title

Sean Carroll: Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

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This is a clip from a conversation with Sean Carroll from Nov 2019. Check out Sean's new book on quantum mechanics titled Something Deeply Hidden: https://amzn.to/2C6aCaf New full episodes are released once or twice a week and 1-2 new clips or a new non-podcast video is released on all other days. You can watch the full conversation here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iNqqOLscOBY
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Sean Carroll is a theoretical physicist at Caltech and Santa Fe Institute specializing in quantum mechanics, arrow of time, cosmology, and gravitation. He is the author of several popular books and is a host of a great podcast called Mindscape.
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{'title': 'Sean Carroll: Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics', 'heatmap': [{'end': 214.475, 'start': 179.632, 'weight': 0.884}, {'end': 1006.974, 'start': 975.929, 'weight': 1}], 'summary': 'Explores quantum mechanics and many worlds interpretation, discussing the separation of observed and real, the concept of separate worlds, conservation of energy, and its compatibility with modern physics, presenting a potential phase of empty space with a dimensionality of 10^10^122.', 'chapters': [{'end': 232.176, 'segs': [{'end': 29.085, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1.71, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 10.174, 'text': "So, coming back to the textbook definition of quantum mechanics, this idea that I don't think we talked about, can you this?", 'start': 1.71, 'duration': 8.464}, {'end': 14.836, 'text': 'one of the most interesting philosophical points we talked at the human level,', 'start': 10.174, 'duration': 4.662}, {'end': 25.16, 'text': 'but at the physics level that at least the textbook definition of quantum mechanics separates what is observed and what is real.', 'start': 14.836, 'duration': 10.324}, {'end': 29.085, 'text': 'one, how does that make you feel?', 'start': 26.962, 'duration': 2.123}], 'summary': 'Quantum mechanics separates observed and real phenomena, posing philosophical and physics-level questions.', 'duration': 27.375, 'max_score': 1.71, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/kxvQ3Wyw2M4/pics/kxvQ3Wyw2M41710.jpg'}, {'end': 214.475, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 179.632, 'weight': 0.884, 'content': [{'end': 181.053, 'text': "You know, he said, like, it's okay.", 'start': 179.632, 'duration': 1.421}, {'end': 183.014, 'text': "You know, you don't need all these extra rules.", 'start': 181.073, 'duration': 1.941}, {'end': 185.295, 'text': 'All you need to do is believe the Schrodinger equation.', 'start': 183.414, 'duration': 1.881}, {'end': 188.017, 'text': "The cost is there's a whole bunch of extra worlds out there.", 'start': 185.535, 'duration': 2.482}, {'end': 192.359, 'text': "So the world's being created, whether there's an observer,", 'start': 188.457, 'duration': 3.902}, {'end': 200.783, 'text': "The worlds are created anytime a quantum system that's in a superposition becomes entangled with the outside world.", 'start': 194.578, 'duration': 6.205}, {'end': 205.067, 'text': "What's the outside world? It depends.", 'start': 202.225, 'duration': 2.842}, {'end': 206.008, 'text': "Let's back up.", 'start': 205.387, 'duration': 0.621}, {'end': 214.475, 'text': "Whatever it really says, what his theory is, is there's a wave function of the universe and it obeys the Schrodinger equation all the time.", 'start': 206.708, 'duration': 7.767}], 'summary': 'Schrodinger equation creates multiple worlds when quantum systems become entangled.', 'duration': 34.843, 'max_score': 179.632, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/kxvQ3Wyw2M4/pics/kxvQ3Wyw2M4179632.jpg'}, {'end': 214.475, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 183.414, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 185.295, 'text': 'All you need to do is believe the Schrodinger equation.', 'start': 183.414, 'duration': 1.881}, {'end': 188.017, 'text': "The cost is there's a whole bunch of extra worlds out there.", 'start': 185.535, 'duration': 2.482}, {'end': 192.359, 'text': "So the world's being created, whether there's an observer,", 'start': 188.457, 'duration': 3.902}, {'end': 200.783, 'text': "The worlds are created anytime a quantum system that's in a superposition becomes entangled with the outside world.", 'start': 194.578, 'duration': 6.205}, {'end': 205.067, 'text': "What's the outside world? It depends.", 'start': 202.225, 'duration': 2.842}, {'end': 206.008, 'text': "Let's back up.", 'start': 205.387, 'duration': 0.621}, {'end': 214.475, 'text': "Whatever it really says, what his theory is, is there's a wave function of the universe and it obeys the Schrodinger equation all the time.", 'start': 206.708, 'duration': 7.767}], 'summary': 'The schrodinger equation creates extra worlds when a quantum system becomes entangled with the outside world.', 'duration': 31.061, 'max_score': 183.414, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/kxvQ3Wyw2M4/pics/kxvQ3Wyw2M4183414.jpg'}], 'start': 1.71, 'title': 'Quantum mechanics and many worlds interpretation', 'summary': 'Explores the separation of observed and real in quantum mechanics and debates the role of observation. it also discusses the many worlds interpretation, proposing that observers become entangled, creating separate worlds based on the schrodinger equation and wave function.', 'chapters': [{'end': 75.596, 'start': 1.71, 'title': 'Quantum mechanics and observations', 'summary': 'Explores the separation of what is observed and what is real in the textbook definition of quantum mechanics, debating the role of observation and its impact on the nature of reality.', 'duration': 73.886, 'highlights': ['The textbook definition of quantum mechanics separates what is observed and what is real, prompting philosophical debates about the role of observation and its impact on the nature of reality.', 'The speaker expresses skepticism about the fundamental role of measurement and observers in the ultimate laws of physics, citing evidence that does not support the idea.', 'The speaker acknowledges the potential coolness of observation or mental cogitation playing a fundamental role in the nature of reality but remains unconvinced due to lack of evidence.']}, {'end': 232.176, 'start': 76.576, 'title': 'Many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics', 'summary': 'Discusses the many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics, proposing that observers are quantum systems becoming entangled with what they observe, leading to the creation of separate worlds, based on the schrodinger equation and the wave function of the universe.', 'duration': 155.6, 'highlights': ["Hugh Everett III proposed the many worlds interpretation in the 1950s, stating that observers are just quantum systems and become entangled with what they observe, leading to the creation of separate worlds. Hugh Everett III's proposal of the many worlds interpretation emphasizes that observers are quantum systems and become entangled with what they observe, resulting in the creation of separate worlds, aligning with the Schrodinger equation and the wave function of the universe.", 'The Schrodinger equation implies that observers become entangled with what they observe and the different versions of the observer no longer interact, creating separate worlds. The Schrodinger equation suggests that observers become entangled with what they observe, and the different versions of the observer no longer interact, leading to the creation of separate worlds, as per the many worlds interpretation.', 'The theory proposes that separate worlds are created when a quantum system in a superposition becomes entangled with the outside world, which is defined based on the theory. According to the theory, separate worlds are formed when a quantum system in a superposition becomes entangled with the outside world, the nature of which is dependent on the specifics of the theory.']}], 'duration': 230.466, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/kxvQ3Wyw2M4/pics/kxvQ3Wyw2M41710.jpg', 'highlights': ['The many worlds interpretation proposes that observers become entangled, creating separate worlds based on the Schrodinger equation and wave function.', 'The Schrodinger equation suggests that observers become entangled with what they observe, and the different versions of the observer no longer interact, leading to the creation of separate worlds, as per the many worlds interpretation.', 'The textbook definition of quantum mechanics separates what is observed and what is real, prompting philosophical debates about the role of observation and its impact on the nature of reality.']}, {'end': 525.03, 'segs': [{'end': 260.375, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 232.176, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 234.418, 'text': "it describes a whole bunch of things that don't interact with each other.", 'start': 232.176, 'duration': 2.242}, {'end': 235.619, 'text': "Let's call them separate worlds.", 'start': 234.438, 'duration': 1.181}, {'end': 239.943, 'text': 'Another part is distinguishing between systems and their environments.', 'start': 236.2, 'duration': 3.743}, {'end': 245.828, 'text': "And the environment is basically all the degrees of freedom, all the things going on in the world that you don't keep track of.", 'start': 240.083, 'duration': 5.745}, {'end': 252.011, 'text': 'So again, in the bottle of water, I might keep track of the total amount of water and the volume.', 'start': 246.408, 'duration': 5.603}, {'end': 255.273, 'text': "I don't keep track of the individual positions and velocities.", 'start': 252.332, 'duration': 2.941}, {'end': 258.654, 'text': "I don't keep track of all the photons or the air molecules in this room.", 'start': 255.633, 'duration': 3.021}, {'end': 260.375, 'text': "So that's the outside world.", 'start': 259.015, 'duration': 1.36}], 'summary': 'Distinguishing between systems and environments, not tracking individual positions and velocities.', 'duration': 28.199, 'max_score': 232.176, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/kxvQ3Wyw2M4/pics/kxvQ3Wyw2M4232176.jpg'}, {'end': 352.858, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 314.987, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 323.335, 'text': 'And then maybe over time, maybe somehow connected to entropy, you get a large number of worlds that are very similar to each other.', 'start': 314.987, 'duration': 8.348}, {'end': 333.719, 'text': 'Yeah, so this question of whether or not Hilbert space is finite or infinite dimensional is actually secretly connected to gravity and cosmology.', 'start': 324.028, 'duration': 9.691}, {'end': 337.183, 'text': "This is the part that we're still struggling to understand right now.", 'start': 334.72, 'duration': 2.463}, {'end': 340.607, 'text': 'But we discovered back in 1998 that our universe is accelerating.', 'start': 337.303, 'duration': 3.304}, {'end': 349.095, 'text': "And what that means, if it continues, which we think it probably will, but we're not sure, but if it does, that means there's a horizon around us.", 'start': 341.408, 'duration': 7.687}, {'end': 352.858, 'text': 'Because the universe is not only expanding, but expanding faster, and faster.', 'start': 349.455, 'duration': 3.403}], 'summary': 'Hilbert space dimensionality linked to cosmology, universe accelerating since 1998.', 'duration': 37.871, 'max_score': 314.987, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/kxvQ3Wyw2M4/pics/kxvQ3Wyw2M4314987.jpg'}, {'end': 411.513, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 372.775, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 374.416, 'text': 'The finite dimensional Hilbert space.', 'start': 372.775, 'duration': 1.641}, {'end': 377.137, 'text': 'In fact, we even have a guess for what the dimensionality is.', 'start': 374.536, 'duration': 2.601}, {'end': 379.839, 'text': "It's 10 to the power of 10 to the power of 122.", 'start': 377.337, 'duration': 2.502}, {'end': 380.8, 'text': "That's a very large number.", 'start': 379.839, 'duration': 0.961}, {'end': 391.317, 'text': 'Yes Just to compare it, the age of the universe is something like 10 to the 14 seconds, 10 to the 17 or 18 seconds, maybe.', 'start': 380.82, 'duration': 10.497}, {'end': 399.624, 'text': 'The number of particles in the universe is 10 to the 88th, but the number of dimensions of Hilbert space is 10 to the 10 to the 122.', 'start': 391.657, 'duration': 7.967}, {'end': 400.624, 'text': "So that's just crazy big.", 'start': 399.624, 'duration': 1}, {'end': 411.513, 'text': "If that story is right that in our observable horizon there's only a finite dimensional Hilbert space then this idea of branching of the wave function of the universe into multiple,", 'start': 401.685, 'duration': 9.828}], 'summary': 'The dimensionality of the finite dimensional hilbert space is 10^10^122, far exceeding the age of the universe and the number of particles in it.', 'duration': 38.738, 'max_score': 372.775, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/kxvQ3Wyw2M4/pics/kxvQ3Wyw2M4372775.jpg'}, {'end': 512.678, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 486.983, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 492.784, 'text': 'So a pre-existing universe splitting into two skinnier universes is a better way of thinking about it.', 'start': 486.983, 'duration': 5.801}, {'end': 494.545, 'text': "And mathematically it's just like you know.", 'start': 492.864, 'duration': 1.681}, {'end': 499.306, 'text': 'if you draw an X and Y axis and you draw a vector of length one at 45 degree angle,', 'start': 494.545, 'duration': 4.761}, {'end': 509.094, 'text': 'You know that you can write that vector of length one as the sum of two vectors pointing along x and y of length one over the square root of two.', 'start': 501.066, 'duration': 8.028}, {'end': 512.678, 'text': 'So I write one arrow as the sum of two arrows.', 'start': 510.115, 'duration': 2.563}], 'summary': 'A pre-existing universe can split into two skinnier universes, resembling a vector of length one splitting into two vectors pointing along x and y axis of length one over the square root of two.', 'duration': 25.695, 'max_score': 486.983, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/kxvQ3Wyw2M4/pics/kxvQ3Wyw2M4486983.jpg'}], 'start': 232.176, 'title': 'Systems and environments and the multiverse and hilbert space', 'summary': 'Explains the concept of separate worlds, distinguishing between systems and environments, and the components of the environment in relation to the example of a bottle of water, emphasizing the degrees of freedom. additionally, it discusses the concept of the multiverse and hilbert space, highlighting the possibility of a finite dimensional hilbert space connected to the accelerating universe, leading to a limit of branching of the wave function and a potential phase of empty space, with a dimensionality of 10 to the power of 10 to the power of 122.', 'chapters': [{'end': 260.375, 'start': 232.176, 'title': 'Systems and environments', 'summary': 'Explains the concept of separate worlds, distinguishing between systems and environments, and the components of the environment in relation to the example of a bottle of water, emphasizing the degrees of freedom.', 'duration': 28.199, 'highlights': ['The chapter explains the concept of separate worlds It discusses different components that do not interact with each other and are referred to as separate worlds.', 'Distinguishing between systems and their environments It emphasizes the differentiation between systems and their environments, providing clarity on their relationship.', "The environment is all the degrees of freedom, all the things going on in the world that you don't keep track of The environment is defined as encompassing all untracked elements and degrees of freedom in the world."]}, {'end': 525.03, 'start': 260.456, 'title': 'The multiverse and hilbert space', 'summary': 'Discusses the concept of the multiverse and hilbert space, highlighting the possibility of a finite dimensional hilbert space connected to the accelerating universe, leading to a limit of branching of the wave function and a potential phase of empty space, with a dimensionality of 10 to the power of 10 to the power of 122.', 'duration': 264.574, 'highlights': ['The dimensionality of the finite dimensional Hilbert space is 10 to the power of 10 to the power of 122, a significantly large number compared to the age of the universe and the number of particles in the universe.', 'The accelerating universe implies a horizon around us, leading to a finite number of possibilities within that horizon, potentially limiting the branching of the wave function of the universe and resulting in a phase of empty space.', 'The concept of the universe splitting in quantum mechanics is better understood as a pre-existing universe splitting into two skinnier universes, analogous to the conservation of arrow-ness when a vector is expressed as the sum of two vectors pointing along x and y axes.', 'The question of whether the Hilbert space is finite or infinite dimensional is connected to gravity and cosmology, with the discovery of the accelerating universe in 1998 indicating a potential link to the dimensionality of Hilbert space.']}], 'duration': 292.854, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/kxvQ3Wyw2M4/pics/kxvQ3Wyw2M4232176.jpg', 'highlights': ['The dimensionality of the finite dimensional Hilbert space is 10 to the power of 10 to the power of 122, a significantly large number compared to the age of the universe and the number of particles in the universe.', 'The concept of the universe splitting in quantum mechanics is better understood as a pre-existing universe splitting into two skinnier universes, analogous to the conservation of arrow-ness when a vector is expressed as the sum of two vectors pointing along x and y axes.', 'The accelerating universe implies a horizon around us, leading to a finite number of possibilities within that horizon, potentially limiting the branching of the wave function of the universe and resulting in a phase of empty space.', 'The question of whether the Hilbert space is finite or infinite dimensional is connected to gravity and cosmology, with the discovery of the accelerating universe in 1998 indicating a potential link to the dimensionality of Hilbert space.', 'The chapter explains the concept of separate worlds It discusses different components that do not interact with each other and are referred to as separate worlds.', 'Distinguishing between systems and their environments It emphasizes the differentiation between systems and their environments, providing clarity on their relationship.', "The environment is all the degrees of freedom, all the things going on in the world that you don't keep track of The environment is defined as encompassing all untracked elements and degrees of freedom in the world."]}, {'end': 1105.186, 'segs': [{'end': 545.958, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 525.67, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 537.247, 'text': "So to somebody who brings up a question of saying, doesn't this violate the conservation of energy? Can you give further elaboration? Right.", 'start': 525.67, 'duration': 11.577}, {'end': 539.911, 'text': "So let's just be super duper perfectly clear.", 'start': 537.287, 'duration': 2.624}, {'end': 541.593, 'text': "There's zero question.", 'start': 540.332, 'duration': 1.261}, {'end': 544.977, 'text': 'about whether or not many worlds violates conservation of energy.', 'start': 542.094, 'duration': 2.883}, {'end': 545.958, 'text': 'Yes It does not.', 'start': 545.017, 'duration': 0.941}], 'summary': 'Many worlds theory does not violate conservation of energy.', 'duration': 20.288, 'max_score': 525.67, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/kxvQ3Wyw2M4/pics/kxvQ3Wyw2M4525670.jpg'}, {'end': 764.135, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 740.789, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 748.611, 'text': "So if you had a debate between quantum mechanical contenders, there'd be no problem getting 12 people up there on stage,", 'start': 740.789, 'duration': 7.822}, {'end': 750.371, 'text': 'but there would still be only three front runners.', 'start': 748.611, 'duration': 1.76}, {'end': 754.272, 'text': 'And right now the frontrunners would be Everett.', 'start': 752.411, 'duration': 1.861}, {'end': 757.733, 'text': 'Hidden variable theories are another one.', 'start': 755.512, 'duration': 2.221}, {'end': 764.135, 'text': "So the hidden variable theories say that the wave function is real, but there's something in addition to the wave function.", 'start': 757.753, 'duration': 6.382}], 'summary': 'In a quantum debate, 12 contenders, 3 front runners: everett and hidden variable theories.', 'duration': 23.346, 'max_score': 740.789, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/kxvQ3Wyw2M4/pics/kxvQ3Wyw2M4740789.jpg'}, {'end': 1006.974, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 975.929, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 980.392, 'text': 'as opposed to an epistemic interpretation of the wave function, epistemology being the study of what we know.', 'start': 975.929, 'duration': 4.463}, {'end': 983.994, 'text': 'I would actually just love to see that debate on stage.', 'start': 980.412, 'duration': 3.582}, {'end': 987.917, 'text': 'There was a version of it on stage at the World Science Festival a few years ago.', 'start': 984.875, 'duration': 3.042}, {'end': 989.678, 'text': 'that you can look up online.', 'start': 988.697, 'duration': 0.981}, {'end': 990.679, 'text': 'On YouTube? Yep.', 'start': 989.818, 'duration': 0.861}, {'end': 991.4, 'text': "It's on YouTube.", 'start': 990.879, 'duration': 0.521}, {'end': 992.881, 'text': 'Okay Awesome.', 'start': 991.78, 'duration': 1.101}, {'end': 994.022, 'text': "I'll link it and watch it.", 'start': 993.041, 'duration': 0.981}, {'end': 996.124, 'text': 'Who won? I won.', 'start': 994.703, 'duration': 1.421}, {'end': 998.426, 'text': "I don't know.", 'start': 998.026, 'duration': 0.4}, {'end': 999.347, 'text': 'There was no vote.', 'start': 998.446, 'duration': 0.901}, {'end': 1000.128, 'text': 'There was no vote.', 'start': 999.367, 'duration': 0.761}, {'end': 1006.974, 'text': 'But Brian Green was the moderator and David Albert stood up for spontaneous collapse,', 'start': 1000.528, 'duration': 6.446}], 'summary': 'Debate on wave function at world science festival, moderated by brian green, with david albert advocating for spontaneous collapse.', 'duration': 31.045, 'max_score': 975.929, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/kxvQ3Wyw2M4/pics/kxvQ3Wyw2M4975929.jpg'}, {'end': 1036.54, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1012.88, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 1021.488, 'text': "I think you mentioned it, but just to elaborate, why do you find many worlds so compelling? Well, there's two reasons actually.", 'start': 1012.88, 'duration': 8.608}, {'end': 1023.409, 'text': 'One is, like I said, it is the simplest.', 'start': 1021.768, 'duration': 1.641}, {'end': 1028.314, 'text': "It's like the most bare bones, austere, pure version of quantum mechanics.", 'start': 1023.67, 'duration': 4.644}, {'end': 1034.219, 'text': 'I am someone who is very willing to put a lot of work into mapping the formalism onto reality.', 'start': 1028.334, 'duration': 5.885}, {'end': 1036.54, 'text': "I'm less willing to complicate the formalism itself.", 'start': 1034.299, 'duration': 2.241}], 'summary': 'Many worlds theory is compelling due to simplicity and purity of quantum mechanics.', 'duration': 23.66, 'max_score': 1012.88, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/kxvQ3Wyw2M4/pics/kxvQ3Wyw2M41012880.jpg'}], 'start': 525.67, 'title': 'Conservation of energy in many-worlds interpretation', 'summary': 'Addresses the conservation of energy in the many-worlds interpretation, confirming its adherence to energy conservation and explaining the concept in simple terms. it also explores the controversy in quantum mechanics, presenting the main contenders and highlighting the simplicity and compatibility of the many worlds interpretation with modern physics.', 'chapters': [{'end': 585.018, 'start': 525.67, 'title': 'Conservation of energy in many-worlds interpretation', 'summary': 'Addresses the question of whether the many-worlds interpretation violates the conservation of energy, affirming that it does not and providing a clear explanation of how energy is conserved within the framework, emphasizing the translation of mathematical concepts into plain english.', 'duration': 59.348, 'highlights': ['The conservation of energy in the many-worlds interpretation is definitively affirmed, with zero doubt about its violation, providing clarity on this aspect (100% certainty).', 'The effort is focused on effectively translating the underlying mathematics of the theory into understandable English, emphasizing the conservation of the total amount of universe over time (emphasis on clear communication).', 'Addressing legitimate questions about the origin of probability, the chapter acknowledges uncertainties in certain areas while highlighting the unequivocal conservation of energy within the many-worlds interpretation (acknowledgment of uncertainties).']}, {'end': 1105.186, 'start': 585.683, 'title': 'Controversy in quantum mechanics', 'summary': 'Explores the controversy surrounding the many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics, detailing the challenges in mapping quantum theory to reality, presenting the main contenders - many worlds, hidden variable theories, and spontaneous collapse theories, and highlighting the simplicity and compatibility of the many worlds interpretation with modern physics.', 'duration': 519.503, 'highlights': ['The simplicity and compatibility of the many worlds interpretation with modern physics, as it is the most bare bones, austere, pure version of quantum mechanics, and provides a plug and play approach to understanding quantum gravity and the emergence of space-time. The many worlds interpretation is favored for its simplicity and compatibility with modern physics, as it offers a plug and play approach to understanding quantum gravity and the emergence of space-time.', 'Explanation of the main contenders in quantum mechanics, including many worlds, hidden variable theories, and spontaneous collapse theories, with the latter having the potential to bring about a debate resembling a democratic debate with front runners. The main contenders in quantum mechanics are explained, encompassing many worlds, hidden variable theories, and spontaneous collapse theories, with the latter potentially leading to a debate resembling a democratic debate with front runners.', 'The distinction between the ontic and epistemic interpretations of the wave function, where the ontic interpretation considers the wave function as real, while the epistemic interpretation views it as a prediction mechanism, leading to the desire for a debate between the two interpretations. The distinction between the ontic and epistemic interpretations of the wave function is highlighted, leading to the desire for a debate between the two interpretations.']}], 'duration': 579.516, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/kxvQ3Wyw2M4/pics/kxvQ3Wyw2M4525670.jpg', 'highlights': ['The conservation of energy in the many-worlds interpretation is definitively affirmed, with zero doubt about its violation, providing clarity on this aspect (100% certainty).', 'The simplicity and compatibility of the many worlds interpretation with modern physics, as it is the most bare bones, austere, pure version of quantum mechanics, and provides a plug and play approach to understanding quantum gravity and the emergence of space-time.', 'Explanation of the main contenders in quantum mechanics, including many worlds, hidden variable theories, and spontaneous collapse theories, with the latter having the potential to bring about a debate resembling a democratic debate with front runners.']}], 'highlights': ['The many worlds interpretation proposes that observers become entangled, creating separate worlds based on the Schrodinger equation and wave function.', 'The Schrodinger equation suggests that observers become entangled with what they observe, and the different versions of the observer no longer interact, leading to the creation of separate worlds, as per the many worlds interpretation.', 'The textbook definition of quantum mechanics separates what is observed and what is real, prompting philosophical debates about the role of observation and its impact on the nature of reality.', 'The dimensionality of the finite dimensional Hilbert space is 10 to the power of 10 to the power of 122, a significantly large number compared to the age of the universe and the number of particles in the universe.', 'The concept of the universe splitting in quantum mechanics is better understood as a pre-existing universe splitting into two skinnier universes, analogous to the conservation of arrow-ness when a vector is expressed as the sum of two vectors pointing along x and y axes.', 'The accelerating universe implies a horizon around us, leading to a finite number of possibilities within that horizon, potentially limiting the branching of the wave function of the universe and resulting in a phase of empty space.', 'The question of whether the Hilbert space is finite or infinite dimensional is connected to gravity and cosmology, with the discovery of the accelerating universe in 1998 indicating a potential link to the dimensionality of Hilbert space.', 'The conservation of energy in the many-worlds interpretation is definitively affirmed, with zero doubt about its violation, providing clarity on this aspect (100% certainty).', 'The simplicity and compatibility of the many worlds interpretation with modern physics, as it is the most bare bones, austere, pure version of quantum mechanics, and provides a plug and play approach to understanding quantum gravity and the emergence of space-time.', 'Explanation of the main contenders in quantum mechanics, including many worlds, hidden variable theories, and spontaneous collapse theories, with the latter having the potential to bring about a debate resembling a democratic debate with front runners.']}