrary number of as many qubits as I want and doing as much on them as I want,', 'start': 2667.757, 'duration': 13.61}, {'end': 2686.131, 'text': 'I do not actually have to get the qubits perfectly isolated from their environment.', 'start': 2681.367, 'duration': 4.764}, {'end': 2689.234, 'text': 'It is enough to get them really, really, really well isolated.', 'start': 2686.191, 'duration': 3.043}], 'summary': 'Quantum error correction allows scaling up quantum computers with well isolated qubits.', 'duration': 26.74, 'max_score': 2662.494, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM2662494.jpg'}, {'end': 2829.313, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2803.472, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 2810.015, 'text': 'Yes So the way I would say it is that error correction imposes an overhead in the number of qubits.', 'start': 2803.472, 'duration': 6.543}, {'end': 2815.278, 'text': 'And that is actually one of the biggest practical problems with building a scalable quantum computer.', 'start': 2810.435, 'duration': 4.843}, {'end': 2829.313, 'text': 'If you look at the error-correcting codes at least the ones that we know about today and you look at what would it take to actually use a quantum computer to hack your credit card number,', 'start': 2815.738, 'duration': 13.575}], 'summary': 'Error correction adds qubit overhead, a major challenge in scalable quantum computing.', 'duration': 25.841, 'max_score': 2803.472, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM2803472.jpg'}, {'end': 2906.566, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2884.336, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 2893.32, 'text': 'In the meantime, we are now in what the physicist John Preskill called the noisy intermediate scale quantum or NISQ era.', 'start': 2884.336, 'duration': 8.984}, {'end': 2896.822, 'text': 'And this is the era you can think of it as sort of like the vacuum.', 'start': 2893.62, 'duration': 3.202}, {'end': 2901.424, 'text': "You know, we're now entering the very early vacuum tube era of quantum computers.", 'start': 2896.942, 'duration': 4.482}, {'end': 2906.566, 'text': 'the quantum computer analog of the transistor has not been invented yet.', 'start': 2901.904, 'duration': 4.662}], 'summary': 'We are in the nisq era, akin to the early vacuum tube era of quantum computers.', 'duration': 22.23, 'max_score': 2884.336, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM2884336.jpg'}, {'end': 3003.54, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2973.039, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 2977.723, 'text': 'Okay, so how do we escape the vacuum? So how do we get to..', 'start': 2973.039, 'duration': 4.684}, {'end': 2981.942, 'text': 'how do we get to where we are now with the CPU?', 'start': 2979.68, 'duration': 2.262}, {'end': 2984.584, 'text': 'Is this a fundamental engineering challenge??', 'start': 2982.382, 'duration': 2.202}, {'end': 2994.332, 'text': 'Is there breakthroughs on the physics side that are needed on the computer science side??', 'start': 2984.884, 'duration': 9.448}, {'end': 3000.818, 'text': 'Is it a financial issue where much larger, just sheer investment and excitement is needed?', 'start': 2994.753, 'duration': 6.065}, {'end': 3003.54, 'text': 'So you know, those are excellent questions.', 'start': 3001.258, 'duration': 2.282}], 'summary': 'Exploring challenges in cpu development and the need for breakthroughs in physics and computer science, as well as increased investment and excitement.', 'duration': 30.501, 'max_score': 2973.039, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM2973039.jpg'}, {'end': 3123.195, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3072.325, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 3079.887, 'text': "And he's been told for decades every year that the Moore's law is going to die this year.", 'start': 3072.325, 'duration': 7.562}, {'end': 3087.808, 'text': "And he tries to argue that the Moore's law is still alive and well, and it'll be alive for quite a long time to come.", 'start': 3079.907, 'duration': 7.901}, {'end': 3090.069, 'text': 'How long? How long did it say??', 'start': 3088.488, 'duration': 1.581}, {'end': 3098.254, 'text': "Well, the main point is it's still alive, but he thinks there's still a thousand X improvement.", 'start': 3090.189, 'duration': 8.065}, {'end': 3100.456, 'text': "just on shrinking the transition, that's possible.", 'start': 3098.254, 'duration': 2.202}, {'end': 3111.242, 'text': 'Whatever The point is that the exponential growth we see is actually a huge number of these S curves, just constant breakthroughs.', 'start': 3101.096, 'duration': 10.146}, {'end': 3113.884, 'text': 'At the philosophical level.', 'start': 3111.883, 'duration': 2.001}, {'end': 3123.195, 'text': 'why do you think we, as a descendants of apes, were able to just keep coming up with these new breakthroughs on the CPU side?', 'start': 3113.884, 'duration': 9.311}], 'summary': "Moore's law is still alive with potential for a thousand x improvement on shrinking the transition, driven by constant breakthroughs.", 'duration': 50.87, 'max_score': 3072.325, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM3072325.jpg'}], 'start': 2253.233, 'title': 'Quantum computing and its future prospects', 'summary': 'Covers qubits, physical implementations, challenges of decoherence and noise, error correction, scaling up qubits, nisq era, quantum supremacy, and the race to achieve quantum computing, with potential for a thousandfold improvement in shrinking the transition and the potential impact on computing power and economic progress.', 'chapters': [{'end': 2638.476, 'start': 2253.233, 'title': 'Quantum computing and qubits', 'summary': 'Discusses the concept of qubits, the different physical implementations of qubits such as superconducting quantum computing and individual atomic nuclei, the challenges of decoherence and noise in quantum computing, and the future prospect of error-corrected quantum computers.', 'duration': 385.243, 'highlights': ['The fundamental unit of quantum information is the qubit, which can be implemented through various physical systems such as superconducting quantum computing and individual atomic nuclei.', 'The current challenge in quantum computing lies in decoherence, which refers to the unwanted interaction between qubits and the external environment, leading to the loss of quantum state.', 'The dream of error-corrected quantum computers aims to decouple the logic of qubits from the hardware, addressing the current issue of noise and imperfect qubits.', 'The concept of qubits and quantum information parallels the idea of classical computing, where the physical implementation does not interfere with the higher-level programming logic.', 'The hope for quantum computing is to overcome the current noise and imperfections in qubits to achieve error-corrected quantum computers, which would revolutionize the field of quantum information and computing.']}, {'end': 2947.562, 'start': 2638.496, 'title': 'Quantum error correction and the path to reliable quantum computing', 'summary': 'Discusses the discovery of quantum error correction, its role in building reliable quantum computers, the challenges of scaling up qubits, and the current state of quantum computing, culminating in the nisq era and the achievement of quantum supremacy.', 'duration': 309.066, 'highlights': ['The theory of quantum error correction revolutionized quantum computing research, enabling the construction of reliable quantum computers using error correcting codes to overcome qubit unreliability.', 'The engineering agenda for quantum computing research has focused on building qubits that are reliable enough to utilize error correcting codes, with the ultimate goal of achieving arbitrarily reliable qubits.', 'The practical challenge in building a scalable quantum computer lies in the overhead imposed by error correction, requiring thousands of physical qubits to encode logical qubits, thus preventing quantum computers from breaking cryptography due to immense overheads involved.', "The current era in quantum computing, known as the noisy intermediate scale quantum (NISQ) era, marks a stage where non-error corrected quantum computers, despite their noise, can perform tasks challenging for classical computers, as demonstrated by Google's announcement of quantum supremacy.", 'The future of quantum computing in the NISQ era remains uncertain, as it is yet to be determined whether quantum computers can perform tasks beyond classical computers that are also useful.']}, {'end': 3100.456, 'start': 2947.822, 'title': 'Racing towards quantum computing', 'summary': 'Discusses the race among various entities including google, ibm, startups, research labs, and governments over the next decade to achieve quantum computing, addressing the challenges in hardware, engineering, and theoretical breakthroughs necessary for its realization, with potential for a thousandfold improvement in shrinking the transition.', 'duration': 152.634, 'highlights': ['The race for quantum computing involves major players like Google, IBM, startups, research labs, and governments, with a potential timeline of the next decade for advancements.', 'The challenges in achieving quantum computing include fundamental engineering issues, breakthroughs in physics and computer science, and the need for significant investment and excitement.', 'Theoretical breakthroughs and insights are expected to reduce the cost of quantum computing, potentially leading to further advancements in the field.', "Jim Keller discusses the ongoing relevance of Moore's law, predicting the possibility of a thousandfold improvement in shrinking the transition."]}, {'end': 3367.349, 'start': 3101.096, 'title': "Computing's exponential growth", 'summary': 'Discusses the exponential growth of computing power, the limitations of classical computing, and the potential impact of quantum computing, highlighting the economic pressure driving technological progress and the inevitability of reaching fundamental limits.', 'duration': 266.253, 'highlights': ['The exponential growth in computing is due to constant breakthroughs and the development of universal machines, leading to millions of times faster computers with millions of times more memory.', 'Classical computing faces fundamental limits imposed by quantum gravity, as building a computer operating at 10^43 operations per second would collapse into a black hole due to energy consumption.', "Economic pressure has been a key driver of technological progress, similar to the pressure during the Cold War that led to engineering breakthroughs and Moore's Law.", 'The era of exponential growth in computing represents a special period in human history, with a larger population and unprecedented global challenges.', 'The chapter questions whether the pattern of breakthroughs in computing can be replicated in the quantum computer space and ponders the unique nature of this period in human history.']}], 'duration': 1114.116, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM2253233.jpg', 'highlights': ['The dream of error-corrected quantum computers aims to decouple the logic of qubits from the hardware, addressing the current issue of noise and imperfect qubits.', 'The theory of quantum error correction revolutionized quantum computing research, enabling the construction of reliable quantum computers using error correcting codes to overcome qubit unreliability.', 'The practical challenge in building a scalable quantum computer lies in the overhead imposed by error correction, requiring thousands of physical qubits to encode logical qubits, thus preventing quantum computers from breaking cryptography due to immense overheads involved.', "The current era in quantum computing, known as the noisy intermediate scale quantum (NISQ) era, marks a stage where non-error corrected quantum computers, despite their noise, can perform tasks challenging for classical computers, as demonstrated by Google's announcement of quantum supremacy.", 'The exponential growth in computing is due to constant breakthroughs and the development of universal machines, leading to millions of times faster computers with millions of times more memory.', 'The challenges in achieving quantum computing include fundamental engineering issues, breakthroughs in physics and computer science, and the need for significant investment and excitement.', "Jim Keller discusses the ongoing relevance of Moore's law, predicting the possibility of a thousandfold improvement in shrinking the transition."]}, {'end': 3867.839, 'segs': [{'end': 3417.764, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3389.044, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 3392.847, 'text': 'So then jumping to another really interesting topic that you mentioned.', 'start': 3389.044, 'duration': 3.803}, {'end': 3400.652, 'text': 'So Google announced their work in the paper in Nature with quantum supremacy.', 'start': 3392.887, 'duration': 7.765}, {'end': 3408.759, 'text': 'Yes Can you describe, again, back to the basic, what is, perhaps not so basic, what is quantum supremacy? Absolutely.', 'start': 3400.913, 'duration': 7.846}, {'end': 3417.764, 'text': 'So quantum supremacy is a term that was coined by, again, by John Preskill in 2012.', 'start': 3409.219, 'duration': 8.545}], 'summary': 'Google announced quantum supremacy in nature paper.', 'duration': 28.72, 'max_score': 3389.044, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM3389044.jpg'}, {'end': 3465.275, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3438.62, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 3442.883, 'text': 'when Richard Feynman and David Deutsch people like that, were talking about it in the early 80s.', 'start': 3438.62, 'duration': 4.263}, {'end': 3461.313, 'text': 'And quantum supremacy just refers to sort of the point in history when you can first use a quantum computer to do some well-defined task much faster than any known algorithm running on any of the classical computers that are available.', 'start': 3443.904, 'duration': 17.409}, {'end': 3465.275, 'text': 'OK, so, you know, notice that I did not say a useful task.', 'start': 3461.893, 'duration': 3.382}], 'summary': 'Quantum supremacy refers to using quantum computer for faster well-defined tasks than classical computers.', 'duration': 26.655, 'max_score': 3438.62, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM3438620.jpg'}, {'end': 3515.658, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3484.465, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 3488.787, 'text': 'Can you clarify a small point? You said much faster than the classical implementation.', 'start': 3484.465, 'duration': 4.322}, {'end': 3500.172, 'text': "What about the space where there's no, doesn't even exist a classical algorithm to solve the problem? So maybe I should clarify.", 'start': 3489.567, 'duration': 10.605}, {'end': 3505.934, 'text': 'Everything that a quantum computer can do, a classical computer can also eventually do.', 'start': 3500.632, 'duration': 5.302}, {'end': 3515.658, 'text': 'And the reason why we know that is that a classical computer could always, if it had no limits of time and memory,', 'start': 3506.894, 'duration': 8.764}], 'summary': 'Quantum computers are much faster than classical implementations, but classical computers can eventually do what quantum computers can do.', 'duration': 31.193, 'max_score': 3484.465, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM3484465.jpg'}, {'end': 3587.009, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3554.514, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 3558.636, 'text': 'What we think they do change is what is efficiently computable.', 'start': 3554.514, 'duration': 4.122}, {'end': 3570.124, 'text': "Since the 1960s the word efficiently as well has been a central word in computer science, but it's a code word for something technical,", 'start': 3560.598, 'duration': 9.526}, {'end': 3573.026, 'text': 'which is basically with polynomial scaling.', 'start': 3570.124, 'duration': 2.902}, {'end': 3576.827, 'text': 'that, as you get to larger and larger inputs,', 'start': 3573.906, 'duration': 2.921}, {'end': 3587.009, 'text': 'you would like an algorithm that uses an amount of time that scales only like the size of the input raised to some power and not exponentially with the size of the input right?', 'start': 3576.827, 'duration': 10.182}], 'summary': 'Efficient computation means polynomial scaling for larger inputs.', 'duration': 32.495, 'max_score': 3554.514, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM3554514.jpg'}, {'end': 3654.029, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3625.383, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 3632.031, 'text': 'We want, first of all, the quantum computer to be much faster, just in the literal sense of like number of seconds.', 'start': 3625.383, 'duration': 6.648}, {'end': 3636.616, 'text': "You know, it's a solving this, you know, well-defined, you know, problem.", 'start': 3632.111, 'duration': 4.505}, {'end': 3645.584, 'text': 'Secondly, we want it to be sort of, you know for a problem where we really believe that a quantum computer has better scaling behavior.', 'start': 3637.036, 'duration': 8.548}, {'end': 3654.029, 'text': "right. so it's not just an incidental, you know matter of hardware, but it's that you know as you went to larger and larger inputs.", 'start': 3645.584, 'duration': 8.445}], 'summary': 'We aim for quantum computer speed improvement and better scaling behavior.', 'duration': 28.646, 'max_score': 3625.383, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM3625383.jpg'}, {'end': 3821.941, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3797.427, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 3805.032, 'text': 'then there are huge advantages to switching your attention from problems like factoring numbers that have a single,', 'start': 3797.427, 'duration': 7.605}, {'end': 3808.235, 'text': 'right answer to what we call sampling problems.', 'start': 3805.032, 'duration': 3.203}, {'end': 3818.179, 'text': "So these are problems where the goal is just to output a sample from some probability distribution, let's say over strings of 50 bits, right?", 'start': 3808.755, 'duration': 9.424}, {'end': 3821.941, 'text': 'So there are, you know, many, many, many possible valid outputs.', 'start': 3818.199, 'duration': 3.742}], 'summary': 'Switching attention to sampling problems with many possible valid outputs.', 'duration': 24.514, 'max_score': 3797.427, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM3797427.jpg'}], 'start': 3367.589, 'title': 'Quantum computing and supremacy', 'summary': "Discusses quantum supremacy, technological progress, and the efficiency of quantum computing compared to classical computing, referencing google's work in the paper in nature and emphasizing the advantages of sampling problems over factoring numbers in achieving quantum supremacy.", 'chapters': [{'end': 3484.325, 'start': 3367.589, 'title': 'Quantum supremacy and technological progress', 'summary': "Discusses the concept of quantum supremacy and the perception of slowed technological progress, referencing the announcement of google's work in the paper in nature with quantum supremacy and the fundamental definition of quantum supremacy, emphasizing the importance of well-defined tasks.", 'duration': 116.736, 'highlights': ['The chapter discusses the concept of quantum supremacy and the perception of slowed technological progress. The transcript delves into the concept of quantum supremacy and the concern about the perceived slowdown in technological progress outside of computing.', "Referencing the announcement of Google's work in the paper in Nature with quantum supremacy. Google's work in the paper in Nature with quantum supremacy is highlighted, indicating a significant development in the field of quantum computing.", 'The fundamental definition of quantum supremacy, emphasizing the importance of well-defined tasks. The chapter explains the fundamental definition of quantum supremacy, stressing the significance of well-defined tasks in the context of quantum computing.']}, {'end': 3599.931, 'start': 3484.465, 'title': 'Quantum vs classical computing', 'summary': "Discusses the efficiency of quantum computing compared to classical computing, explaining that while quantum computers can perform certain tasks exponentially faster, anything they can do can also be done by classical computers, albeit much slower. quantum computers do not solve uncomputable problems and do not go beyond alan turing's definition of computation, but they do change what is efficiently computable.", 'duration': 115.466, 'highlights': ['Quantum computers can perform tasks exponentially faster than classical computers, but classical computers can eventually do anything that a quantum computer can do, albeit much slower.', "Quantum computers do not solve uncomputable problems and do not go beyond Alan Turing's definition of computation.", "The efficiency of computing is a central concept in computer science, with 'efficiently computable' referring to algorithms that scale polynomially rather than exponentially with input size."]}, {'end': 3867.839, 'start': 3600.432, 'title': 'Quantum supremacy and sampling problems', 'summary': 'Discusses the definition of quantum supremacy and the use of sampling problems to demonstrate quantum supremacy, emphasizing the criteria for achieving quantum supremacy and the advantages of sampling problems over factoring numbers.', 'duration': 267.407, 'highlights': ['The criteria for achieving quantum supremacy include achieving a significant speedup in solving well-defined problems, demonstrating better scaling behavior than classical computers, and having the observed speedup explainable only in terms of scaling behavior. The criteria for quantum supremacy involve achieving a significant speedup in solving well-defined problems, demonstrating better scaling behavior than classical computers, and ensuring that the observed speedup can only be explained in terms of scaling behavior.', 'The use of sampling problems, involving outputting samples from a probability distribution, presents advantages for proving quantum supremacy compared to factoring numbers with a single right answer. Sampling problems, which involve outputting samples from a probability distribution, are advantageous for proving quantum supremacy compared to factoring numbers with a single right answer.', 'The exploration of sampling problems for demonstrating quantum supremacy led to the realization of the advantages of focusing on problems like sampling, rather than problems with a single right answer. The exploration of sampling problems for demonstrating quantum supremacy led to the realization of the advantages of focusing on problems like sampling, rather than problems with a single right answer.']}], 'duration': 500.25, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM3367589.jpg', 'highlights': ["Google's work in the paper in Nature with quantum supremacy is highlighted, indicating a significant development in the field of quantum computing.", 'The chapter explains the fundamental definition of quantum supremacy, stressing the significance of well-defined tasks in the context of quantum computing.', 'The criteria for quantum supremacy involve achieving a significant speedup in solving well-defined problems, demonstrating better scaling behavior than classical computers, and ensuring that the observed speedup can only be explained in terms of scaling behavior.', 'Sampling problems, which involve outputting samples from a probability distribution, are advantageous for proving quantum supremacy compared to factoring numbers with a single right answer.', 'The exploration of sampling problems for demonstrating quantum supremacy led to the realization of the advantages of focusing on problems like sampling, rather than problems with a single right answer.', 'Quantum computers can perform tasks exponentially faster than classical computers, but classical computers can eventually do anything that a quantum computer can do, albeit much slower.', "The efficiency of computing is a central concept in computer science, with 'efficiently computable' referring to algorithms that scale polynomially rather than exponentially with input size."]}, {'end': 4279.398, 'segs': [{'end': 3955.387, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3884.759, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 3891.786, 'text': 'we just sort of get the qubits to interact in some random way, although a sort of precisely specified random way.', 'start': 3884.759, 'duration': 7.027}, {'end': 3899.734, 'text': 'so we can repeat the exact same random sequence of interactions again and get another sample from that same distribution.', 'start': 3891.786, 'duration': 7.948}, {'end': 3902.036, 'text': 'and what this does, is it basically?', 'start': 3899.734, 'duration': 2.302}, {'end': 3906.823, 'text': 'well, it creates a lot of garbage, but you know very specific garbage, right.', 'start': 3902.036, 'duration': 4.787}, {'end': 3909.306, 'text': 'so you know of all of the uh.', 'start': 3906.823, 'duration': 2.483}, {'end': 3917.698, 'text': "so if we're going to talk about google's device, there were 53 qubits there, okay, and so there are two to the 53 power possible outputs.", 'start': 3909.306, 'duration': 8.392}, {'end': 3925.464, 'text': 'Now, for some of those outputs, there was a little bit more destructive interference in their amplitude.', 'start': 3918.238, 'duration': 7.226}, {'end': 3927.726, 'text': 'So their amplitudes were a little bit smaller.', 'start': 3925.784, 'duration': 1.942}, {'end': 3931.549, 'text': 'And for others, there was a little more constructive interference.', 'start': 3928.246, 'duration': 3.303}, {'end': 3934.231, 'text': 'The amplitudes were a little bit more aligned with each other.', 'start': 3931.569, 'duration': 2.662}, {'end': 3938.294, 'text': 'And so those were a little bit likelier.', 'start': 3935.332, 'duration': 2.962}, {'end': 3946.901, 'text': "All of the outputs are exponentially unlikely, but some are, let's say, two times or three times unlikelier than others.", 'start': 3939.075, 'duration': 7.826}, {'end': 3955.387, 'text': 'Okay, and so you can define, you know, the sequence of operations that gives rise to this probability distribution.', 'start': 3947.541, 'duration': 7.846}], 'summary': "Google's 53-qubit device creates specific random interactions to generate exponentially unlikely outputs, with some being 2-3 times unlikelier than others.", 'duration': 70.628, 'max_score': 3884.759, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM3884759.jpg'}, {'end': 4064.649, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 3985.954, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 3992.261, 'text': 'The test that Google ended up using was something that they called the Linear Cross-Entropy Benchmark.', 'start': 3985.954, 'duration': 6.307}, {'end': 4004.444, 'text': "And it's basically, so the drawback of this test is that it requires you to do a two to the 53 time calculation with your classical computer.", 'start': 3992.981, 'duration': 11.463}, {'end': 4009.025, 'text': "So it's very expensive to do the test on a classical computer.", 'start': 4005.425, 'duration': 3.6}, {'end': 4013.187, 'text': "The good news is- How big of a number is two to the 53? It's about nine quadrillion.", 'start': 4009.406, 'duration': 3.781}, {'end': 4014.467, 'text': "That doesn't help.", 'start': 4013.887, 'duration': 0.58}, {'end': 4018.469, 'text': 'Well, you know, you want it in like scientific notation.', 'start': 4015.287, 'duration': 3.182}, {'end': 4019.029, 'text': 'No, no, no.', 'start': 4018.509, 'duration': 0.52}, {'end': 4022.871, 'text': "What I mean is it's impossible to run on a supercomputer.", 'start': 4019.149, 'duration': 3.722}, {'end': 4024.872, 'text': 'Yeah, so we will come back to that.', 'start': 4022.971, 'duration': 1.901}, {'end': 4027.614, 'text': 'It is just barely possible to run.', 'start': 4024.952, 'duration': 2.662}, {'end': 4033.357, 'text': 'we think on the largest supercomputer that currently exists on Earth, which is called Summit at Oak Ridge National Lab.', 'start': 4027.614, 'duration': 5.743}, {'end': 4036.818, 'text': 'Okay? Great, this is exciting.', 'start': 4034.117, 'duration': 2.701}, {'end': 4038.519, 'text': "That's the short answer.", 'start': 4036.938, 'duration': 1.581}, {'end': 4044.482, 'text': "So, ironically, for this type of experiment, we don't want 100 qubits, okay?", 'start': 4038.839, 'duration': 5.643}, {'end': 4049.704, 'text': "Because with 100 qubits, even if it works, we don't know how to verify the results, okay?", 'start': 4044.502, 'duration': 5.202}, {'end': 4052.265, 'text': 'So we want a number of qubits.', 'start': 4049.744, 'duration': 2.521}, {'end': 4053.166, 'text': 'that is enough that you know.', 'start': 4052.265, 'duration': 0.901}, {'end': 4064.649, 'text': 'the biggest classical computers on Earth will have to sweat and will just barely be able to keep up with the quantum computer using much more time,', 'start': 4054.146, 'duration': 10.503}], 'summary': "Google's linear cross-entropy benchmark requires 2^53 calculations, almost impossible for classical computers, but just feasible on the largest supercomputer.", 'duration': 78.695, 'max_score': 3985.954, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM3985954.jpg'}, {'end': 4172.096, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4147.044, 'weight': 7, 'content': [{'end': 4153.386, 'text': "Well, the first answer is we don't know for sure, because this takes us into questions of complexity theory,", 'start': 4147.044, 'duration': 6.342}, {'end': 4157.008, 'text': 'questions of the magnitude of the P versus NP question and things like that.', 'start': 4153.386, 'duration': 3.622}, {'end': 4165.153, 'text': "We don't know how to rule out definitively that there could be fast,", 'start': 4160.288, 'duration': 4.865}, {'end': 4172.096, 'text': 'classical algorithms for even simulating quantum mechanics and for simulating experiments like these.', 'start': 4165.153, 'duration': 6.943}], 'summary': 'Uncertainty about fast classical algorithms for simulating quantum mechanics.', 'duration': 25.052, 'max_score': 4147.044, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM4147044.jpg'}], 'start': 3867.839, 'title': 'Quantum computing operations and verification', 'summary': "Discusses how a quantum computer generates a randomly chosen sequence of operations, creating specific but unlikely garbage, with google's 53-qubit device having 2^53 possible outputs, some being two to three times unlikelier than others. it also explores the use of statistical tests, like the linear cross-entropy benchmark, to verify the results of quantum computing experiments, with the test requiring a two to the 53 time calculation on a classical computer and the possibility of spoofing by a classical computer being considered.", 'chapters': [{'end': 3955.387, 'start': 3867.839, 'title': "Quantum computer's random sequence of operations", 'summary': "Discusses how a quantum computer can generate a randomly chosen sequence of operations, creating specific but unlikely garbage, with google's 53-qubit device having 2^53 possible outputs, some being two to three times unlikelier than others.", 'duration': 87.548, 'highlights': ["Google's 53-qubit device has 2^53 possible outputs, with some being two to three times unlikelier than others.", 'A quantum computer can generate a randomly chosen sequence of operations, creating specific but unlikely garbage.', 'The amplitudes of the outputs are exponentially unlikely, but some are two to three times unlikelier than others.']}, {'end': 4279.398, 'start': 3955.407, 'title': 'Quantum computing verification', 'summary': 'Discusses the use of statistical tests, like the linear cross-entropy benchmark, to verify the results of quantum computing experiments, with the test requiring a two to the 53 time calculation on a classical computer and the possibility of spoofing by a classical computer being considered.', 'duration': 323.991, 'highlights': ['Google used the Linear Cross-Entropy Benchmark as a statistical test to verify quantum computing results, requiring a two to the 53 time calculation on a classical computer.', "The test's drawback is its requirement for a two to the 53 time calculation on a classical computer, which is about nine quadrillion, making it very expensive to perform.", 'The largest supercomputer on Earth, Summit at Oak Ridge National Lab, is just barely capable of running the test, demonstrating the computational challenge it poses.', 'The discussion emphasizes the need for a number of qubits that challenges the capabilities of classical computers to verify quantum computing results, with 100 qubits being considered inadequate for this purpose.', 'The chapter highlights the uncertainty surrounding the possibility of spoofing by a classical computer, touching upon questions of complexity theory and the magnitude of the P versus NP question.', "The evidence against the possibility of fast, classical algorithms for simulating quantum mechanics is mentioned, with the discussion pointing to the work done by the author and colleagues leading up to Google's experiment in 2015."]}], 'duration': 411.559, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM3867839.jpg', 'highlights': ["Google's 53-qubit device has 2^53 possible outputs, with some being two to three times unlikelier than others.", 'A quantum computer can generate a randomly chosen sequence of operations, creating specific but unlikely garbage.', 'The amplitudes of the outputs are exponentially unlikely, but some are two to three times unlikelier than others.', 'Google used the Linear Cross-Entropy Benchmark as a statistical test to verify quantum computing results, requiring a two to the 53 time calculation on a classical computer.', "The test's drawback is its requirement for a two to the 53 time calculation on a classical computer, which is about nine quadrillion, making it very expensive to perform.", 'The largest supercomputer on Earth, Summit at Oak Ridge National Lab, is just barely capable of running the test, demonstrating the computational challenge it poses.', 'The discussion emphasizes the need for a number of qubits that challenges the capabilities of classical computers to verify quantum computing results, with 100 qubits being considered inadequate for this purpose.', 'The chapter highlights the uncertainty surrounding the possibility of spoofing by a classical computer, touching upon questions of complexity theory and the magnitude of the P versus NP question.', "The evidence against the possibility of fast, classical algorithms for simulating quantum mechanics is mentioned, with the discussion pointing to the work done by the author and colleagues leading up to Google's experiment in 2015."]}, {'end': 4911.96, 'segs': [{'end': 4370.04, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4279.878, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 4290.608, 'text': 'This has been the basic strategy in NP completeness, in all of theoretical computer science and cryptography since the 1970s, really.', 'start': 4279.878, 'duration': 10.73}, {'end': 4300.275, 'text': 'And so we were able to give some reduction evidence for the hardness of simulating these sampling experiments,', 'start': 4290.628, 'duration': 9.647}, {'end': 4302.956, 'text': 'these sampling-based quantum supremacy experiments.', 'start': 4300.275, 'duration': 2.681}, {'end': 4306.957, 'text': 'The reduction evidence is not as satisfactory as it should be.', 'start': 4303.316, 'duration': 3.641}, {'end': 4311.038, 'text': 'One of the biggest open problems in this area is to make it better.', 'start': 4307.477, 'duration': 3.561}, {'end': 4313.078, 'text': 'But, you know, we can do something.', 'start': 4311.558, 'duration': 1.52}, {'end': 4313.718, 'text': 'You know.', 'start': 4313.418, 'duration': 0.3}, {'end': 4316.899, 'text': 'certainly we can say that you know.', 'start': 4313.718, 'duration': 3.181}, {'end': 4324.641, 'text': 'if there is a fast classical algorithm to spoof these experiments, then it has to be very, very unlike any of the algorithms that we know.', 'start': 4316.899, 'duration': 7.742}, {'end': 4333.243, 'text': 'which is kind of in the same kind of space of reasoning that people say p equal not equals np.', 'start': 4326.98, 'duration': 6.263}, {'end': 4335.545, 'text': "yeah, it's in the same spirit.", 'start': 4333.243, 'duration': 2.302}, {'end': 4337.186, 'text': 'yeah, in the same spirit, okay.', 'start': 4335.545, 'duration': 1.641}, {'end': 4349.452, 'text': 'so andrew yang, a very intelligent and, uh, a presidential candidate with a lot of interesting ideas in all kinds of technological fields,', 'start': 4337.186, 'duration': 12.266}, {'end': 4355.255, 'text': 'tweeted that because of quantum computing, no code is uncrackable.', 'start': 4351.253, 'duration': 4.002}, {'end': 4360.577, 'text': "Is he wrong or right? He was premature, let's say.", 'start': 4356.275, 'duration': 4.302}, {'end': 4362.598, 'text': 'So, well, OK, wrong.', 'start': 4360.937, 'duration': 1.661}, {'end': 4370.04, 'text': "Look, I'm actually, I'm a fan of Andrew Yang.", 'start': 4365.174, 'duration': 4.866}], 'summary': 'Np completeness strategy since 1970s; open problem in simulating quantum experiments; fast classical algorithm unlikely; andrew yang premature about quantum computing.', 'duration': 90.162, 'max_score': 4279.878, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM4279878.jpg'}, {'end': 4502.792, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4475.116, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 4480.058, 'text': "you're talking millions of physical qubits, because error correction would be required to.", 'start': 4475.116, 'duration': 4.942}, {'end': 4481.819, 'text': 'yes, yes, Yes.', 'start': 4480.058, 'duration': 1.761}, {'end': 4486.082, 'text': 'Yes, it certainly would.', 'start': 4482.58, 'duration': 3.502}, {'end': 4494.827, 'text': "Right And, you know, how much, you know, how great will the overhead be from the error correction that we don't know yet.", 'start': 4486.282, 'duration': 8.545}, {'end': 4502.792, 'text': "But with the known codes, you're talking millions of physical qubits and of a much higher quality than any that we have now.", 'start': 4495.307, 'duration': 7.485}], 'summary': 'Error correction for quantum computing may require millions of physical qubits, of higher quality.', 'duration': 27.676, 'max_score': 4475.116, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM4475116.jpg'}, {'end': 4574.177, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4545.031, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 4550.997, 'text': "okay, and so there's a whole field devoted to this now, which is called post quantum cryptography.", 'start': 4545.031, 'duration': 5.966}, {'end': 4560.306, 'text': 'Okay And so there is already so so we have some good candidates now, the best known being what are called lattice based crypto systems.', 'start': 4551.277, 'duration': 9.029}, {'end': 4564.89, 'text': 'And there is already some push to try to migrate to these crypto systems.', 'start': 4560.946, 'duration': 3.944}, {'end': 4574.177, 'text': 'So NIST in the US is holding a competition to create standards for post-quantum cryptography,', 'start': 4564.93, 'duration': 9.247}], 'summary': 'Post-quantum cryptography, including lattice-based crypto systems, is gaining momentum with nist holding a competition for standards.', 'duration': 29.146, 'max_score': 4545.031, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM4545031.jpg'}, {'end': 4708.229, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4684.97, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 4692.573, 'text': 'even with 100 or 200 qubit quantum computers of the sort that we expect to be able to build over the next decade.', 'start': 4684.97, 'duration': 7.603}, {'end': 4700.221, 'text': "Okay, so that might be, you know, the first application of quantum computing that we're able to realize.", 'start': 4693.033, 'duration': 7.188}, {'end': 4702.923, 'text': 'you know, or maybe it will prove to be too difficult.', 'start': 4700.221, 'duration': 2.702}, {'end': 4708.229, 'text': 'And maybe even that will require fault tolerance or, you know, will require error correction.', 'start': 4703.304, 'duration': 4.925}], 'summary': 'Potential use of 100-200 qubit quantum computers in the next decade for various applications, including fault tolerance and error correction.', 'duration': 23.259, 'max_score': 4684.97, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM4684970.jpg'}, {'end': 4877.028, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4843.106, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 4845.568, 'text': 'So the logical qubits, as you mentioned before.', 'start': 4843.106, 'duration': 2.462}, {'end': 4846.049, 'text': 'Yeah, exactly.', 'start': 4845.588, 'duration': 0.461}, {'end': 4848.01, 'text': '100 logical qubits.', 'start': 4846.069, 'duration': 1.941}, {'end': 4856.878, 'text': 'And now, you know, the hard part for the next decade is going to be, well, what can we do with 100 to 200 noisy qubits? Yeah.', 'start': 4848.191, 'duration': 8.687}, {'end': 4860.982, 'text': 'Is there error correction breakthroughs that might come without the need to do..', 'start': 4857.219, 'duration': 3.763}, {'end': 4869.525, 'text': 'thousands or millions of physical qubits? Yeah, so people are gonna be pushing simultaneously on a bunch of different directions.', 'start': 4861.983, 'duration': 7.542}, {'end': 4877.028, 'text': 'One direction, of course, is just making the qubits better, right? And there is tremendous progress there.', 'start': 4870.025, 'duration': 7.003}], 'summary': 'Discussion on the challenge of utilizing 100-200 noisy qubits and the need for error correction breakthroughs in quantum computing.', 'duration': 33.922, 'max_score': 4843.106, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM4843106.jpg'}], 'start': 4279.878, 'title': 'Quantum computing and cryptography', 'summary': 'Discusses the impact of quantum computing on cryptography, the emergence of post-quantum cryptography, and the potential applications of quantum computing in simulating quantum mechanics for real-world advancements. it highlights the need for millions of physical qubits for threatening public key cryptography and the aggressive race towards realizing useful quantum simulations with 100-200 qubit quantum computers.', 'chapters': [{'end': 4393.401, 'start': 4279.878, 'title': 'Quantum supremacy and cryptography', 'summary': "Discusses the reduction evidence for the hardness of simulating sampling-based quantum supremacy experiments, highlighting the open problem in making the evidence better and the implications for classical algorithms. it also addresses the notion of code uncrackability due to quantum computing, emphasizing the premature nature of the claim and expressing support for andrew yang's ideas.", 'duration': 113.523, 'highlights': ['Reduction evidence for the hardness of simulating sampling-based quantum supremacy experiments has been discussed, with an emphasis on the need for improvement (e.g., open problem in the area).', 'Implications have been mentioned regarding the existence of a fast classical algorithm to spoof these experiments, highlighting the requirement for such an algorithm to be very different from known algorithms.', "The premature nature of the claim about code uncrackability due to quantum computing has been addressed, with the speaker expressing support for Andrew Yang's ideas and candidacy (e.g., universal basic income)."]}, {'end': 4911.96, 'start': 4393.401, 'title': 'Quantum computing and post-quantum cryptography', 'summary': 'Discusses the impact of quantum computing on cryptography, the challenges in achieving scalable quantum computers, the emergence of post-quantum cryptography, and the potential applications of quantum computing in simulating quantum mechanics for real-world advancements, highlighting the need for millions of physical qubits for threatening public key cryptography and the aggressive race towards realizing useful quantum simulations with 100-200 qubit quantum computers.', 'duration': 518.559, 'highlights': ['The milestone that Google just achieved is very, very far from the kind of scalable quantum computer that would be needed to actually threaten public key cryptography, requiring millions of physical qubits for error correction. The need for millions of physical qubits for threatening public key cryptography due to the error correction requirement.', "The emergence of post-quantum cryptography with lattice based crypto systems and initiatives like NIST's competition to create standards for post-quantum cryptography, signaling an ongoing shift towards quantum-secure cryptography. The ongoing shift towards quantum-secure cryptography with the emergence of post-quantum cryptography based on lattice based crypto systems and initiatives like NIST's competition.", 'The potential applications of quantum computing in simulating quantum mechanics for real-world advancements, with an aggressive race towards realizing useful quantum simulations with 100-200 qubit quantum computers and the potential to revolutionize billion dollar industries. The potential applications of quantum computing in simulating quantum mechanics for real-world advancements and the aggressive race towards realizing useful quantum simulations with 100-200 qubit quantum computers.', 'The possibility of learning something new about chemical reactions with about 100 qubits and a million layers of quantum gates, highlighting the challenges of achieving useful quantum simulations with noisy qubits and the need for better error correction strategies. The challenges of achieving useful quantum simulations with noisy qubits and the need for better error correction strategies, even with about 100 qubits and a million layers of quantum gates.']}], 'duration': 632.082, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM4279878.jpg', 'highlights': ['The need for millions of physical qubits for threatening public key cryptography due to the error correction requirement.', "The ongoing shift towards quantum-secure cryptography with the emergence of post-quantum cryptography based on lattice based crypto systems and initiatives like NIST's competition.", 'The potential applications of quantum computing in simulating quantum mechanics for real-world advancements and the aggressive race towards realizing useful quantum simulations with 100-200 qubit quantum computers.', 'The challenges of achieving useful quantum simulations with noisy qubits and the need for better error correction strategies, even with about 100 qubits and a million layers of quantum gates.', 'Reduction evidence for the hardness of simulating sampling-based quantum supremacy experiments has been discussed, with an emphasis on the need for improvement (e.g., open problem in the area).', 'Implications have been mentioned regarding the existence of a fast classical algorithm to spoof these experiments, highlighting the requirement for such an algorithm to be very different from known algorithms.', "The premature nature of the claim about code uncrackability due to quantum computing has been addressed, with the speaker expressing support for Andrew Yang's ideas and candidacy (e.g., universal basic income)."]}, {'end': 5612.163, 'segs': [{'end': 4938.258, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4912.501, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 4921.548, 'text': 'And then the third thing is just taking the quantum algorithms for simulating quantum chemistry or materials and making them more efficient.', 'start': 4912.501, 'duration': 9.047}, {'end': 4927.453, 'text': "And those algorithms are already dramatically more efficient than they were, let's say, five years ago.", 'start': 4922.189, 'duration': 5.264}, {'end': 4933.356, 'text': 'And so when, you know, I quoted these estimates like, you know, circuit depth of one million.', 'start': 4928.073, 'duration': 5.283}, {'end': 4938.258, 'text': 'And so, you know, I hope that because people will care enough that these numbers are going to come down.', 'start': 4933.396, 'duration': 4.862}], 'summary': 'Quantum algorithms for simulating chemistry becoming dramatically more efficient, with estimates of circuit depth of one million.', 'duration': 25.757, 'max_score': 4912.501, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM4912501.jpg'}, {'end': 5044.693, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5018.974, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 5028.48, 'text': 'And because of that core, it attracts this sort of vast penumbra of people making just utterly ridiculous claims.', 'start': 5018.974, 'duration': 9.506}, {'end': 5037.606, 'text': 'And so with quantum computing, I mean I would say that the main way that people go astray is by, you know,', 'start': 5029.28, 'duration': 8.326}, {'end': 5044.693, 'text': 'not focusing on sort of the question of you know, are you getting a speed up over a classical computer or not, right?', 'start': 5037.606, 'duration': 7.087}], 'summary': 'Quantum computing attracts a vast audience with ridiculous claims; focus on achieving speedup over classical computers.', 'duration': 25.719, 'max_score': 5018.974, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM5018974.jpg'}, {'end': 5174.9, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5146.432, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 5150.313, 'text': "So there is a famous quantum algorithm called Grover's algorithm.", 'start': 5146.432, 'duration': 3.881}, {'end': 5160.136, 'text': 'And what it can do is it can solve many, many of the problems that arise in AI, machine learning, optimization, including NP-complete problems.', 'start': 5150.793, 'duration': 9.343}, {'end': 5167.738, 'text': 'But it can solve them in about the square root of the number of steps that a classical computer would need for the same problems.', 'start': 5160.776, 'duration': 6.962}, {'end': 5171.079, 'text': 'Okay, now a square root speedup is, you know, important.', 'start': 5168.098, 'duration': 2.981}, {'end': 5172.119, 'text': "It's impressive.", 'start': 5171.459, 'duration': 0.66}, {'end': 5174.9, 'text': 'It is not an exponential speedup, okay?', 'start': 5172.4, 'duration': 2.5}], 'summary': "Grover's algorithm provides a square root speedup in solving ai, machine learning, and optimization problems, including np-complete problems.", 'duration': 28.468, 'max_score': 5146.432, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM5146432.jpg'}, {'end': 5327.154, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5293.637, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 5296.498, 'text': 'for a machine learning problem that people really care about.', 'start': 5293.637, 'duration': 2.861}, {'end': 5304.902, 'text': 'This is basically the Netflix problem, the problem of recommending products to users given some sparse data about their preferences.', 'start': 5296.818, 'duration': 8.084}, {'end': 5315.768, 'text': 'Karunidas and Prakash in 2016, had an algorithm for sampling recommendations that was exponentially faster than any known classical algorithm right?', 'start': 5305.582, 'duration': 10.186}, {'end': 5317.969, 'text': 'And so you know, a lot of people were excited.', 'start': 5316.088, 'duration': 1.881}, {'end': 5319.31, 'text': 'I was excited about it.', 'start': 5318.129, 'duration': 1.181}, {'end': 5327.154, 'text': 'I had an 18-year-old undergrad by the name of Yilin Tang, and she was, you know, she was obviously brilliant.', 'start': 5320.25, 'duration': 6.904}], 'summary': 'Faster algorithm for sampling recommendations in 2016 excited many, including an 18-year-old undergrad yilin tang.', 'duration': 33.517, 'max_score': 5293.637, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM5293637.jpg'}, {'end': 5429.165, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5380.178, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 5390.854, 'text': 'Yes Or a forward step for science, but a step for quantum machine learning that precedes the big next forward step.', 'start': 5380.178, 'duration': 10.676}, {'end': 5391.455, 'text': 'Right, right, right.', 'start': 5390.894, 'duration': 0.561}, {'end': 5397.017, 'text': "if it's possible right now, now, now, some people will say well, you know, there's a silver lining in this cloud.", 'start': 5391.875, 'duration': 5.142}, {'end': 5403.919, 'text': 'they say well, thinking about quantum computing has led to the discovery of potentially useful new classical algorithms.', 'start': 5397.017, 'duration': 6.902}, {'end': 5407.56, 'text': "that's true, right, and so you know, so you get these spin-off applications.", 'start': 5403.919, 'duration': 3.641}, {'end': 5411.921, 'text': 'but if you want a quantum speed up, you really have to think carefully about that.', 'start': 5407.56, 'duration': 4.361}, {'end': 5421.964, 'text': "you know, ewin's work was a perfect illustration of why, And I think that the challenge the field is now open.", 'start': 5411.921, 'duration': 10.043}, {'end': 5423.824, 'text': 'Find a better example.', 'start': 5422.524, 'duration': 1.3}, {'end': 5429.165, 'text': 'Find where quantum computers are going to deliver big gains for machine learning.', 'start': 5423.944, 'duration': 5.221}], 'summary': 'Quantum computing leads to discovery of new classical algorithms and spin-off applications, but careful thinking is required for quantum speed up.', 'duration': 48.987, 'max_score': 5380.178, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM5380178.jpg'}], 'start': 4912.501, 'title': 'Quantum computing advancements', 'summary': 'Covers progress in quantum algorithms for simulating quantum chemistry, including estimates of a circuit depth of one million, and discusses limitations and potential exponential speedups in quantum machine learning, while also highlighting the challenges of de-quantizing quantum machine learning algorithms.', 'chapters': [{'end': 5069.775, 'start': 4912.501, 'title': 'Progress in quantum algorithms', 'summary': 'Discusses the progress in quantum algorithms for simulating quantum chemistry, with a focus on making them more efficient, involving estimates like a circuit depth of one million, and highlights the challenges of distinguishing genuine revolutionary claims from ridiculous ones in the quantum computing space.', 'duration': 157.274, 'highlights': ['The quantum algorithms for simulating quantum chemistry or materials are becoming more efficient, with estimates like a circuit depth of one million.', 'Quantum computing, similar to cryptocurrency or deep learning, attracts a vast penumbra of people making utterly ridiculous claims, hindering the focus on genuine revolutionary aspects.', 'The main challenge in quantum computing is to distinguish between claims that focus on achieving a speedup over classical computers and those that dismiss quantum supremacy based on its immediate usefulness.']}, {'end': 5317.969, 'start': 5070.095, 'title': 'Quantum speedups in machine learning', 'summary': "Discusses the limitations of quantum speedups in machine learning and optimization, emphasizing the modest speedups offered by algorithms like grover's algorithm, particularly in comparison to classical computers, while also highlighting a recent candidate for exponential quantum speedup in a machine learning problem.", 'duration': 247.874, 'highlights': ["Quantum algorithms like Grover's algorithm offer modest speedups, such as solving AI, machine learning, and optimization problems in about the square root of the number of steps compared to classical computers. Grover's algorithm provides a square root speedup in solving AI, machine learning, and optimization problems compared to classical computers.", "Karunidas and Prakash proposed an algorithm in 2016 for sampling recommendations in the 'Netflix problem' that was exponentially faster than any known classical algorithm, presenting a potential breakthrough for exponential quantum speedup in the machine learning space. A 2016 algorithm by Karunidas and Prakash demonstrated an exponential quantum speedup in sampling recommendations for the 'Netflix problem', offering potential breakthroughs in quantum speedups for machine learning.", 'The chapter highlights the need for quantum computing theory to address the possibility of achieving larger speedups in machine learning problems, posing it as a significant question for researchers. The chapter emphasizes the importance of exploring the potential for larger speedups in machine learning problems through quantum computing theory, presenting it as a critical focus for researchers.']}, {'end': 5612.163, 'start': 5318.129, 'title': 'Quantum machine learning de-quantization', 'summary': 'Discusses the de-quantization of quantum machine learning algorithms, revealing the challenges and limitations, and emphasizes the need to carefully consider quantum speedups in machine learning, even though the exploration of quantum computing has led to the discovery of potentially useful new classical algorithms.', 'duration': 294.034, 'highlights': ['Ewin succeeded in de-quantizing the quantum machine learning algorithm, along with other proposed quantum machine learning algorithms, which marks an important backward step for quantum machine learning.', 'The field is challenged to find better examples where quantum computers can deliver significant gains for machine learning, emphasizing the need to carefully consider quantum speedups.', 'The exploration of quantum computing has led to the discovery of potentially useful new classical algorithms, leading to spin-off applications.', 'Scott Aronson highlights his fulfillment and purpose in life, which includes discovering new things about the world, sharing knowledge, and standing against things he finds horrible.']}], 'duration': 699.662, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/uX5t8EivCaM/pics/uX5t8EivCaM4912501.jpg', 'highlights': ['Quantum algorithms for simulating quantum chemistry are becoming more efficient, with estimates like a circuit depth of one million.', "Karunidas and Prakash proposed an algorithm in 2016 for sampling recommendations in the 'Netflix problem' that was exponentially faster than any known classical algorithm, presenting a potential breakthrough for exponential quantum speedup in the machine learning space.", "Grover's algorithm provides a square root speedup in solving AI, machine learning, and optimization problems compared to classical computers.", 'The main challenge in quantum computing is to distinguish between claims that focus on achieving a speedup over classical computers and those that dismiss quantum supremacy based on its immediate usefulness.', 'The chapter emphasizes the importance of exploring the potential for larger speedups in machine learning problems through quantum computing theory, presenting it as a critical focus for researchers.', 'The field is challenged to find better examples where quantum computers can deliver significant gains for machine learning, emphasizing the need to carefully consider quantum speedups.', 'The exploration of quantum computing has led to the discovery of potentially useful new classical algorithms, leading to spin-off applications.', 'Quantum computing, similar to cryptocurrency or deep learning, attracts a vast penumbra of people making utterly ridiculous claims, hindering the focus on genuine revolutionary aspects.']}], 'highlights': ['Scott Aronson, a professor at UT Austin, and director of its Quantum Information Center, discusses quantum computing, computational complexity theory, quantum supremacy, quantum cryptography, brain modeling, and future prospects, highlighting the potential for a thousandfold improvement in computing power and the impact on economic progress.', 'The challenges in achieving quantum computing include fundamental engineering issues, breakthroughs in physics and computer science, and the need for significant investment and excitement.', 'The dream of error-corrected quantum computers aims to decouple the logic of qubits from the hardware, addressing the current issue of noise and imperfect qubits.', "Google's work in the paper in Nature with quantum supremacy is highlighted, indicating a significant development in the field of quantum computing.", 'The principles of quantum mechanics, such as amplitudes, superposition, and interference, are explained.', 'The potential transformation of the discussions on free will and consciousness in a world with human-level AIs.', 'The potential of quantum computers in solving problems much faster than conventional computers.', 'The historical interactions between Alan Turing and Wittgenstein, including their debates and influence on each other, are highlighted, revealing the convergence of philosophical and scientific thinking.', 'The conversation primarily focuses on quantum computing due to time constraints, with potential for future discussions on computational complexity theory and the Complexity Zoo Wiki.', 'The study of philosophy reframes understanding of technical and empirical questions, although it may not necessarily resolve philosophical inquiries.']}