title

Peter Woit: Theories of Everything & Why String Theory is Not Even Wrong | Lex Fridman Podcast #246

description

Peter Woit is a theoretical physicist, mathematician, critic of string theory, and author of the popular science blog Not Even Wrong. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors:
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EPISODE LINKS:
Peter's website: http://www.math.columbia.edu/~woit/
Peter's blog: https://bit.ly/3xCwm9F
Not Even Wrong (book): https://amzn.to/3peDzZs
Quantum Theory, Groups, and Representations (book): https://amzn.to/316iAjf
Love and Math (book): https://amzn.to/3If7B8m
The Second Creation (book): https://amzn.to/3rlWzIu
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Full episodes playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLrAXtmErZgOdP_8GztsuKi9nrraNbKKp4
Clips playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLrAXtmErZgOeciFP3CBCIEElOJeitOr41
OUTLINE:
0:00 - Introduction
0:23 - Physics vs mathematics
14:52 - Beauty of mathematics
36:43 - String theory
1:05:16 - Theory of everything
1:25:24 - Twistor theory and spinors
1:41:51 - Nobel Prize likelihood for theory of everything
1:45:37 - Simulating physics
1:49:08 - Sci-Fi, aliens and space
1:58:20 - Responsibility of scientists
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detail

{'title': 'Peter Woit: Theories of Everything & Why String Theory is Not Even Wrong | Lex Fridman Podcast #246', 'heatmap': [{'end': 4161.731, 'start': 4077.809, 'weight': 1}], 'summary': 'Discusses the overlap between mathematics and physics, langlands program, simplicity vs. complexity in theories, challenges in string theory, strength theory challenges, emergent behavior, twister theory and its applications, quantum theories, physics bet, future predictions, and physics and science communication.', 'chapters': [{'end': 896.66, 'segs': [{'end': 74.854, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 48.58, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 53.604, 'text': 'And physics is about doing experiments and testing various models and that.', 'start': 48.58, 'duration': 5.024}, {'end': 62.571, 'text': "But I think the more interesting thing is that there's a wide variety of what people do as mathematics, what they do as physics,", 'start': 53.984, 'duration': 8.587}, {'end': 64.052, 'text': "and there's a significant overlap.", 'start': 62.571, 'duration': 1.481}, {'end': 68.503, 'text': 'And that I think is actually very interesting area.', 'start': 64.092, 'duration': 4.411}, {'end': 74.854, 'text': 'And if you go back kind of far enough in in history and look at figures like Newton or something.', 'start': 68.523, 'duration': 6.331}], 'summary': 'Physics and mathematics have a significant overlap, offering a wide variety of applications and experiments.', 'duration': 26.274, 'max_score': 48.58, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc48580.jpg'}, {'end': 874.315, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 828.743, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 830.304, 'text': 'I mean to me, that makes me quite sad.', 'start': 828.743, 'duration': 1.561}, {'end': 837.928, 'text': "It makes it seem like there's a giant mystery out there that we'll never truly get to experience directly.", 'start': 830.784, 'duration': 7.144}, {'end': 841.631, 'text': 'It is kind of sad how difficult this is.', 'start': 838.369, 'duration': 3.262}, {'end': 843.812, 'text': 'I mean, or I would put it a different way that..', 'start': 841.651, 'duration': 2.161}, {'end': 848.055, 'text': 'you know most questions that people have about this kind of thing.', 'start': 845.153, 'duration': 2.902}, {'end': 849.377, 'text': "you know you couldn't.", 'start': 848.055, 'duration': 1.322}, {'end': 856.603, 'text': 'you can give them a really a true answer and really understand it, but the problem is, is one more of um of time.', 'start': 849.377, 'duration': 7.226}, {'end': 860.367, 'text': "it's like yes, you know, i could explain to you how this works,", 'start': 856.603, 'duration': 3.764}, {'end': 867.911, 'text': "but you'd have to be willing to sit down with me and work at this repeatedly for hours and days and weeks.", 'start': 860.367, 'duration': 7.544}, {'end': 874.315, 'text': "And it's just going to take that long for your mind to really wrap itself around what's going on.", 'start': 867.991, 'duration': 6.324}], 'summary': 'Understanding the mystery requires hours, days, and weeks of work.', 'duration': 45.572, 'max_score': 828.743, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc828743.jpg'}], 'start': 0.049, 'title': 'Mathematical-physical overlap', 'summary': 'Explores the overlap between mathematics and physics, emphasizing unifying ideas and mathematical objects, seen through examples like group theory and the unification of mathematics and physics. it also discusses the significance of geometry in understanding space and time, the relevance of four dimensions in physics and number theory, limitations of higher dimensions, and the challenges of comprehending abstract mathematics in higher dimensions, emphasizing the importance of focusing on specific examples and building intuition.', 'chapters': [{'end': 395.214, 'start': 0.049, 'title': 'Physics-mathematics overlap', 'summary': 'Explores the intricate overlap between mathematics and physics, emphasizing the unifying ideas and mathematical objects that are intimately connected, as seen through examples like group theory and the unification of mathematics and physics.', 'duration': 395.165, 'highlights': ["The overlap between mathematics and physics is becoming increasingly complex, with a significant number of mathematicians' work overlapping with physics, highlighting the interconnectedness of the two fields.", 'The most fundamental ideas about physics and mathematics are intertwined, as evidenced by the appearance of the same mathematical objects in both fields, indicating an intimate connection between the deepest ideas in physics and mathematics.', 'The unification of mathematics and physics is exemplified by the unifying ideas and mathematical objects, such as group theory, that bring together different areas of mathematics, providing a grand unified theory of mathematics.', 'The discovered ideas in math and physics are quite alien to everyday understanding, indicating their arcane nature and their divergence from human everyday experience, which has been a source of fascination and intrigue for the speaker.']}, {'end': 896.66, 'start': 395.214, 'title': 'Geometry and dimensions in mathematics and physics', 'summary': 'Discusses the significance of geometry in understanding space and time, the relevance of four dimensions in physics and number theory, the limitations of higher dimensions, and the challenges of comprehending abstract mathematics in higher dimensions, emphasizing the importance of focusing on specific examples and building intuition.', 'duration': 501.446, 'highlights': ['The relevance of four dimensions in physics and number theory and the limitations of higher dimensions. The speaker challenges the idea of formulating theories in higher dimensions and emphasizes the significance of understanding structures in four dimensions, highlighting the mistake made by physicists in trying to incorporate higher dimensions.', 'The significance of geometry in understanding space and time. The discussion emphasizes the role of geometry in comprehending the spatial and temporal aspects of the universe, implying its crucial role in fundamental physics and number theory.', 'The challenges of comprehending abstract mathematics in higher dimensions and the importance of focusing on specific examples to build intuition. The speaker discusses the difficulty of comprehending abstract mathematics in higher dimensions and emphasizes the importance of focusing on specific examples to build intuition and gain insight into complex mathematical concepts.']}], 'duration': 896.611, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc49.jpg', 'highlights': ['The overlap between mathematics and physics is becoming increasingly complex, highlighting the interconnectedness of the two fields.', 'The most fundamental ideas about physics and mathematics are intertwined, as evidenced by the appearance of the same mathematical objects in both fields.', 'The unification of mathematics and physics is exemplified by the unifying ideas and mathematical objects, such as group theory, that bring together different areas of mathematics.', 'The discovered ideas in math and physics are quite alien to everyday understanding, indicating their arcane nature and their divergence from human everyday experience, which has been a source of fascination and intrigue for the speaker.', 'The relevance of four dimensions in physics and number theory and the limitations of higher dimensions, challenging the idea of formulating theories in higher dimensions and emphasizing the significance of understanding structures in four dimensions.', 'The significance of geometry in understanding space and time, emphasizing the role of geometry in comprehending the spatial and temporal aspects of the universe, implying its crucial role in fundamental physics and number theory.', 'The challenges of comprehending abstract mathematics in higher dimensions and the importance of focusing on specific examples to build intuition, emphasizing the difficulty of comprehending abstract mathematics in higher dimensions and the importance of focusing on specific examples to build intuition and gain insight into complex mathematical concepts.']}, {'end': 1595.651, 'segs': [{'end': 1033.54, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1001.53, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 1004.613, 'text': 'Are we literally talking about all the major fields of mathematics?', 'start': 1001.53, 'duration': 3.083}, {'end': 1007.315, 'text': "So it's like the number theory, geometry.", 'start': 1005.073, 'duration': 2.242}, {'end': 1010.856, 'text': 'So like differential geometry, topology.', 'start': 1008.295, 'duration': 2.561}, {'end': 1019.098, 'text': 'Yeah So the, I mean, one name for this, that this is acquired in mathematics is the so-called Langlands program.', 'start': 1011.036, 'duration': 8.062}, {'end': 1021.878, 'text': 'And so this started out in mathematics.', 'start': 1019.838, 'duration': 2.04}, {'end': 1023.679, 'text': "It's that you know,", 'start': 1021.998, 'duration': 1.681}, {'end': 1033.54, 'text': 'Robert Langlands kind of realized that a lot of what people were doing in them that was starting to be really successful in number theory in the 60s.', 'start': 1023.679, 'duration': 9.861}], 'summary': 'The langlands program encompasses major fields like number theory, geometry, differential geometry, and topology, and was successful in number theory in the 60s.', 'duration': 32.01, 'max_score': 1001.53, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc1001530.jpg'}, {'end': 1077.42, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1055.147, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 1067.456, 'text': 'there was something called geometric Langlands that people realized that you could take what people have been doing in number theory in Langlands and just forget about the number theory and ask what is this telling you about geometry?', 'start': 1055.147, 'duration': 12.309}, {'end': 1071.517, 'text': 'And you get some new insights into certain kinds of geometry that way.', 'start': 1068.016, 'duration': 3.501}, {'end': 1077.42, 'text': "So anyway, that's kind of the name for this area is Langlands and geometric Langlands.", 'start': 1072.378, 'duration': 5.042}], 'summary': 'Geometric langlands offers insights into geometry from number theory, leading to new perspectives and discoveries.', 'duration': 22.273, 'max_score': 1055.147, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc1055147.jpg'}, {'end': 1218.165, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1182.77, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 1188.056, 'text': "It's kind of in my own field I have a PhD in, but it still seems it's pretty clearly far beyond me right now.", 'start': 1182.77, 'duration': 5.286}, {'end': 1197.92, 'text': 'Well, if we can step back to the question of beauty, is there an idea that maybe is a little bit smaller,', 'start': 1189.778, 'duration': 8.142}, {'end': 1201.121, 'text': 'that you find beautiful in the space of mathematics or physics?', 'start': 1197.92, 'duration': 3.201}, {'end': 1203.361, 'text': "There's an idea that you know.", 'start': 1201.701, 'duration': 1.66}, {'end': 1207.102, 'text': 'I kind of got a physics PhD and spent a lot of time learning about mathematics,', 'start': 1203.361, 'duration': 3.741}, {'end': 1218.165, 'text': "and I guess it was embarrassing that I hadn't really actually understood this very simple idea until I kind of learned it when I actually started teaching math classes,", 'start': 1207.102, 'duration': 11.063}], 'summary': 'Struggling to grasp a simple idea in mathematics despite having a phd in physics.', 'duration': 35.395, 'max_score': 1182.77, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc1182770.jpg'}, {'end': 1456.316, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1413.536, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 1422.961, 'text': "what this insight is telling you is that if you're a geometer, often the way to work is to change your problem into algebra by changing your space.", 'start': 1413.536, 'duration': 9.425}, {'end': 1427.183, 'text': 'Stop thinking about your space and the points in it and think about the functions on it.', 'start': 1423.241, 'duration': 3.942}, {'end': 1437.027, 'text': "And if you're an algebraist and you've got these abstract algebraic gadgets that you're multiplying and adding, say, wait a minute, are those gadgets?", 'start': 1428.283, 'duration': 8.744}, {'end': 1439.649, 'text': 'can I think of them in some way as a function on a space??', 'start': 1437.027, 'duration': 2.622}, {'end': 1442.35, 'text': 'What would that space be and what kind of functions would they be?', 'start': 1439.689, 'duration': 2.661}, {'end': 1449.153, 'text': 'And that, going back and forth, really brings these two completely different looking areas of mathematics together.', 'start': 1442.93, 'duration': 6.223}, {'end': 1456.316, 'text': 'Do you have particular examples where it allowed to prove some difficult things by jumping from one to the other?', 'start': 1449.173, 'duration': 7.143}], 'summary': 'Geometers change problems to algebra, algebraists consider functions on spaces, linking different areas of mathematics.', 'duration': 42.78, 'max_score': 1413.536, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc1413536.jpg'}], 'start': 897.8, 'title': 'Langlands program and algebraic geometry', 'summary': 'Explores the langlands program and its relation to geometric langlands, highlighting recent advancements in number theory and delves into the fundamental connection between algebra and geometry, emphasizing the unification of mathematics and its impact on modern number theory and topology.', 'chapters': [{'end': 1207.102, 'start': 897.8, 'title': 'Langlands program and geometric langlands', 'summary': 'Explores the langlands program and its relation to geometric langlands, highlighting the recent advancement in understanding number theory through geometric reformulation.', 'duration': 309.302, 'highlights': ['The Langlands Program, especially its relation to geometric Langlands, is a key focus, with recent advancements in understanding number theory through geometric reformulation.', 'The recent major paper by Peter Schulze and Laurent Farg represents a significant advance in understanding number theory near a certain prime number through geometric Langlands, demonstrating the successful reformulation of the problem.', 'The chapter discusses the challenge of understanding complex mathematical concepts, such as the Langlands Program, even for knowledgeable individuals, indicating the intricate nature of these ideas and the limited number of experts in the field.', 'The interviewee expresses admiration for the brilliance of mathematician Langlands, emphasizing the complexity and depth of his work, which is challenging for even most mathematicians to comprehend.']}, {'end': 1595.651, 'start': 1207.102, 'title': 'Algebraic geometry and its beauty', 'summary': 'Delves into the fundamental connection between algebra and geometry, highlighting how the space of functions on a geometry unifies these seemingly different areas of mathematics, with modern number theory and topology heavily relying on this concept.', 'duration': 388.549, 'highlights': ['The space of functions on a geometry unifies algebra and geometry, with modern number theory heavily relying on this concept. The fundamental idea that unifies algebra and geometry is to think of algebra as the space of functions on some geometry, with modern number theory being heavily based on this concept.', 'The example of integers being functions on the space of prime numbers exemplifies the unification of algebra and geometry. The integers, seemingly unrelated to geometry, can be viewed as functions on the space of prime numbers, showcasing the unification of algebra and geometry.', "The notion of beauty is defined by the idea's ability to package a significant amount of power and information into a simple concept. An idea is considered beautiful if it efficiently encapsulates a vast amount of power and information in a simple manner, with its beauty correlating to the level of compression and the non-trivial implications it offers."]}], 'duration': 697.851, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc897800.jpg', 'highlights': ['Recent advancements in understanding number theory through geometric reformulation of the Langlands Program.', 'Significant advance in understanding number theory near a certain prime number through geometric Langlands.', 'The challenge of understanding complex mathematical concepts, such as the Langlands Program, even for knowledgeable individuals.', 'The admiration for the brilliance of mathematician Langlands and the complexity and depth of his work.', 'The fundamental idea that unifies algebra and geometry is to think of algebra as the space of functions on some geometry, with modern number theory being heavily based on this concept.', 'The example of integers being functions on the space of prime numbers exemplifies the unification of algebra and geometry.', "The notion of beauty is defined by the idea's ability to package a significant amount of power and information into a simple concept."]}, {'end': 2474.486, 'segs': [{'end': 1856.249, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1829.487, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 1836.633, 'text': "it's very easy to believe that the object of your affections is much more beautiful than others might think and that they really are.", 'start': 1829.487, 'duration': 7.146}, {'end': 1839.295, 'text': "and that's very, very easy to do.", 'start': 1836.633, 'duration': 2.662}, {'end': 1848.903, 'text': "So if you say I'm just gonna pursue ideas about beauty and this and mathematics and this, it's extremely easy to to just fool yourself.", 'start': 1839.395, 'duration': 9.508}, {'end': 1856.249, 'text': "i think um, and i think that's a lot of what the story she was thinking of about, where people have gone astray.", 'start': 1848.903, 'duration': 7.346}], 'summary': "It's easy to deceive oneself about others' beauty and ideas, leading people astray.", 'duration': 26.762, 'max_score': 1829.487, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc1829487.jpg'}, {'end': 2013.448, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1987.459, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 1992.541, 'text': "But if there's something which you can't test experimentally, I think you know she would argue, and I would agree that, for instance,", 'start': 1987.459, 'duration': 5.082}, {'end': 2000.004, 'text': "if you're trying to think about gravity and how are you going to have a quantum theory of gravity, you should kind of be you know,", 'start': 1992.541, 'duration': 7.463}, {'end': 2004.425, 'text': 'test any of your ideas with kind of a thought experiment.', 'start': 2000.004, 'duration': 4.421}, {'end': 2010.868, 'text': "You know, does this actually give a consistent picture of what's going to happen, of what happens in this particular situation or not?", 'start': 2004.445, 'duration': 6.423}, {'end': 2013.448, 'text': 'So this is a good example.', 'start': 2012.308, 'duration': 1.14}], 'summary': 'Testing ideas with thought experiments is important in developing a quantum theory of gravity.', 'duration': 25.989, 'max_score': 1987.459, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc1987459.jpg'}, {'end': 2282.871, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2261.356, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 2276.823, 'text': 'well-known kind of particle interactions and gravity and it all fit together in a quantum theory and that you could do this in a very specific way by instead of thinking about having a quantum theory of particles moving around in space-time.', 'start': 2261.356, 'duration': 15.467}, {'end': 2282.871, 'text': 'Think about quantum theory of kind of one-dimensional loops moving around in space-time, so-called strings.', 'start': 2276.843, 'duration': 6.028}], 'summary': 'Quantum theory involves one-dimensional loops, known as strings, moving in space-time.', 'duration': 21.515, 'max_score': 2261.356, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc2261356.jpg'}, {'end': 2479.929, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2452.134, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 2454.435, 'text': 'a lot of people got very interested in this,', 'start': 2452.134, 'duration': 2.301}, {'end': 2460.577, 'text': "a lot of people worked on it and in some sense I think what happened is exactly because the idea didn't really work.", 'start': 2454.435, 'duration': 6.142}, {'end': 2470.623, 'text': 'This caused people to, instead of focusing on this one idea and digging in and working on that, they just kind of kept trying new things.', 'start': 2461.437, 'duration': 9.186}, {'end': 2474.486, 'text': 'And so people, I think, ended up wandering around in a very,', 'start': 2471.124, 'duration': 3.362}, {'end': 2479.929, 'text': 'very rich space of ideas about mathematics and physics and discovering all sorts of really interesting things.', 'start': 2474.486, 'duration': 5.443}], 'summary': 'Initial idea failure led to exploration of rich space of ideas in math and physics.', 'duration': 27.795, 'max_score': 2452.134, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc2452134.jpg'}], 'start': 1595.651, 'title': 'Simplicity vs. complexity in theories', 'summary': 'Discusses the preference for simplicity over complexity in theories, supported by evidence from the history of the subject and the potential bias towards finding simplicity beautiful. it also emphasizes the dangers of pursuing simplicity in theories, particularly in the context of string theory and quantum gravity, and the need for experimental validation.', 'chapters': [{'end': 1808.556, 'start': 1595.651, 'title': 'Simplicity vs. complexity in theories', 'summary': 'Discusses the preference for simplicity over complexity in theories, supported by evidence from the history of the subject, and the potential bias towards finding simplicity beautiful. it also touches on the concept of a fundamentally simple universe and the disagreement regarding whether beauty leads us astray in scientific progress.', 'duration': 212.905, 'highlights': ["The preference for simpler theories is supported by evidence from the history of the subject. The chapter emphasizes that the best theories in the history of the subject have ultimately been relatively simple, backed by evidence from the subject's history.", 'The potential bias towards finding simplicity beautiful is discussed. The discussion revolves around the bias towards finding simplicity beautiful and questions whether this bias influences the preference for simple theories.', 'The concept of a fundamentally simple universe is presented. The chapter explores the idea that there may be something fundamentally simple about the universe, delving into the fundamental aspects of math and physics to support this concept.', "The disagreement regarding whether beauty leads us astray in scientific progress is mentioned. The chapter highlights the disagreement regarding whether beauty leads us astray in scientific progress, specifically referencing a physicist's work and the differing opinions on this matter."]}, {'end': 2474.486, 'start': 1808.556, 'title': 'The pitfalls of pursuing simplicity', 'summary': 'Discusses the dangers of pursuing simplicity in theories, emphasizing the risk of self-deception and the need for experimental validation, particularly in the context of string theory and quantum gravity.', 'duration': 665.93, 'highlights': ['The danger of pursuing simplicity in theories lies in the risk of self-deception and falling in love with an idea, leading to the belief that it is more beautiful and simpler than it actually is. The chapter highlights the risk of self-deception and the inclination to believe that an idea is more beautiful and simpler than it actually is, which can lead to pursuing theories that lack practical utility.', 'Experimental validation is crucial in testing the consistency of theories, particularly in the context of quantum gravity, where the pursuit of self-consistency is emphasized over the pursuit of beauty. The discussion underscores the importance of experimental validation in testing the consistency of theories, particularly in the context of quantum gravity, where the emphasis is on self-consistency rather than beauty.', "The limitations of string theory are discussed, highlighting the challenges in defining the theory and the failure to produce falsifiable predictions, leading to the concept of 'not even wrong.' The chapter delves into the limitations of string theory, emphasizing the challenges in defining the theory and its failure to produce falsifiable predictions, leading to the concept of 'not even wrong.'"]}], 'duration': 878.835, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc1595651.jpg', 'highlights': ['The preference for simpler theories is supported by evidence from the history of the subject.', 'The concept of a fundamentally simple universe is presented.', 'The potential bias towards finding simplicity beautiful is discussed.', 'The disagreement regarding whether beauty leads us astray in scientific progress is mentioned.', 'The danger of pursuing simplicity in theories lies in the risk of self-deception and falling in love with an idea.', 'Experimental validation is crucial in testing the consistency of theories, particularly in the context of quantum gravity.', 'The limitations of string theory are discussed, highlighting the challenges in defining the theory and the failure to produce falsifiable predictions.']}, {'end': 3622.023, 'segs': [{'end': 2618.969, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2589.085, 'weight': 11, 'content': [{'end': 2595.568, 'text': "is very simple that what people just discovered is just there's kind of no particularly nice way of doing this.", 'start': 2589.085, 'duration': 6.483}, {'end': 2599.729, 'text': "There's an infinite number of ways of doing it, and you can get whatever you want depending on how you do it.", 'start': 2595.628, 'duration': 4.101}, {'end': 2609.712, 'text': 'So you end up the whole program of starting at 10 dimensions and getting to four just kind of collapses out of a lack of any way to kind of get to where you want,', 'start': 2600.189, 'duration': 9.523}, {'end': 2610.672, 'text': 'because you can get anything.', 'start': 2609.712, 'duration': 0.96}, {'end': 2618.969, 'text': 'The hope around that problem has always been that the standard formulation that we have of a string theory,', 'start': 2611.812, 'duration': 7.157}], 'summary': 'String theory problem leads to infinite ways of doing it', 'duration': 29.884, 'max_score': 2589.085, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc2589085.jpg'}, {'end': 3185.393, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3160.276, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 3166.918, 'text': 'No matter how smart you were, it would have been very hard to come up with a new idea that was going to work physically and get you a Nobel Prize.', 'start': 3160.276, 'duration': 6.642}, {'end': 3174.499, 'text': 'But he got a Fields Medal for a certain work he did in mathematics.', 'start': 3167.698, 'duration': 6.801}, {'end': 3179.8, 'text': "And that's just completely unheard of, you know, for mathematicians to give a Fields Medal to someone outside their field.", 'start': 3174.579, 'duration': 5.221}, {'end': 3181.381, 'text': 'And physics is really..', 'start': 3179.86, 'duration': 1.521}, {'end': 3185.393, 'text': "You wouldn't have before he came around.", 'start': 3183.291, 'duration': 2.102}], 'summary': 'Physicist received fields medal for groundbreaking mathematics work, unusual for non-mathematician.', 'duration': 25.117, 'max_score': 3160.276, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc3160276.jpg'}, {'end': 3428.809, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3401.705, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 3409.02, 'text': "and there's some kind of deeper idea about where the Higgs field comes from and what's going on, which we haven't figured out yet,", 'start': 3401.705, 'duration': 7.315}, {'end': 3412.257, 'text': "and that that's That's what we should look for.", 'start': 3409.02, 'duration': 3.237}, {'end': 3415.92, 'text': 'But to stick on string theory a little bit longer.', 'start': 3412.777, 'duration': 3.143}, {'end': 3421.244, 'text': "could you play devil's advocate and try to argue for string theory?", 'start': 3415.92, 'duration': 5.324}, {'end': 3428.809, 'text': 'Why it is something that deserved the effort that it got and still like,', 'start': 3421.924, 'duration': 6.885}], 'summary': 'Exploring the unresolved origin of the higgs field and advocating for continued effort in understanding string theory.', 'duration': 27.104, 'max_score': 3401.705, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc3401705.jpg'}, {'end': 3498.063, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3450.717, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 3455.158, 'text': "which I kind of agree with you'll hear from Witten and from other string theorists that this is", 'start': 3450.717, 'duration': 4.441}, {'end': 3458.941, 'text': 'this is just such a fruitful and inspiring idea.', 'start': 3456.078, 'duration': 2.863}, {'end': 3464.347, 'text': "And it's led to so many other different things coming out of it that, you know, there must be something right about this.", 'start': 3458.961, 'duration': 5.386}, {'end': 3467.411, 'text': "And that's, you know, okay.", 'start': 3465.228, 'duration': 2.183}, {'end': 3470.354, 'text': "Anyway, I think that that's probably the strongest thing that they..", 'start': 3467.711, 'duration': 2.643}, {'end': 3472.337, 'text': "that they've got.", 'start': 3471.135, 'duration': 1.202}, {'end': 3482.012, 'text': "But you don't think there's aspects to it that could be neighboring to just to a theory that does unify everything,", 'start': 3472.778, 'duration': 9.234}, {'end': 3484.175, 'text': 'to a theory of everything? Like it could.', 'start': 3482.012, 'duration': 2.163}, {'end': 3493.521, 'text': 'it may not be exactly exactly the theory, but sticking on it longer might get us closer to the theory of everything.', 'start': 3484.175, 'duration': 9.346}, {'end': 3498.063, 'text': "Well, the problem now really is that you really don't know what it is now.", 'start': 3493.541, 'duration': 4.522}], 'summary': 'String theory is seen as a fruitful and inspiring idea with potential to lead to a theory of everything.', 'duration': 47.346, 'max_score': 3450.717, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc3450717.jpg'}, {'end': 3622.023, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3583.467, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 3590.791, 'text': 'It could represent the effort to unify the laws of physics, right? Yeah.', 'start': 3583.467, 'duration': 7.324}, {'end': 3595.454, 'text': 'At high dimensions with these super tiny objects, right? Or something like that.', 'start': 3590.971, 'duration': 4.483}, {'end': 3599.295, 'text': 'I mean, we can sort of put string theory aside.', 'start': 3596.114, 'duration': 3.181}, {'end': 3605.417, 'text': 'So for example, neural networks in the space of machine learning, there was a time when they were extremely popular.', 'start': 3599.315, 'duration': 6.102}, {'end': 3608.917, 'text': 'They became much, much less popular, to a point where, if you mention neural networks,', 'start': 3605.437, 'duration': 3.48}, {'end': 3613.239, 'text': "you're getting no funding and you're not going to be respected at conferences.", 'start': 3608.917, 'duration': 4.322}, {'end': 3620.262, 'text': 'And then once again, Neural networks became all the rage about 10, 15 years ago.', 'start': 3613.279, 'duration': 6.983}, {'end': 3622.023, 'text': 'And as it goes up and down,', 'start': 3620.282, 'duration': 1.741}], 'summary': 'Discussion on fluctuating popularity of neural networks in machine learning.', 'duration': 38.556, 'max_score': 3583.467, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc3583467.jpg'}], 'start': 2474.486, 'title': 'Challenges and mapping in string theory', 'summary': "Addresses challenges in string theory such as lack of experimental validation and mapping 10 dimensions to 4 dimensions. it discusses the problems, concepts, and potential observability, along with insights into ed witten's contributions and sociological aspects of string theory.", 'chapters': [{'end': 2691.004, 'start': 2474.486, 'title': 'Challenges in string theory', 'summary': 'Discusses the challenges in string theory, including the lack of experimental validation, the problem of perturbative definition leading to an infinite number of ways to collapse from 10 to 4 dimensions, and the need for a deeper understanding beyond the standard formulation.', 'duration': 216.518, 'highlights': ['The problem of perturbative definition leading to an infinite number of ways to collapse from 10 to 4 dimensions. The lack of a particularly nice way to reduce 10 dimensions to 4, resulting in an infinite number of ways to collapse, leading to the collapse of the program.', 'The lack of experimental validation in string theory. String theory lacks experimental validation, posing a significant challenge to its credibility and applicability in the real world.', 'The need for a deeper understanding beyond the standard formulation of string theory. The hope for a deeper and better understanding of string theory that goes beyond the perturbative expansion and generalizes the standard formulation to solve the problem of reducing dimensions.']}, {'end': 3064.481, 'start': 2691.864, 'title': 'Mapping 10 dimensions to 4 dimensions', 'summary': 'Discusses the problem of mapping a consistent physical world in 10 dimensions to a consistent physical world in four dimensions, addressing the difficulty of the problem, the concept of compactification, the rich and interesting aspects of six-dimensional spaces, and the potential observability of extra dimensions through experiments.', 'duration': 372.617, 'highlights': ['Compactification involves making six of the ten dimensions unobservable through a mathematical trick, addressing the challenge of mapping 10 dimensions to 4 dimensions.', 'The vastness of possibilities in six-dimensional spaces makes it an unanswerable question, creating challenges in selecting specific dimensions that map to reality.', 'The goal is to explain why the extra dimensions are not observable, with string theory providing ideas on how these dimensions behave, ultimately aiming to make their effects unobservable.', 'Experiments to measure gravitational effects at different distance scales have been conducted to potentially observe the effects of extra dimensions, but none have been successful so far.']}, {'end': 3622.023, 'start': 3065.162, 'title': 'Ed witten and string theory', 'summary': 'Discusses the remarkable mathematician and physicist ed witten, his significant contributions to mathematics and physics, especially in revolutionizing the understanding of their relation, the limitations of the standard model in physics, and the challenges and sociological aspects of string theory.', 'duration': 556.861, 'highlights': ["Ed Witten's significant contributions to mathematics and physics, especially in revolutionizing the understanding of their relation. Ed Witten's work has revolutionized some areas of mathematics and the way we understand the relations between mathematics and physics.", "The limitations of the standard model in physics, particularly the need for improvement due to the integration of gravitational force and the introduction of multiple parameters to make the theory work. The standard model's limitations include the need for integrating gravitational force and the introduction of numerous parameters to make the theory work, indicating a need for improvement.", "The challenges and sociological aspects of string theory, including its lack of a well-defined proposal and the evolution of the term 'string theorist' more as a tribal denominator than a representation of the theory involving strings. The chapter delves into the challenges and sociological aspects of string theory, highlighting its lack of a well-defined proposal and the evolution of the term 'string theorist' as more of a tribal denominator than a representation of the theory involving strings."]}], 'duration': 1147.537, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc2474486.jpg', 'highlights': ["Ed Witten's significant contributions to mathematics and physics, revolutionizing the understanding of their relation.", 'The problem of perturbative definition leading to an infinite number of ways to collapse from 10 to 4 dimensions.', 'The lack of experimental validation in string theory, posing a significant challenge to its credibility and applicability in the real world.', 'Compactification involves making six of the ten dimensions unobservable through a mathematical trick, addressing the challenge of mapping 10 dimensions to 4 dimensions.', 'The limitations of the standard model in physics, particularly the need for improvement due to the integration of gravitational force and the introduction of multiple parameters to make the theory work.', "The challenges and sociological aspects of string theory, including its lack of a well-defined proposal and the evolution of the term 'string theorist' more as a tribal denominator than a representation of the theory involving strings.", 'The vastness of possibilities in six-dimensional spaces makes it an unanswerable question, creating challenges in selecting specific dimensions that map to reality.', 'The need for a deeper understanding beyond the standard formulation of string theory, hoping for a deeper and better understanding that goes beyond the perturbative expansion and generalizes the standard formulation to solve the problem of reducing dimensions.', 'Experiments to measure gravitational effects at different distance scales have been conducted to potentially observe the effects of extra dimensions, but none have been successful so far.', 'The lack of a particularly nice way to reduce 10 dimensions to 4, resulting in an infinite number of ways to collapse, leading to the collapse of the program.', 'The hope for a deeper and better understanding of string theory that goes beyond the perturbative expansion and generalizes the standard formulation to solve the problem of reducing dimensions.', 'The goal is to explain why the extra dimensions are not observable, with string theory providing ideas on how these dimensions behave, ultimately aiming to make their effects unobservable.']}, {'end': 4326.413, 'segs': [{'end': 3642.598, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3622.023, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 3633.53, 'text': 'and a lot of people would argue that using terminology like machine learning and deep learning is often misused over general.', 'start': 3622.023, 'duration': 11.507}, {'end': 3635.171, 'text': 'Everything that works is deep learning.', 'start': 3633.81, 'duration': 1.361}, {'end': 3636.432, 'text': "Everything that doesn't isn't.", 'start': 3635.211, 'duration': 1.221}, {'end': 3637.853, 'text': 'Something like that.', 'start': 3637.192, 'duration': 0.661}, {'end': 3642.598, 'text': "You know, that's just the way, again, we're back to sociological things.", 'start': 3637.993, 'duration': 4.605}], 'summary': 'Terminology like machine learning and deep learning is often misused. everything that works is deep learning, according to some perspectives.', 'duration': 20.575, 'max_score': 3622.023, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc3622023.jpg'}, {'end': 3696.202, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3671.948, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 3682.656, 'text': 'it is kind of a common problem that how what you call some field changes and evolves in interesting ways as the field changes.', 'start': 3671.948, 'duration': 10.708}, {'end': 3691.578, 'text': 'But I mean, I guess what I would argue is the initial understanding of string theory that was quite specific.', 'start': 3682.716, 'duration': 8.862}, {'end': 3696.202, 'text': "We're talking about a specific idea, 10-dimensional superstrings compactified in six dimensions.", 'start': 3691.598, 'duration': 4.604}], 'summary': 'String theory evolves with 10-dimensional superstrings compactified in six dimensions.', 'duration': 24.254, 'max_score': 3671.948, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc3671948.jpg'}, {'end': 3738.737, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3715.449, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 3730.492, 'text': 'but they keep talking to the public about string theory and referring back to that idea and using that as kind of the starting point and as kind of the place where whole,', 'start': 3715.449, 'duration': 15.043}, {'end': 3732.973, 'text': 'where the whole tribe starts and everything has comes from.', 'start': 3730.492, 'duration': 2.481}, {'end': 3738.737, 'text': 'and so the problem with this is that having as your, as your initial name and what what?', 'start': 3732.973, 'duration': 5.764}], 'summary': 'Public engagement with string theory as a starting point for discussion.', 'duration': 23.288, 'max_score': 3715.449, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc3715449.jpg'}, {'end': 3809.624, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3779.571, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 3786.714, 'text': "So there's a lack of transparency and sort of authenticity about communicating the things that failed in the past.", 'start': 3779.571, 'duration': 7.143}, {'end': 3791.797, 'text': "And so you don't have a clear picture of like firm ground that you're standing on.", 'start': 3787.154, 'duration': 4.643}, {'end': 3793.737, 'text': 'But again, those are sociological things.', 'start': 3792.117, 'duration': 1.62}, {'end': 3798.7, 'text': "There's a bunch of questions I want to ask you.", 'start': 3797.079, 'duration': 1.621}, {'end': 3806.543, 'text': "So one what's your intuition about why the original idea failed?", 'start': 3798.74, 'duration': 7.803}, {'end': 3809.624, 'text': 'So what can you say about why?', 'start': 3806.683, 'duration': 2.941}], 'summary': 'Lack of transparency and authenticity in communication about past failures, leading to uncertainty and sociological issues.', 'duration': 30.053, 'max_score': 3779.571, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc3779571.jpg'}, {'end': 3868.354, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3844.095, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 3850.998, 'text': "um, they just kind of realized that there are just more and more things you can do with these six dimensions and you can't, and this,", 'start': 3844.095, 'duration': 6.903}, {'end': 3852.019, 'text': 'this is just not going to work.', 'start': 3850.998, 'duration': 1.021}, {'end': 3860.911, 'text': "Meaning like it's I mean what was the failure mode here?", 'start': 3852.828, 'duration': 8.083}, {'end': 3867.134, 'text': 'You could just have an infinite number of possibilities that you could do, so you can come up with any theory you want.', 'start': 3862.032, 'duration': 5.102}, {'end': 3868.354, 'text': 'You can fit quantum mechanics.', 'start': 3867.174, 'duration': 1.18}], 'summary': 'Exploration of the limitations of six dimensions in quantum mechanics.', 'duration': 24.259, 'max_score': 3844.095, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc3844095.jpg'}, {'end': 4161.731, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 4077.809, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 4080.43, 'text': 'You should be able to describe black holes in this theory.', 'start': 4077.809, 'duration': 2.621}, {'end': 4089.075, 'text': 'And just one aspect that people have concentrated a lot on is just this kind of questions about if your theory includes black holes,', 'start': 4080.93, 'duration': 8.145}, {'end': 4093.817, 'text': "like it's supposed to, and it includes quantum mechanics, then there's certain kind of paradoxes which come up.", 'start': 4089.075, 'duration': 4.742}, {'end': 4099.12, 'text': "And so that's been a huge focus of quantum gravity work has been just those paradoxes.", 'start': 4093.917, 'duration': 5.203}, {'end': 4108.501, 'text': 'So, stepping outside of string theory, can you just say first, at a high level what is the theory of everything?', 'start': 4100.31, 'duration': 8.191}, {'end': 4110.904, 'text': 'What is the theory of everything seek to accomplish??', 'start': 4108.6, 'duration': 2.304}, {'end': 4117.844, 'text': "Well, I mean this is very much a kind of reductionist point of view, in the sense that so it's not a theory.", 'start': 4112.162, 'duration': 5.682}, {'end': 4122.225, 'text': 'This is not going to explain to you, you know, anything.', 'start': 4118.084, 'duration': 4.141}, {'end': 4122.845, 'text': "It doesn't really.", 'start': 4122.245, 'duration': 0.6}, {'end': 4128.868, 'text': "this kind of theory, this kind of theory of everything we're talking about doesn't say anything interesting, particularly about,", 'start': 4122.845, 'duration': 6.023}, {'end': 4134.729, 'text': 'like macroscopic objects, about what the weather is going to be tomorrow, or you know, things are happening at this scale.', 'start': 4128.868, 'duration': 5.861}, {'end': 4144.371, 'text': "But just what we've discovered is that as you look at um universe,", 'start': 4134.81, 'duration': 9.561}, {'end': 4153.942, 'text': 'you can start breaking it apart and you end up with some fairly simple pieces quanta if you like which are interacting in some fairly simple way.', 'start': 4144.371, 'duration': 9.571}, {'end': 4161.731, 'text': 'So what we mean by the theory of everything is a theory that describes all,', 'start': 4154.923, 'duration': 6.808}], 'summary': 'Quantum gravity work focuses on paradoxes in theory of everything, seeking to describe all interactions in universe.', 'duration': 83.922, 'max_score': 4077.809, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc4077809.jpg'}], 'start': 3622.023, 'title': 'Strength and string theory challenges', 'summary': 'Discusses the misuse of machine learning terms, sociological aspects, and core truths of strength theory. it also explores challenges in string theory evolution, emphasizing lack of transparency, need for experimental validation, and complexity of unifying gravity and quantum mechanics.', 'chapters': [{'end': 3671.948, 'start': 3622.023, 'title': 'Strength theory and misuse of machine learning terms', 'summary': 'Discusses the misuse of machine learning terms and ponders on the core truths of strength theory, amidst the sociological aspects, questioning if there are truths to be retained.', 'duration': 49.925, 'highlights': ["The misuse of machine learning and deep learning terminologies is a common argument in the field, with a tendency to label everything that works as deep learning and everything that doesn't as not.", 'The speaker delves into the sociological aspects surrounding the use of terminology, highlighting the complexity of the sociological mess and its impact on the field.', 'The chapter questions whether there are core truths in strength theory that should be retained amidst the sociological mess, emphasizing the importance of not disregarding valuable ideas in this space.']}, {'end': 4326.413, 'start': 3671.948, 'title': 'Challenges in string theory evolution', 'summary': 'Discusses the challenges in string theory evolution, highlighting the lack of transparency about the initial failure, the need for experimental validation, and the complexity of unifying gravity and quantum mechanics.', 'duration': 654.465, 'highlights': ["The lack of transparency about the initial failure of string theory is hindering progress, as people continue to refer back to an idea that didn't work. Lack of transparency about initial failure, hindering progress in the field of string theory.", 'The need for experimental validation is crucial for any new idea of unification to work, either through unexpected experimental results or by explaining unexplained numbers. Importance of experimental validation for new unification ideas.', 'The complexities of unifying gravity and quantum mechanics present a combination of physics and math problems, requiring the proper formulation of the problem and the inclusion of black hole states in the theory. Complexities of unifying gravity and quantum mechanics, combining physics and math problems.']}], 'duration': 704.39, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc3622023.jpg', 'highlights': ['The complexities of unifying gravity and quantum mechanics present a combination of physics and math problems, requiring the proper formulation of the problem and the inclusion of black hole states in the theory.', 'The need for experimental validation is crucial for any new idea of unification to work, either through unexpected experimental results or by explaining unexplained numbers.', 'The chapter questions whether there are core truths in strength theory that should be retained amidst the sociological mess, emphasizing the importance of not disregarding valuable ideas in this space.', 'The speaker delves into the sociological aspects surrounding the use of terminology, highlighting the complexity of the sociological mess and its impact on the field.', "The lack of transparency about the initial failure of string theory is hindering progress, as people continue to refer back to an idea that didn't work. Lack of transparency about initial failure, hindering progress in the field of string theory.", "The misuse of machine learning and deep learning terminologies is a common argument in the field, with a tendency to label everything that works as deep learning and everything that doesn't as not."]}, {'end': 5098.499, 'segs': [{'end': 4373.731, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4349.986, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 4360.886, 'text': 'in terms of this underlying fundamental theory is gonna be hopeless, in terms of kind of telling you what about this, this various emergent behavior.', 'start': 4349.986, 'duration': 10.9}, {'end': 4366.068, 'text': "And as you go to different levels of explanation, you're gonna need to develop new, you know different, completely different ideas,", 'start': 4360.926, 'duration': 5.142}, {'end': 4367.288, 'text': 'completely different ways of thinking.', 'start': 4366.068, 'duration': 1.22}, {'end': 4373.731, 'text': "And I guess there's a famous kind of Phil Anderson's slogan is that, you know, more is different.", 'start': 4367.348, 'duration': 6.383}], 'summary': "In developing explanations for emergent behavior, new ideas and ways of thinking are needed at different levels, as phil anderson's slogan suggests: 'more is different.'", 'duration': 23.745, 'max_score': 4349.986, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc4349986.jpg'}, {'end': 4544.969, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4518.507, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 4523.45, 'text': "precisely the fundamental objects at the deepest levels of mathematics that you're working with.", 'start': 4518.507, 'duration': 4.943}, {'end': 4524.451, 'text': "they're exactly the same.", 'start': 4523.45, 'duration': 1.001}, {'end': 4529.916, 'text': "So, and cellular automata are something completely different, which don't fit into these structures.", 'start': 4525.112, 'duration': 4.804}, {'end': 4537.273, 'text': "And so I just don't see why anyway, I don't see it as a promising, uh, you know, promising thing to do.", 'start': 4529.996, 'duration': 7.277}, {'end': 4539.398, 'text': 'And then just looking at it and saying does this go anywhere??', 'start': 4537.333, 'duration': 2.065}, {'end': 4543.466, 'text': "Does this solve any problem that I've ever, that I didn't?", 'start': 4539.458, 'duration': 4.008}, {'end': 4544.969, 'text': 'does this solve any problem of any kind?', 'start': 4543.466, 'duration': 1.503}], 'summary': 'Cellular automata are not promising in solving mathematical problems.', 'duration': 26.462, 'max_score': 4518.507, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc4518507.jpg'}, {'end': 4637.545, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4609.363, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 4616.731, 'text': "Again, we're back to this original problem that your time in life is You have to figure out what you're going to spend your time thinking about.", 'start': 4609.363, 'duration': 7.368}, {'end': 4621.554, 'text': "And that's something I've just never seen enough to convince me to spend more time thinking about.", 'start': 4616.771, 'duration': 4.783}, {'end': 4622.315, 'text': 'Well, also timing.', 'start': 4621.574, 'duration': 0.741}, {'end': 4626.878, 'text': "It's not just that our time is limited, but the timing of the kind of things you think about.", 'start': 4622.375, 'duration': 4.503}, {'end': 4637.545, 'text': "There's some aspect to cellular automata, these kinds of objects, that it feels like we're very many years away from having big breakthroughs on.", 'start': 4626.898, 'duration': 10.647}], 'summary': 'Time allocation and timing are crucial for productive thinking and breakthroughs in cellular automata.', 'duration': 28.182, 'max_score': 4609.363, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc4609363.jpg'}, {'end': 4799.46, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4749.736, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 4758.58, 'text': 'Well, I think that he fundamentally has, I think, the same problems that everybody has had trying to do this.', 'start': 4749.736, 'duration': 8.844}, {'end': 4762.202, 'text': "And they're really versions of the same problem that you try to..", 'start': 4758.74, 'duration': 3.462}, {'end': 4768.744, 'text': 'you try to get unity by putting everything into some bigger structure.', 'start': 4764.943, 'duration': 3.801}, {'end': 4774.526, 'text': "So he has some other ones that are not so conventional that he's trying to work with.", 'start': 4768.824, 'duration': 5.702}, {'end': 4785.889, 'text': 'But he has the same problem that, even if he can, if he can get a lot farther in terms of having a really well-defined, well-understood,', 'start': 4775.026, 'duration': 10.863}, {'end': 4790.273, 'text': "clear picture of these things he's working with.", 'start': 4785.889, 'duration': 4.384}, {'end': 4794.636, 'text': "they're really kind of large geometrical structures with many dimensions, many kinds.", 'start': 4790.273, 'duration': 4.363}, {'end': 4799.46, 'text': "And I just don't see any way he's going to have the same problem the string theaters have.", 'start': 4795.197, 'duration': 4.263}], 'summary': 'Challenges in unifying large, multi-dimensional geometrical structures, similar to string theories.', 'duration': 49.724, 'max_score': 4749.736, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc4749736.jpg'}, {'end': 5042.503, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5017.204, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 5023.549, 'text': 'Perhaps the most disturbing thing I should say about being a critic of string theory is when you realize who your fans are.', 'start': 5017.204, 'duration': 6.345}, {'end': 5028.615, 'text': "that every day I hear from somebody who says oh well, since you don't like string theory,", 'start': 5024.732, 'duration': 3.883}, {'end': 5031.796, 'text': 'you must of course agree with me that this is the right way to think about everything.', 'start': 5028.615, 'duration': 3.181}, {'end': 5033.237, 'text': 'Oh no, oh no.', 'start': 5032.377, 'duration': 0.86}, {'end': 5038.52, 'text': 'And most of these are, you quickly can see.', 'start': 5034.058, 'duration': 4.462}, {'end': 5042.503, 'text': "this person doesn't know very much and doesn't know what they're doing.", 'start': 5038.52, 'duration': 3.983}], 'summary': 'Critics of string theory face misconceptions from supporters.', 'duration': 25.299, 'max_score': 5017.204, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc5017204.jpg'}], 'start': 4326.413, 'title': 'Challenges in understanding emergent behavior and unifying math and physics', 'summary': 'Discusses the challenge of understanding emergent behavior, the limitations of reductionist approach, and the need for different levels of explanation. it also explores challenges in unifying math and physics, addressing issues with cellular automata, quantum mechanics, geometric unity, and the potential for computational tools.', 'chapters': [{'end': 4450.552, 'start': 4326.413, 'title': 'The challenge of understanding emergent behavior', 'summary': 'Discusses the challenge of understanding emergent behavior and the limitations of a reductionist approach, highlighting the need for different levels of explanation and ways of thinking in understanding complex systems.', 'duration': 124.139, 'highlights': ['The need for different levels of explanation and ways of thinking in understanding emergent behavior.', 'The limitations of a reductionist approach in understanding complex systems.', "Phil Anderson's concept that 'more is different' emphasizes the emergence of behavior at different levels of explanation.", 'The skepticism towards the theory of everything based on simple rules and objects in understanding emergent behavior.']}, {'end': 5098.499, 'start': 4450.552, 'title': 'Challenges in unifying math and physics', 'summary': 'Explores challenges in unifying math and physics, discussing issues with cellular automata as the fundamental level, the complexity of quantum mechanics, limitations of geometric unity, and the potential for computational tools to solve complex problems.', 'duration': 647.947, 'highlights': ['The chapter discusses challenges with cellular automata as the fundamental level, highlighting the skepticism towards the idea of everything emerging from these simple-minded systems without sufficient evidence. Skepticism towards cellular automata as the fundamental level, lack of evidence for emergence of complex ideas from simple systems.', 'It outlines the complexity of quantum mechanics and the difficulty in fitting cellular automata into similar mathematical structures, questioning the promising nature of this approach. Complexity of quantum mechanics, challenges in fitting cellular automata into mathematical structures.', 'The limitations of geometric unity and similar attempts to unify math and physics are discussed, emphasizing the struggle to reconcile large geometrical structures with conventional theories and the standard model. Limitations of geometric unity, struggles in reconciling geometrical structures with conventional theories.', 'The potential for computational tools to solve complex problems in the future, indicating the need for a more computational approach to understand physics and the emergence of complex systems from simple rules. Potential for computational tools to solve complex problems, need for a more computational approach to understand physics.']}], 'duration': 772.086, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc4326413.jpg', 'highlights': ['The skepticism towards the theory of everything based on simple rules and objects in understanding emergent behavior.', "Phil Anderson's concept that 'more is different' emphasizes the emergence of behavior at different levels of explanation.", 'The need for different levels of explanation and ways of thinking in understanding emergent behavior.', 'The limitations of a reductionist approach in understanding complex systems.', 'The potential for computational tools to solve complex problems in the future, indicating the need for a more computational approach to understand physics.', 'The limitations of geometric unity and similar attempts to unify math and physics are discussed, emphasizing the struggle to reconcile large geometrical structures with conventional theories and the standard model.', 'The chapter discusses challenges with cellular automata as the fundamental level, highlighting the skepticism towards the idea of everything emerging from these simple-minded systems without sufficient evidence.', 'It outlines the complexity of quantum mechanics and the difficulty in fitting cellular automata into similar mathematical structures, questioning the promising nature of this approach.']}, {'end': 6043.464, 'segs': [{'end': 5208.38, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5186.274, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 5197.317, 'text': 'And then, when you do that, you end up with a really interesting insight that the that you can formulate a theory and you can formulate a very take,', 'start': 5186.274, 'duration': 11.043}, {'end': 5204.199, 'text': 'a standard theory that we formulate in terms of points of space and time and you can reformulate in this Twister language.', 'start': 5197.317, 'duration': 6.882}, {'end': 5208.38, 'text': "And in this Twister language it's the fundamental.", 'start': 5204.579, 'duration': 3.801}], 'summary': 'Formulate a theory in twister language for space and time.', 'duration': 22.106, 'max_score': 5186.274, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc5186274.jpg'}, {'end': 5363.273, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5318.6, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 5324.745, 'text': 'that brought them back to kind of new insights into physics and um, my own i mean,', 'start': 5318.6, 'duration': 6.145}, {'end': 5332.452, 'text': "what's kind of gotten me excited really is what i think i have an idea about, that i think does actually does actually work.", 'start': 5324.745, 'duration': 7.707}, {'end': 5334.253, 'text': 'that goes more in that direction.', 'start': 5332.452, 'duration': 1.801}, {'end': 5338.537, 'text': "and um, i can can go on about that endlessly or talk a little bit about it, but that's the um.", 'start': 5334.253, 'duration': 4.284}, {'end': 5344.757, 'text': "I think that's the one kind of easy-to-explain insight about twister theory.", 'start': 5340.533, 'duration': 4.224}, {'end': 5346.839, 'text': 'There are some more technical ones.', 'start': 5344.777, 'duration': 2.062}, {'end': 5352.724, 'text': "I think it's also very convincing what it tells you about spinners, for instance, but that's more technical.", 'start': 5346.899, 'duration': 5.825}, {'end': 5355.707, 'text': "Well, first, let's linger on the spheres and the light cones.", 'start': 5352.984, 'duration': 2.723}, {'end': 5363.273, 'text': "you're saying twisted theory allows you to make that the fundamental object with which you're operating.", 'start': 5357.529, 'duration': 5.744}], 'summary': 'New insights into physics, exciting idea about twister theory, technical insights on spinners.', 'duration': 44.673, 'max_score': 5318.6, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc5318600.jpg'}, {'end': 5688.816, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5658.661, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 5663.825, 'text': "Well, you find that one answer is they're vectors and everything you build out of vectors.", 'start': 5658.661, 'duration': 5.164}, {'end': 5673.849, 'text': "But then people found, but wait a minute, there's also these other things which you can't build out of vectors, but which you can consistently rotate.", 'start': 5664.685, 'duration': 9.164}, {'end': 5678.051, 'text': "And they're described by pairs of complex numbers, by two complex numbers.", 'start': 5674.47, 'duration': 3.581}, {'end': 5680.072, 'text': "And they're the spinners also.", 'start': 5678.451, 'duration': 1.621}, {'end': 5688.816, 'text': 'And you can think of spinners in some sense as more fundamental than vectors because you can build vectors out of spinners.', 'start': 5680.632, 'duration': 8.184}], 'summary': 'Spinners, described by pairs of complex numbers, are more fundamental than vectors.', 'duration': 30.155, 'max_score': 5658.661, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc5658661.jpg'}, {'end': 5727.332, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5704.305, 'weight': 7, 'content': [{'end': 5711.729, 'text': "And this is something which even to this day, when we teach graduate courses in geometry, we mostly don't talk about this,", 'start': 5704.305, 'duration': 7.424}, {'end': 5716.191, 'text': "because it's a bit hard to do correctly.", 'start': 5711.729, 'duration': 4.462}, {'end': 5723.731, 'text': 'If you start with your whole setup is in terms of vectors, getting, describing things in terms of spinners is a whole different ball game.', 'start': 5716.231, 'duration': 7.5}, {'end': 5727.332, 'text': 'But anyway,', 'start': 5724.871, 'duration': 2.461}], 'summary': 'Graduate geometry courses mostly avoid discussing spinners due to complexity.', 'duration': 23.027, 'max_score': 5704.305, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc5704305.jpg'}, {'end': 5879.96, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5848.738, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 5854.181, 'text': 'so that every and that it lives inside the space that it lies inside is twister space?', 'start': 5848.738, 'duration': 5.443}, {'end': 5856.722, 'text': 'So, in the simplest case,', 'start': 5854.581, 'duration': 2.141}, {'end': 5867.209, 'text': 'twister space is four dimensional and A point in spacetime is a two-complex dimensional subspace of all the four complex dimensions.', 'start': 5856.722, 'duration': 10.487}, {'end': 5871.073, 'text': 'And as you move around in spacetime, your planes are just moving around.', 'start': 5867.51, 'duration': 3.563}, {'end': 5878.659, 'text': "So it's a plane in a four-dimensional space? Complex.", 'start': 5871.093, 'duration': 7.566}, {'end': 5879.96, 'text': 'Complex plane.', 'start': 5878.679, 'duration': 1.281}], 'summary': 'Twister space is a four-dimensional complex plane in spacetime.', 'duration': 31.222, 'max_score': 5848.738, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc5848738.jpg'}], 'start': 5098.88, 'title': 'Twister theory and its applications', 'summary': "Explores roger penrose's twister theory, its application in four-dimensional space, potential to redefine understanding of space and time, mathematical formulism, and the connection of spinners to twister theory, offering a potential path towards a theory of everything.", 'chapters': [{'end': 5280.617, 'start': 5098.88, 'title': 'Twister theory and four-dimensional space', 'summary': "Discusses the concept of roger penrose's twister theory, its application in four-dimensional space, and its potential to redefine our understanding of space and time, shedding light on the fundamental objects and degrees of freedom in physics.", 'duration': 181.737, 'highlights': ["Roger Penrose's twister theory is a different way of thinking about space and time in four dimensions, redefining points in space and time as spheres of light rays. The twister theory offers a unique perspective on space and time, presenting spheres as the fundamental objects instead of points, thereby challenging traditional notions of the world and our perception of it.", 'The twister theory allows for the reformulation of standard physics theories in terms of twisters, providing a new insight into the behavior of four-dimensional space. This theory enables the reformulation of conventional physics theories using twister language, offering a fresh perspective on the fundamental objects and the formulation of degrees of freedom in physics.', "Penrose's concept suggests that degrees of freedom in physics are based on living on light rays rather than points, revolutionizing the traditional understanding of physics. The theory proposes a paradigm shift in physics by asserting that degrees of freedom exist on light rays, not points, thus fundamentally altering our approach to understanding the concept of space and time."]}, {'end': 5447.122, 'start': 5280.737, 'title': 'Twister theory and its mathematical formulism', 'summary': 'Discusses the development and limitations of twister theory, its potential for new insights into physics, and the philosophical and mathematical appeal of using twisters as the fundamental object in operating within reality.', 'duration': 166.385, 'highlights': ["Twister theory's potential for new insights into physics The chapter discusses the limitations of twister theory that led to the development of new insights into physics, offering a potential direction that actually works in this regard.", 'Philosophical and mathematical appeal of using twisters as the fundamental object The discussion highlights the philosophical appeal of using twisters as the fundamental object in operating within reality, which feels closer to the way human brains perceive reality and is mathematically powerful.', 'Development and limitations of twister theory The chapter presents the development of a mathematical formalism for twister theory and its limitations, while also discussing the potential to find new and interesting things by using twister theory in different directions.']}, {'end': 6043.464, 'start': 5447.861, 'title': 'Understanding spinners in mathematics and physics', 'summary': 'Introduces the concept of spinners, which originated from mathematics and physics, and discusses their fundamental properties and their connection to twister theory, providing a potential path towards a theory of everything.', 'duration': 595.603, 'highlights': ['Spinners are pairs of complex numbers used to describe fundamental particles, such as electrons, and are more fundamental than vectors in geometry. Spinners, pairs of complex numbers, describe fundamental particles and are more fundamental than vectors in geometry.', 'Twister theory provides a tautological definition of spinners, linking them to points in spacetime and potentially simplifying the description of electrons. Twister theory provides a tautological definition of spinners, linking them to points in spacetime and potentially simplifying the description of electrons.', 'Spinners have counterintuitive properties, such as changing sign after a 360-degree rotation, making their visualization challenging due to their representation in a four-dimensional space. Spinners have counterintuitive properties, such as changing sign after a 360-degree rotation and being represented in a four-dimensional space.']}], 'duration': 944.584, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc5098880.jpg', 'highlights': ['Twister theory redefines space and time in four dimensions, presenting spheres as fundamental objects.', 'Twister theory reformulates standard physics theories using twister language, offering new insights into four-dimensional space.', "Penrose's concept proposes a paradigm shift in physics by asserting that degrees of freedom exist on light rays, not points.", 'Twister theory offers potential new insights into physics and presents a philosophical and mathematical appeal.', "Twister theory's development of a mathematical formalism and its limitations are discussed, along with potential new directions.", 'Spinners, pairs of complex numbers, describe fundamental particles and are more fundamental than vectors in geometry.', 'Twister theory provides a tautological definition of spinners, linking them to points in spacetime and potentially simplifying the description of electrons.', 'Spinners have counterintuitive properties, such as changing sign after a 360-degree rotation and being represented in a four-dimensional space.']}, {'end': 6678.459, 'segs': [{'end': 6226.631, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 6196.219, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 6200.461, 'text': 'So if you were giving financial advice, you would say not to bet on it? No, do not bet on it.', 'start': 6196.219, 'duration': 4.242}, {'end': 6204.823, 'text': 'And even I actually suspect, if you ask string theorists that question these days,', 'start': 6200.601, 'duration': 4.222}, {'end': 6212.326, 'text': "you're gonna get a few of them saying I mean if you'd asked them that question 20 years ago again, when Cuckoo is making this bed whatever.", 'start': 6204.823, 'duration': 7.503}, {'end': 6214.847, 'text': 'I think some of them would have taken you up on it.', 'start': 6212.726, 'duration': 2.121}, {'end': 6218.568, 'text': 'And certainly back in 1984, a bunch of them would have said, oh, sure, yeah.', 'start': 6215.467, 'duration': 3.101}, {'end': 6226.631, 'text': 'But now I get the impression that even they realize that things are not looking good for that particular idea.', 'start': 6218.988, 'duration': 7.643}], 'summary': "Financial advice: don't bet on string theory. even string theorists doubt its viability.", 'duration': 30.412, 'max_score': 6196.219, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc6196219.jpg'}, {'end': 6634.93, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 6608.583, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 6614.407, 'text': 'I find over the years I find myself kind of less anyway, less and less interested in that.', 'start': 6608.583, 'duration': 5.824}, {'end': 6617.73, 'text': "well, just because I don't really know what to do with them.", 'start': 6614.407, 'duration': 3.323}, {'end': 6625.096, 'text': 'I also kind of, at some point kind of, stopped reading science fiction, that much kind of feeling that there was just too,', 'start': 6619.091, 'duration': 6.005}, {'end': 6629.94, 'text': 'that the actual science I was kind of learning about was perfectly kind of weird and fascinating,', 'start': 6625.096, 'duration': 4.844}, {'end': 6634.93, 'text': 'and unusual enough and better than any of the stuff that and Isaac Asimov.', 'start': 6629.94, 'duration': 4.99}], 'summary': 'Decreasing interest in science fiction due to fascination with actual science.', 'duration': 26.347, 'max_score': 6608.583, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc6608583.jpg'}], 'start': 6044.224, 'title': 'Twister theory, quantum theories, physics bet, and future predictions', 'summary': 'Simplifies formulas in twister theory to discuss quantum theories, symmetries, and implications of living in a simulation, while addressing the lack of experimental input in high-energy physics and the uncertainty around the existence of alien civilizations.', 'chapters': [{'end': 6118.485, 'start': 6044.224, 'title': 'Twister theory and quantum theories', 'summary': 'Discusses the simplification of formulas in twister theory, leading to a consistent way of talking about quantum theories with a different flavor and aspects, and how symmetries act differently than expected.', 'duration': 74.261, 'highlights': ['The simplification of formulas in twister theory dramatically changes the structure of quantum theories, providing a consistent way of talking about these theories with different flavor and aspects.', 'In twister theory, symmetries act differently than expected, leading to new perspectives and structures in quantum theories.', 'Twister theory allows simultaneous discussion of usual time and time times the square root of minus one, fitting into some structures similar to the standard models.']}, {'end': 6678.459, 'start': 6118.485, 'title': 'Physics bet and future predictions', 'summary': 'Discusses a bet on the nobel prize for a theory of everything, the potential of quantum computers, and the implications of living in a simulation, while also addressing the lack of experimental input in high-energy physics and the uncertainty around the existence of alien civilizations.', 'duration': 559.974, 'highlights': ['The lack of experimental input in high-energy physics makes it difficult to develop a successful theory of everything, with the main problem being the inability to conduct experiments at higher energy. Lack of experimental input, difficulty in developing a successful theory of everything, inability to conduct experiments at higher energy', 'The speaker predicts that there will not be a Nobel Prize given for a theory of everything, particularly dismissing the likelihood of string theory being successful, and even speculates that high-energy colliders will not operate at higher energy successfully in the next 20 years. Prediction of no Nobel Prize for a theory of everything, skepticism about the success of string theory, speculation on the operation of high-energy colliders in the next 20 years', 'The potential of quantum computers to simulate quantum mechanical systems and solve strong coupling behavior is discussed, with the speaker expressing skepticism about quantum computers solving the problem of not knowing the right underlying theory. Potential of quantum computers to simulate quantum mechanical systems, skepticism about quantum computers solving the problem of not knowing the right underlying theory', 'The conversation briefly touches on the idea of living in a simulation, with the speaker finding it more interesting from an engineering perspective and discussing the computation required to construct a realistic simulation. Discussion on living in a simulation, finding it more interesting from an engineering perspective, computation required to construct a realistic simulation', 'The uncertainty around the existence of intelligent alien civilizations is mentioned, with the speaker expressing a lack of evidence but also acknowledging the absence of obstruction to their existence. Uncertainty around the existence of intelligent alien civilizations, lack of evidence but no obstruction to their existence']}], 'duration': 634.235, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc6044224.jpg', 'highlights': ['The simplification of formulas in twister theory dramatically changes the structure of quantum theories, providing a consistent way of talking about these theories with different flavor and aspects.', 'In twister theory, symmetries act differently than expected, leading to new perspectives and structures in quantum theories.', 'Twister theory allows simultaneous discussion of usual time and time times the square root of minus one, fitting into some structures similar to the standard models.', 'The lack of experimental input in high-energy physics makes it difficult to develop a successful theory of everything, with the main problem being the inability to conduct experiments at higher energy.', 'The speaker predicts that there will not be a Nobel Prize given for a theory of everything, particularly dismissing the likelihood of string theory being successful, and even speculates that high-energy colliders will not operate at higher energy successfully in the next 20 years.', 'The potential of quantum computers to simulate quantum mechanical systems and solve strong coupling behavior is discussed, with the speaker expressing skepticism about quantum computers solving the problem of not knowing the right underlying theory.', 'The conversation briefly touches on the idea of living in a simulation, with the speaker finding it more interesting from an engineering perspective and discussing the computation required to construct a realistic simulation.', 'The uncertainty around the existence of intelligent alien civilizations is mentioned, with the speaker expressing a lack of evidence but also acknowledging the absence of obstruction to their existence.']}, {'end': 8146.925, 'segs': [{'end': 7432.339, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 7396.07, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 7400.292, 'text': "because if they've worked, and that that seems to be the case throughout history.", 'start': 7396.07, 'duration': 4.222}, {'end': 7408.196, 'text': "And just like you said, it's human beings running up against a really hard problem.", 'start': 7403.874, 'duration': 4.322}, {'end': 7418.411, 'text': "I'm not sure if this is like a particular trajectory through the progress of physics that we're dealing with now,", 'start': 7410.325, 'duration': 8.086}, {'end': 7420.193, 'text': 'or is this just a natural progress of science?', 'start': 7418.411, 'duration': 1.782}, {'end': 7432.339, 'text': 'You run up against a really difficult stage of a field and different people that behave differently in the face of that.', 'start': 7420.213, 'duration': 12.126}], 'summary': 'Physics faces a difficult stage, with human behavior impacting progress.', 'duration': 36.269, 'max_score': 7396.07, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc7396070.jpg'}, {'end': 7493.719, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 7469.953, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 7479.376, 'text': "And in fact, if there's another AI winter, they'll just probably keep working on it anyway, sort of like loyal aunts sticking to a particular thing.", 'start': 7469.953, 'duration': 9.423}, {'end': 7479.996, 'text': 'Sure, yeah, yeah.', 'start': 7479.416, 'duration': 0.58}, {'end': 7488.418, 'text': "So it's interesting, but you're sort of saying that we should be careful, overhyping things that have not proven themselves,", 'start': 7480.436, 'duration': 7.982}, {'end': 7493.719, 'text': 'because people will lose trust in the scientific process.', 'start': 7488.418, 'duration': 5.301}], 'summary': 'Caution against overhyping unproven ai to maintain trust in science.', 'duration': 23.766, 'max_score': 7469.953, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc7469953.jpg'}], 'start': 6678.459, 'title': 'Physics and science communication', 'summary': "Discusses the challenges of science communication, the impact of influential figures on the development of physics, the concept of running earth's evolution, the challenges of expository material in physics education, the dangers of misrepresentation in promoting scientific ideas, and the importance of diversity of thought in scientific research, specifically within the field of physics and mathematics.", 'chapters': [{'end': 6925.879, 'start': 6678.459, 'title': 'Science communication and quantum mechanics', 'summary': 'Explores the challenges of science communication, the human story of quantum mechanics, and the impact of influential figures such as einstein on the development of physics, including insights on the progress of special and general relativity.', 'duration': 247.42, 'highlights': ['The development of science communication and the human story of quantum mechanics are important for inspiring and educating people about the mysteries of the universe, as illustrated by the impactful books on the early history of quantum mechanics. inspirational impact on readers', 'The significant impact of influential figures such as Einstein on the development of physics, including insights on the progress of special and general relativity, is discussed, highlighting the complexity and effort required for major advancements in scientific theories. time and effort required for scientific advancements', 'The debate about the progress of science, whether it relies on lone geniuses or a network of ideas, is presented, offering insights into the potential development of scientific theories in the absence of influential figures like Einstein. debate on the influence of individual geniuses on scientific progress']}, {'end': 7165.73, 'start': 6926.099, 'title': 'Aliens and the evolution of physics', 'summary': "Explores the concept of running earth's evolution thousands of times to observe how different kinds of minds would lead to varying ideas of physics and mathematics, and discusses the challenges of expository material in physics education.", 'duration': 239.631, 'highlights': ["The chapter explores the concept of running Earth's evolution thousands of times to observe how different kinds of minds would lead to varying ideas of physics and mathematics.", 'Discusses the challenges of expository material in physics education and the potential impact of getting people excited about ideas that are wrong.', 'Proposes the idea of observing the evolution of Homo sapiens millions of times to see how the ideas of science, physics, and mathematics would evolve.', 'Raises the question of whether fundamental physics ideas and mathematics are intrinsic to human minds and suggests the possibility of different brains producing different mathematics and physics.']}, {'end': 7635.261, 'start': 7166.771, 'title': 'Physics, inspiration, and misrepresentation', 'summary': 'Discusses the peculiar properties of engineered systems showing signs of intelligence, the challenges and unusual state of physics, the dangers of oversimplification and misrepresentation in promoting scientific ideas, and the responsibility of physicists to inspire while being honest about the flaws and mistakes in the scientific process.', 'duration': 468.49, 'highlights': ['The challenges and unusual state of physics, the dangers of oversimplification and misrepresentation in promoting scientific ideas The chapter delves into the challenges faced by physics, highlighting its unusual and problematic state, and the dangers of promoting unsuccessful ideas, emphasizing the risk of loss of credibility in science.', 'The peculiar properties of engineered systems showing signs of intelligence It discusses the peculiar properties of engineered systems that demonstrate intelligence-like behavior, emphasizing the significance of these advancements as steps towards intelligence.', 'The responsibility of physicists to inspire while being honest about the flaws and mistakes in the scientific process The chapter emphasizes the responsibility of physicists to inspire and communicate effectively, while also acknowledging the importance of being honest and transparent about the flaws and mistakes in the scientific process.']}, {'end': 8146.925, 'start': 7635.301, 'title': 'The importance of diversity in scientific research', 'summary': 'Emphasizes the importance of diversity of thought in scientific research, specifically within the field of physics and mathematics, to ensure that the best students are not misled and to encourage a wider range of ideas, while also reflecting on the meaning of life and mortality.', 'duration': 511.624, 'highlights': ['The importance of diversity of thought in scientific research, particularly for the best students at prestigious institutions, to prevent them from being misled and to encourage a broader understanding of ideas. Emphasizes the significance of the best students at top universities and the impact on their education and career paths.', 'The need for humility and a willingness to question past ideas and beliefs, as well as the recognition of the ever-changing nature of scientific knowledge. Stresses the importance of humility and the continuous evolution of scientific knowledge.', 'Reflection on the lack of emphasis on the meaning of life within the field of mathematics, compared to theoretical physics, and the potential for mathematicians to provide insights into the core of the meaning of life. Contrasts the perception of mathematicians and theoretical physicists in addressing the meaning of life, highlighting the potential for mathematicians to offer unique perspectives.', 'Contemplation on mortality and aging, with a recognition of the limited time ahead, and the potential impact on prioritizing important tasks. Reflects on the impact of aging and mortality on prioritizing tasks and the appreciation of life.']}], 'duration': 1468.466, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/nDDJFvuFXdc/pics/nDDJFvuFXdc6678459.jpg', 'highlights': ['The responsibility of physicists to inspire while being honest about the flaws and mistakes in the scientific process', 'The importance of diversity of thought in scientific research, particularly for the best students at prestigious institutions, to prevent them from being misled and to encourage a broader understanding of ideas', 'The significant impact of influential figures such as Einstein on the development of physics, including insights on the progress of special and general relativity, is discussed, highlighting the complexity and effort required for major advancements in scientific theories', 'The development of science communication and the human story of quantum mechanics are important for inspiring and educating people about the mysteries of the universe, as illustrated by the impactful books on the early history of quantum mechanics', "The chapter explores the concept of running Earth's evolution thousands of times to observe how different kinds of minds would lead to varying ideas of physics and mathematics", 'The challenges and unusual state of physics, the dangers of oversimplification and misrepresentation in promoting scientific ideas The chapter delves into the challenges faced by physics, highlighting its unusual and problematic state, and the dangers of promoting unsuccessful ideas, emphasizing the risk of loss of credibility in science']}], 'highlights': ['The overlap between mathematics and physics is becoming increasingly complex, highlighting the interconnectedness of the two fields.', 'Recent advancements in understanding number theory through geometric reformulation of the Langlands Program.', 'The preference for simpler theories is supported by evidence from the history of the subject.', "Ed Witten's significant contributions to mathematics and physics, revolutionizing the understanding of their relation.", 'The complexities of unifying gravity and quantum mechanics present a combination of physics and math problems, requiring the proper formulation of the problem and the inclusion of black hole states in the theory.', 'The skepticism towards the theory of everything based on simple rules and objects in understanding emergent behavior.', 'Twister theory redefines space and time in four dimensions, presenting spheres as fundamental objects.', 'The simplification of formulas in twister theory dramatically changes the structure of quantum theories, providing a consistent way of talking about these theories with different flavor and aspects.', 'The responsibility of physicists to inspire while being honest about the flaws and mistakes in the scientific process']}