title

Data Structures Interview Questions | Data Structures And Algorithms | Java Training | Edureka

description

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This Edureka video on "Data Structure Interview Questions and Answers” will introduce you to all the essential and commonly asked interview questions based on various data structures and algorithms. The following topics are covered in the Data Structures Interview Questions video:
00:00:00 Introduction
00:01:37 Why Do We need Data Structures?
00:03:52 Data Structures Interview Questions & Answers
00:17:00 - Questions on Array
00:20:45 - Questions on Linked List
00:26:58 - Questions on Stack
00:34:15 - Questions on Queue
00:38:23 - Questions on Tree
00:45:44 - Questions on Graph
00:47:36 - Questions on Algorithms
00:59:33 - Math puzzle using Data Structures
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detail

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and queue data structures, tree data structures, search algorithms, node and tree degrees, as well as search and sorting algorithms overview.', 'chapters': [{'end': 198.114, 'segs': [{'end': 37.553, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 7.421, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 12.243, 'text': 'Data structure questions are an important part of any programming job interview.', 'start': 7.421, 'duration': 4.822}, {'end': 17.746, 'text': 'Sound knowledge of data structures and algorithms will help you stand out from the crowd.', 'start': 12.764, 'duration': 4.982}, {'end': 22.629, 'text': 'Hence we bring you this session on data structure interview questions.', 'start': 18.567, 'duration': 4.062}, {'end': 26.969, 'text': "Let's quickly look at the agenda in this session.", 'start': 23.928, 'duration': 3.041}, {'end': 30.691, 'text': 'We shall understand the need to learn data structures.', 'start': 27.449, 'duration': 3.242}, {'end': 37.553, 'text': 'following that, we shall discuss data structure interview questions, which will include few generic questions,', 'start': 30.691, 'duration': 6.862}], 'summary': 'Data structures are crucial for programming interviews. this session covers their importance and interview questions.', 'duration': 30.132, 'max_score': 7.421, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY7421.jpg'}, {'end': 100.285, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 54.5, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 57.581, 'text': 'We shall understand the need to learn data structures.', 'start': 54.5, 'duration': 3.081}, {'end': 64.464, 'text': 'following that, we shall discuss data structure interview questions, which will include few generic questions,', 'start': 57.581, 'duration': 6.883}, {'end': 70.746, 'text': 'questions based on different data structures and also based on the algorithms in the end.', 'start': 64.464, 'duration': 6.282}, {'end': 76.948, 'text': 'We shall understand the most commonly asked math puzzle that makes use of data structure concepts.', 'start': 71.106, 'duration': 5.842}, {'end': 85.989, 'text': "Kindly take up this time to subscribe to us and don't forget to hit the bell icon to never miss an update from the Edureka YouTube channel.", 'start': 78.021, 'duration': 7.968}, {'end': 92.956, 'text': 'Also, if you are interested in getting an online training certification in any of the trending technologies,', 'start': 86.41, 'duration': 6.546}, {'end': 95.499, 'text': 'check out the link given in the description box below.', 'start': 92.956, 'duration': 2.543}, {'end': 98.442, 'text': "So let's start with understanding.", 'start': 96.42, 'duration': 2.022}, {'end': 100.285, 'text': 'Why do we need data structures??', 'start': 98.543, 'duration': 1.742}], 'summary': 'Importance of learning data structures and related interview questions and puzzles discussed.', 'duration': 45.785, 'max_score': 54.5, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY54500.jpg'}, {'end': 148.669, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 122.946, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 127.889, 'text': 'So before we discuss the interview questions, we are going to look at a simple problem here.', 'start': 122.946, 'duration': 4.943}, {'end': 136.573, 'text': 'Suppose your exam results are out and the college provided the results in a PDF of 8,000 pages,', 'start': 128.969, 'duration': 7.604}, {'end': 139.895, 'text': 'with students results arranged as per their seat number.', 'start': 136.573, 'duration': 3.322}, {'end': 148.669, 'text': 'Now even if it is arranged imagine how long it will take for you to just randomly find your seat number from 8000 pages.', 'start': 140.845, 'duration': 7.824}], 'summary': 'Exam results in 8,000-page pdf, time-consuming to find seat number', 'duration': 25.723, 'max_score': 122.946, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY122946.jpg'}, {'end': 198.114, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 173.302, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 184.689, 'text': 'Still, if your seat number is not there but this time all the other seat numbers are lesser than yours you can again find the center and go to page number 3000..', 'start': 173.302, 'duration': 11.387}, {'end': 187.631, 'text': 'Continue the same process till you find your seat number.', 'start': 184.689, 'duration': 2.942}, {'end': 192.034, 'text': 'But guess what? You just have used the binary search algorithm.', 'start': 187.971, 'duration': 4.063}, {'end': 198.114, 'text': 'Now imagine a computer doing this for you in the same way in a matter of few seconds.', 'start': 192.904, 'duration': 5.21}], 'summary': 'Use binary search algorithm to find seat number in seconds.', 'duration': 24.812, 'max_score': 173.302, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY173302.jpg'}], 'start': 7.421, 'title': 'Data structures and binary search', 'summary': 'Covers the significance of data structures in programming interviews, including generic questions and those related to different data structures and algorithms. it also explains the inefficiency of linear search and the dramatic time reduction achieved using the binary search algorithm, from hours to seconds.', 'chapters': [{'end': 122.266, 'start': 7.421, 'title': 'Data structure interview questions', 'summary': 'Discusses the importance of data structures and algorithms in programming job interviews, with a focus on the need to learn data structures and various types of interview questions, including generic questions, questions based on different data structures and algorithms, and commonly asked math puzzles.', 'duration': 114.845, 'highlights': ['The chapter emphasizes the importance of data structures and algorithms in programming job interviews, highlighting that sound knowledge in these areas will help individuals stand out from the crowd.', 'It discusses the need to learn data structures and covers various data structure interview questions, including generic questions, questions based on different data structures and algorithms, and commonly asked math puzzles.', 'The session encourages subscription and online training certification in trending technologies, providing a link for interested individuals.']}, {'end': 198.114, 'start': 122.946, 'title': 'Binary search algorithm', 'summary': 'Discusses the inefficiency of searching through an 8000-page pdf for exam results and proposes the binary search algorithm as a more efficient strategy, highlighting the reduction in search time from potentially hours to a matter of seconds.', 'duration': 75.168, 'highlights': ['The binary search algorithm reduces the search time from potentially hours to a matter of seconds, making it a significantly more efficient strategy for finding specific entries in large datasets.', 'The proposed strategy involves starting the search from the center page of the 8000-page PDF, then iteratively narrowing down the search space by comparing seat numbers, demonstrating a practical application of the binary search algorithm.', 'The example of searching through a 8000-page PDF for exam results illustrates the inefficiency of linear search methods, highlighting the need for more efficient algorithms like binary search.']}], 'duration': 190.693, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY7421.jpg', 'highlights': ['Sound knowledge in data structures and algorithms is crucial for standing out in programming job interviews.', 'Learning data structures includes covering various interview questions and math puzzles.', 'Encourages subscription and online training certification in trending technologies.', 'Binary search reduces search time from hours to seconds, making it significantly more efficient.', 'Practical application of binary search involves iteratively narrowing down the search space.', 'Example of searching through an 8000-page PDF illustrates the inefficiency of linear search methods.']}, {'end': 596.058, 'segs': [{'end': 244.836, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 198.675, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 204.507, 'text': "Wouldn't that save your time and efforts? Now, this is just a very simple and small example.", 'start': 198.675, 'duration': 5.832}, {'end': 212.141, 'text': 'But big companies like Facebook, Google, Netflix or even startups like Airbnb,', 'start': 205.416, 'duration': 6.725}, {'end': 217.024, 'text': 'DoorDash and bloomscape make use of data structures in their day-to-day work.', 'start': 212.141, 'duration': 4.883}, {'end': 227.251, 'text': 'Hence if you want to bag a technical job like maybe a programmer in pretty much any company you need to have substantial knowledge of data structures.', 'start': 217.724, 'duration': 9.527}, {'end': 234.863, 'text': 'So stay tuned as we are now starting with the most commonly asked interview questions on data structures.', 'start': 228.45, 'duration': 6.413}, {'end': 244.836, 'text': 'The first question is what is data structure data structure is a way to specify how to organize and manipulate the data.', 'start': 235.97, 'duration': 8.866}], 'summary': 'Data structures are crucial for tech jobs at major companies like facebook, google, netflix, airbnb, doordash, and bloomscape.', 'duration': 46.161, 'max_score': 198.675, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY198675.jpg'}, {'end': 293.613, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 268.331, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 274.454, 'text': 'It is a set of algorithms that can be used in any programming language to structure the data in the memory.', 'start': 268.331, 'duration': 6.123}, {'end': 280.918, 'text': 'Some examples of data structures are array, linked list, stack and queue.', 'start': 275.295, 'duration': 5.623}, {'end': 285.801, 'text': 'The next question is explain the types of data structures.', 'start': 281.879, 'duration': 3.922}, {'end': 288.843, 'text': "Let's start with primitive data structures.", 'start': 286.701, 'duration': 2.142}, {'end': 293.613, 'text': 'These are the data structures which are supported at the machine level.', 'start': 289.946, 'duration': 3.667}], 'summary': 'Algorithms for structuring data, e.g. array, linked list, stack, and queue, are supported in any programming language.', 'duration': 25.282, 'max_score': 268.331, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY268331.jpg'}, {'end': 311.901, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 268.331, 'weight': 0.809, 'content': [{'end': 274.454, 'text': 'It is a set of algorithms that can be used in any programming language to structure the data in the memory.', 'start': 268.331, 'duration': 6.123}, {'end': 280.918, 'text': 'Some examples of data structures are array, linked list, stack and queue.', 'start': 275.295, 'duration': 5.623}, {'end': 285.801, 'text': 'The next question is explain the types of data structures.', 'start': 281.879, 'duration': 3.922}, {'end': 288.843, 'text': "Let's start with primitive data structures.", 'start': 286.701, 'duration': 2.142}, {'end': 293.613, 'text': 'These are the data structures which are supported at the machine level.', 'start': 289.946, 'duration': 3.667}, {'end': 296.96, 'text': 'They can be used to make non primitive data structures.', 'start': 293.974, 'duration': 2.986}, {'end': 300.539, 'text': 'These are integral and are pure in form.', 'start': 297.958, 'duration': 2.581}, {'end': 303.819, 'text': 'They have predefined behavior and specifications.', 'start': 300.919, 'duration': 2.9}, {'end': 308.2, 'text': 'For example integer, float, character and pointers.', 'start': 304.379, 'duration': 3.821}, {'end': 311.901, 'text': "The pointers however don't hold a data value.", 'start': 308.92, 'duration': 2.981}], 'summary': 'Algorithms organize data in memory, including primitive data structures like integers and pointers, integral and pure, with predefined behavior and specifications.', 'duration': 43.57, 'max_score': 268.331, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY268331.jpg'}, {'end': 397.992, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 339.366, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 345.128, 'text': 'The non-primitive data structures are further divided into linear and nonlinear data structures.', 'start': 339.366, 'duration': 5.762}, {'end': 351.59, 'text': 'A data structure is called linear if all of its elements are arranged in sequential order.', 'start': 346.028, 'duration': 5.562}, {'end': 360.832, 'text': 'In linear data structures, the elements are stored in a non-hierarchical way, where each item has successor and predecessor,', 'start': 352.15, 'duration': 8.682}, {'end': 362.973, 'text': 'except for the first and last element.', 'start': 360.832, 'duration': 2.141}, {'end': 366.694, 'text': 'For example array, linked list, stack and queue.', 'start': 363.453, 'duration': 3.241}, {'end': 372.284, 'text': 'The nonlinear data structure does not form a sequence, that is,', 'start': 367.822, 'duration': 4.462}, {'end': 378.646, 'text': 'each item or element is connected with two or more other items in a nonlinear arrangement.', 'start': 372.284, 'duration': 6.362}, {'end': 383.047, 'text': 'The data elements are not arranged in the sequential structure.', 'start': 379.406, 'duration': 3.641}, {'end': 385.448, 'text': 'For example graph and trees.', 'start': 383.347, 'duration': 2.101}, {'end': 397.992, 'text': 'Moving ahead to the next question, what are the advantages of data structure? The major advantages include efficiency, reusability and abstraction.', 'start': 386.741, 'duration': 11.251}], 'summary': 'Non-primitive data structures include linear and nonlinear types. examples: array, linked list, stack, queue, graph, and trees. advantages of data structures: efficiency, reusability, and abstraction.', 'duration': 58.626, 'max_score': 339.366, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY339366.jpg'}, {'end': 513.482, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 408.931, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 417.756, 'text': 'It makes the program very efficient in terms of time and space data structure helps in efficient storage of data in the storage device.', 'start': 408.931, 'duration': 8.825}, {'end': 424.639, 'text': 'Its usage provides convenience while retrieving the data from storage devices.', 'start': 418.616, 'duration': 6.023}, {'end': 431.023, 'text': 'data structure provides efficient and effective processing of small as well as large amount of data.', 'start': 424.639, 'duration': 6.384}, {'end': 437.898, 'text': 'The next advantage that we are going to talk about is reusability the data structures provide.', 'start': 432.034, 'duration': 5.864}, {'end': 444.142, 'text': 'reusability means that multiple client programs can use the data structure.', 'start': 437.898, 'duration': 6.244}, {'end': 453.448, 'text': 'significant performance improvements can be achieved by reusing the data structures and computing the same data values that are always the same,', 'start': 444.142, 'duration': 9.306}, {'end': 455.009, 'text': 'rather than reconstructing them.', 'start': 453.448, 'duration': 1.561}, {'end': 458.231, 'text': 'The third advantage is abstraction.', 'start': 456.029, 'duration': 2.202}, {'end': 465.618, 'text': 'Data structures specified by an abstract data type also provides the level of abstraction.', 'start': 459.076, 'duration': 6.542}, {'end': 469.14, 'text': 'the client cannot see the internal working of the data structure.', 'start': 465.618, 'duration': 3.522}, {'end': 472.441, 'text': "So you don't have to worry about the implementation part.", 'start': 469.56, 'duration': 2.881}, {'end': 475.202, 'text': 'The client can only see the interface.', 'start': 473.081, 'duration': 2.121}, {'end': 483.645, 'text': 'The reason we use abstract structures is because they effectively use memory based on the design of the data stored in them.', 'start': 476.042, 'duration': 7.603}, {'end': 493.253, 'text': 'With very large amount of data or very frequently changing data, the data structure can make a huge difference in efficiency of your computer program.', 'start': 484.528, 'duration': 8.725}, {'end': 499.456, 'text': 'The next question is list the operations you can perform on data structures.', 'start': 494.493, 'duration': 4.963}, {'end': 506.139, 'text': 'The operations include traversal, searching, insertion, deletion and sorting.', 'start': 500.256, 'duration': 5.883}, {'end': 513.482, 'text': 'Traversal is used to access each data item exactly once so that it can be processed.', 'start': 507.12, 'duration': 6.362}], 'summary': 'Data structures enhance efficiency, reusability, and abstraction. operations include traversal, searching, insertion, deletion, and sorting.', 'duration': 104.551, 'max_score': 408.931, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY408931.jpg'}], 'start': 198.675, 'title': 'Data structures in tech jobs and their advantages', 'summary': 'Emphasizes the significance of data structures in tech jobs, with key points on their use in major companies like facebook, google, netflix, airbnb, and doordash, the necessity of substantial knowledge for technical roles, and common interview questions. it also covers the definition and types of data structures, along with examples. moreover, it discusses the advantages of data structures, highlighting efficiency, reusability, and abstraction, which include improved program efficiency, reusability for multiple client programs, and providing a level of abstraction to the client, along with key operations.', 'chapters': [{'end': 385.448, 'start': 198.675, 'title': 'Importance of data structures in tech jobs', 'summary': 'Emphasizes the importance of data structures in tech jobs, with key points including their use in companies like facebook, google, netflix, airbnb, and doordash, the necessity of substantial knowledge for technical roles, and the common interview questions on data structures. it also covers the definition of data structures, types of data structures including primitive and non-primitive, and examples of linear and nonlinear data structures.', 'duration': 186.773, 'highlights': ['Big companies like Facebook, Google, Netflix or even startups like Airbnb, DoorDash and bloomscape make use of data structures in their day-to-day work Major companies such as Facebook, Google, Netflix, Airbnb, and DoorDash utilize data structures in their daily operations.', 'Substantial knowledge of data structures is necessary for technical job roles in any company Significant understanding of data structures is essential for technical positions across various companies.', 'The chapter emphasizes the importance of data structures in tech jobs The chapter highlights the significance of data structures in technical roles.', 'Types of data structures include primitive and non-primitive, with examples of linear and nonlinear data structures Data structures encompass primitive and non-primitive types, with instances of linear and nonlinear structures.', 'Linear data structures include array, linked list, stack, and queue Examples of linear data structures comprise array, linked list, stack, and queue.']}, {'end': 596.058, 'start': 386.741, 'title': 'Advantages of data structures', 'summary': 'Discusses the advantages of data structures, highlighting the efficiency, reusability, and abstraction, which include improved program efficiency, reusability for multiple client programs, and providing a level of abstraction to the client, along with the operations such as traversal, searching, insertion, deletion, and sorting.', 'duration': 209.317, 'highlights': ['Data structures provide efficiency in terms of time and space, allowing for efficient storage and retrieval of data. Proper choice of data structure leads to efficient program in terms of time and space. Data structure enables efficient storage and retrieval of data from storage devices.', 'Reusability of data structures allows for significant performance improvements and multiple client programs usage. Data structures can be reused by multiple client programs, leading to significant performance improvements and reusing data values rather than reconstructing them.', 'Abstraction in data structures provides a level of abstraction to the client, hiding the internal workings of the data structure. Data structures specified by abstract data types provide a level of abstraction to the client where they only interact with the interface, hiding the internal workings of the data structure.', 'The operations on data structures include traversal, searching, insertion, deletion, and sorting, each serving specific purposes. Operations on data structures include traversal, searching, insertion, deletion, and sorting, each serving specific purposes such as accessing each data item, finding elements, adding or removing elements, and organizing elements in a specific order.']}], 'duration': 397.383, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY198675.jpg', 'highlights': ['Major companies such as Facebook, Google, Netflix, Airbnb, and DoorDash utilize data structures in their daily operations.', 'Significant understanding of data structures is essential for technical positions across various companies.', 'The chapter highlights the significance of data structures in technical roles.', 'Data structures encompass primitive and non-primitive types, with instances of linear and nonlinear structures.', 'Examples of linear data structures comprise array, linked list, stack, and queue.', 'Proper choice of data structure leads to efficient program in terms of time and space. Data structure enables efficient storage and retrieval of data from storage devices.', 'Data structures can be reused by multiple client programs, leading to significant performance improvements and reusing data values rather than reconstructing them.', 'Data structures specified by abstract data types provide a level of abstraction to the client where they only interact with the interface, hiding the internal workings of the data structure.', 'Operations on data structures include traversal, searching, insertion, deletion, and sorting, each serving specific purposes such as accessing each data item, finding elements, adding or removing elements, and organizing elements in a specific order.']}, {'end': 955.976, 'segs': [{'end': 687.406, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 611.224, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 618.127, 'text': 'in ascending or descending order in case of numeric data and in dictionary order in case of alphanumeric data.', 'start': 611.224, 'duration': 6.903}, {'end': 623.615, 'text': 'The next question is differentiate between null and void.', 'start': 619.511, 'duration': 4.104}, {'end': 628.579, 'text': 'Null is a value whereas void is a data type identifier.', 'start': 624.536, 'duration': 4.043}, {'end': 636.827, 'text': 'Null indicates an empty value for a variable whereas void indicates pointers that have no initial size.', 'start': 629.38, 'duration': 7.447}, {'end': 644.194, 'text': 'Null means it never existed while void means it existed but is not in effect.', 'start': 637.868, 'duration': 6.326}, {'end': 651.092, 'text': 'Moving ahead to the next question how does signed and unsigned numbers affect memory?', 'start': 645.327, 'duration': 5.765}, {'end': 661.421, 'text': 'In case of signed numbers, the first bit is used to indicate whether the number is positive or negative, which leaves you one bit short.', 'start': 651.953, 'duration': 9.468}, {'end': 666.826, 'text': 'It takes up one bit of memory that could otherwise be used to represent a value.', 'start': 662.061, 'duration': 4.765}, {'end': 671.591, 'text': 'With unsigned numbers, you have all the bits available for that number.', 'start': 667.506, 'duration': 4.085}, {'end': 674.874, 'text': 'The effect is best seen in the number range.', 'start': 672.331, 'duration': 2.543}, {'end': 687.406, 'text': 'An unsigned 8-bit number has a range of 0 to 255, while 8-bit signed number has a range of minus 128 to plus 127.', 'start': 675.515, 'duration': 11.891}], 'summary': 'Differentiate null from void; signed vs. unsigned numbers affect memory.', 'duration': 76.182, 'max_score': 611.224, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY611224.jpg'}, {'end': 774.986, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 687.406, 'weight': 0.742, 'content': [{'end': 692.607, 'text': 'The next question is differentiate between static and dynamic memory allocation.', 'start': 687.406, 'duration': 5.201}, {'end': 701.33, 'text': "Let's first understand static memory allocation static memory is allocated for declared variables by the compiler.", 'start': 693.308, 'duration': 8.022}, {'end': 707.051, 'text': 'The address can be found using address of operator and can be assigned to a pointer.', 'start': 701.93, 'duration': 5.121}, {'end': 710.372, 'text': 'The memory is allocated during compile time.', 'start': 707.711, 'duration': 2.661}, {'end': 717.095, 'text': 'while dynamic memory allocation is done at the time of execution that is at runtime.', 'start': 711.269, 'duration': 5.826}, {'end': 720.338, 'text': 'Hence, it is known as dynamic memory allocation.', 'start': 717.675, 'duration': 2.663}, {'end': 725.442, 'text': 'Functions like Kellogg and malloc support allocating dynamic memory.', 'start': 721.038, 'duration': 4.404}, {'end': 728.325, 'text': 'In dynamic memory allocation,', 'start': 726.243, 'duration': 2.082}, {'end': 736.253, 'text': 'memory space is allocated by using these functions when the value is returned by functions and assigned to the pointer variables.', 'start': 728.325, 'duration': 7.928}, {'end': 746.7, 'text': 'The next question we have here is explain the role of malloc, kelloc, realloc and free function in dynamic memory allocation.', 'start': 737.591, 'duration': 9.109}, {'end': 751.721, 'text': 'So malloc is one of the functions used for dynamic memory allocation.', 'start': 747.58, 'duration': 4.141}, {'end': 757.322, 'text': 'It takes up single arguments which denotes the number of bytes to be allocated.', 'start': 752.201, 'duration': 5.121}, {'end': 760.043, 'text': 'malloc is faster than calloc.', 'start': 758.062, 'duration': 1.981}, {'end': 765.204, 'text': 'Calloc is one of the functions used for contagious dynamic memory allocation.', 'start': 760.823, 'duration': 4.381}, {'end': 774.986, 'text': 'It takes up two arguments in which first argument denotes the number of bytes to be allocated and second argument denotes the size of each block.', 'start': 765.684, 'duration': 9.302}], 'summary': 'Static memory allocated at compile time, dynamic memory at runtime. functions like malloc and calloc support dynamic memory allocation.', 'duration': 87.58, 'max_score': 687.406, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY687406.jpg'}, {'end': 736.253, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 707.711, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 710.372, 'text': 'The memory is allocated during compile time.', 'start': 707.711, 'duration': 2.661}, {'end': 717.095, 'text': 'while dynamic memory allocation is done at the time of execution that is at runtime.', 'start': 711.269, 'duration': 5.826}, {'end': 720.338, 'text': 'Hence, it is known as dynamic memory allocation.', 'start': 717.675, 'duration': 2.663}, {'end': 725.442, 'text': 'Functions like Kellogg and malloc support allocating dynamic memory.', 'start': 721.038, 'duration': 4.404}, {'end': 728.325, 'text': 'In dynamic memory allocation,', 'start': 726.243, 'duration': 2.082}, {'end': 736.253, 'text': 'memory space is allocated by using these functions when the value is returned by functions and assigned to the pointer variables.', 'start': 728.325, 'duration': 7.928}], 'summary': 'Dynamic memory allocation is done at runtime using functions like kellogg and malloc.', 'duration': 28.542, 'max_score': 707.711, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY707711.jpg'}, {'end': 955.976, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 927.458, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 931.04, 'text': 'while iteration explicitly uses repeated structure.', 'start': 927.458, 'duration': 3.582}, {'end': 938.565, 'text': 'Recursion terminates when waste case is recognized while iteration terminates when loop condition fails.', 'start': 931.581, 'duration': 6.984}, {'end': 945.309, 'text': 'Recursion returns a value to the calling function while iteration does not return any value.', 'start': 939.465, 'duration': 5.844}, {'end': 952.053, 'text': 'Moreover, recursion makes a code smaller while iteration makes a code much larger.', 'start': 945.969, 'duration': 6.084}, {'end': 955.976, 'text': 'Hence, recursion is a slower process than iteration.', 'start': 952.734, 'duration': 3.242}], 'summary': 'Recursion returns value, makes code smaller; iteration makes code larger, faster.', 'duration': 28.518, 'max_score': 927.458, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY927458.jpg'}], 'start': 596.638, 'title': 'Data structure and memory management', 'summary': 'Covers fundamental concepts of data structure and memory management, including stack, queue, sorting, signed and unsigned numbers, static and dynamic memory allocation, malloc, calloc, realloc, free functions, storage and file structure, recursion, and iteration, highlighting key differences and implications on memory and performance.', 'chapters': [{'end': 955.976, 'start': 596.638, 'title': 'Data structure and memory management', 'summary': 'Covers fundamental concepts of data structure and memory management, including stack, queue, sorting, signed and unsigned numbers, static and dynamic memory allocation, malloc, calloc, realloc, free functions, storage and file structure, recursion, and iteration, highlighting key differences and implications on memory and performance.', 'duration': 359.338, 'highlights': ['Signed numbers use one bit for sign, reducing available bits for value representation, affecting the number range, while unsigned numbers utilize all bits, resulting in a larger range. Signed numbers use one bit for sign, reducing available bits for value representation, affecting the number range, while unsigned numbers utilize all bits, resulting in a larger range.', 'Dynamic memory allocation is done at runtime, unlike static memory allocation, and functions like malloc, calloc, realloc support allocating dynamic memory. Dynamic memory allocation is done at runtime, unlike static memory allocation, and functions like malloc, calloc, realloc support allocating dynamic memory.', 'Recursion allows a function to call itself, requiring a base case, work towards the base case, and recursive call, while iteration explicitly uses repeated structure and terminates when loop condition fails. Recursion allows a function to call itself, requiring a base case, work towards the base case, and recursive call, while iteration explicitly uses repeated structure and terminates when loop condition fails.']}], 'duration': 359.338, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY596638.jpg', 'highlights': ['Dynamic memory allocation is done at runtime, unlike static memory allocation, and functions like malloc, calloc, realloc support allocating dynamic memory.', 'Recursion allows a function to call itself, requiring a base case, work towards the base case, and recursive call, while iteration explicitly uses repeated structure and terminates when loop condition fails.', 'Signed numbers use one bit for sign, reducing available bits for value representation, affecting the number range, while unsigned numbers utilize all bits, resulting in a larger range.']}, {'end': 1617.708, 'segs': [{'end': 1014.193, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 983.22, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 990.124, 'text': 'So the last question in the generic section is what are infix, prefix and postfix notation.', 'start': 983.22, 'duration': 6.904}, {'end': 995.527, 'text': 'In infix notation the operators are written between the operands.', 'start': 991.324, 'duration': 4.203}, {'end': 998.949, 'text': 'This is the standard way of writing expressions.', 'start': 996.047, 'duration': 2.902}, {'end': 1001.91, 'text': 'Next is prefix notation.', 'start': 1000.069, 'duration': 1.841}, {'end': 1004.852, 'text': 'It is also called as polish notation.', 'start': 1002.23, 'duration': 2.622}, {'end': 1008.274, 'text': 'Here operators are written before the operands.', 'start': 1005.372, 'duration': 2.902}, {'end': 1011.407, 'text': 'The last one is postfix notation.', 'start': 1009.062, 'duration': 2.345}, {'end': 1014.193, 'text': 'It is also known as reverse polish.', 'start': 1011.988, 'duration': 2.205}], 'summary': 'Infix, prefix, and postfix notations explained. infix: operators between operands. prefix: operators before operands. postfix: also known as reverse polish.', 'duration': 30.973, 'max_score': 983.22, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY983220.jpg'}, {'end': 1272.776, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 1195.747, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 1199.629, 'text': 'The simplest multi-dimensional array is the 2D or 3D array.', 'start': 1195.747, 'duration': 3.882}, {'end': 1204.371, 'text': 'Multi-dimensional arrays make use of multiple indexes to store data.', 'start': 1200.149, 'duration': 4.222}, {'end': 1211.936, 'text': 'It is useful when we want to store a data that cannot be represented using single-dimensional indexing,', 'start': 1205.171, 'duration': 6.765}, {'end': 1218.52, 'text': 'such as data representation in a board game or tables with data stored in more than one column.', 'start': 1211.936, 'duration': 6.584}, {'end': 1221.462, 'text': 'Moving on to the next question.', 'start': 1219.861, 'duration': 1.601}, {'end': 1232.415, 'text': 'What do you understand by hashing? The technique of converting a range of key values into a range of indexes of an array is known as hashing.', 'start': 1222.303, 'duration': 10.112}, {'end': 1243.2, 'text': 'It is possible to create associative data storage using hash tables where data indices can be found by providing the corresponding key values.', 'start': 1232.935, 'duration': 10.265}, {'end': 1247.562, 'text': "Now let's look at the questions based on linked list.", 'start': 1244.441, 'duration': 3.121}, {'end': 1250.484, 'text': 'So what is a linked list?', 'start': 1248.803, 'duration': 1.681}, {'end': 1258.786, 'text': 'A linked list is a linear data structure like arrays, where each element is a separate object.', 'start': 1251.44, 'duration': 7.346}, {'end': 1267.292, 'text': 'each element, that is the node of a list, is composed of two items the data and the reference to the next node.', 'start': 1258.786, 'duration': 8.506}, {'end': 1272.776, 'text': 'a linked list is a sequence of data structures which are connected together via links.', 'start': 1267.292, 'duration': 5.484}], 'summary': 'Multi-dimensional arrays store complex data, hashing maps key values to array indexes, linked lists connect data structures.', 'duration': 54.737, 'max_score': 1195.747, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY1195747.jpg'}, {'end': 1306.693, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1277.139, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 1279.521, 'text': 'each link contains connection to the next link.', 'start': 1277.139, 'duration': 2.382}, {'end': 1284.233, 'text': 'Link list is the second most used data structure after array.', 'start': 1280.31, 'duration': 3.923}, {'end': 1288.857, 'text': 'So the next question is explain the types of link list.', 'start': 1284.914, 'duration': 3.943}, {'end': 1292.601, 'text': 'So first we have singly link list.', 'start': 1289.798, 'duration': 2.803}, {'end': 1299.847, 'text': 'in this type of link list, each node stores the address or reference of the next node in the list,', 'start': 1292.601, 'duration': 7.246}, {'end': 1304.07, 'text': 'and the last node has the next address or reference as null.', 'start': 1299.847, 'duration': 4.223}, {'end': 1306.693, 'text': 'Next we have doubly linked list.', 'start': 1304.851, 'duration': 1.842}], 'summary': 'Link list is a popular data structure, with singly and doubly linked list types.', 'duration': 29.554, 'max_score': 1277.139, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY1277139.jpg'}, {'end': 1446.701, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1418.002, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 1425.847, 'text': 'So doubly linked list is used by browsers to implement backward and forward navigation of visiting web pages.', 'start': 1418.002, 'duration': 7.845}, {'end': 1428.149, 'text': 'that is the back and forward button.', 'start': 1425.847, 'duration': 2.302}, {'end': 1438.815, 'text': 'The next application is an image viewer where previous and next images are linked and hence can be accessed by next and previous button.', 'start': 1429.167, 'duration': 9.648}, {'end': 1446.701, 'text': 'After that we have its application in music player songs in music player are linked to previous and next song.', 'start': 1439.776, 'duration': 6.925}], 'summary': 'Doubly linked list used for browser navigation and image/music viewers.', 'duration': 28.699, 'max_score': 1418.002, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY1418002.jpg'}], 'start': 956.912, 'title': 'Array declaration, notations, hashing, and linked lists', 'summary': 'Covers array declaration, infix, prefix, and postfix notations, and multidimensional arrays, along with insights into fixed memory reservation. additionally, it explains hashing, linked lists, their types, applications, differences from arrays, and search methods.', 'chapters': [{'end': 1221.462, 'start': 956.912, 'title': 'Array declaration and notations', 'summary': 'Covers array declaration, infix, prefix and postfix notations, and multidimensional arrays. it explains that all declaration statements result in fixed memory reservation except for pointers, and provides insights into the different notations and the creation and manipulation of arrays.', 'duration': 264.55, 'highlights': ['All declaration statements result in fixed memory reservation except for pointers When declaring variables, all statements except for pointers result in fixed memory reservation, while a pointer declaration allocates memory for storing the address of the pointer variables.', 'Explanation of infix, prefix, and postfix notations Infix notation places operators between operands, prefix notation (polish notation) has operators before operands, and postfix notation (reverse polish) has operators after operands.', 'Explanation of creating and manipulating arrays Describes arrays as a data structure containing elements of the same data type, with fixed length upon creation, and explains the process of declaring, initializing, and accessing array elements.', 'Inability to change array size at runtime The transcript clarifies that the size of an array cannot be changed at runtime, suggesting the creation of a new, larger array and the transfer of elements as an alternative.', 'Definition and use of multi-dimensional arrays Defines multi-dimensional arrays as arrays with more than one dimension, useful for data representation in scenarios such as board games or tables with data stored in multiple columns.']}, {'end': 1617.708, 'start': 1222.303, 'title': 'Understanding hashing and linked lists', 'summary': 'Explains hashing as a technique to convert key values into indexes of an array, and covers the concepts of linked lists, including types, applications, differences from arrays, and search methods.', 'duration': 395.405, 'highlights': ['The chapter explains hashing as a technique to convert key values into indexes of an array, and covers the concepts of linked lists, including types, applications, differences from arrays, and search methods.', 'Linked list is a sequence of data structures connected via links, and it is the second most used data structure after arrays.', 'Detailed explanation of types of linked lists, including singly linked list, doubly linked list, and circular linked list, with specific characteristics and applications provided.', 'Differences between arrays and linked lists, highlighting fixed size of arrays, dynamic size of linked lists, expense of inserting and deleting in arrays, and absence of random access in linked lists.', 'Applications of doubly linked list in browsers for backward and forward navigation, image viewers, music players, and deck of cards games, with specific functionalities described.', 'Techniques for searching target keys in a linked list, involving sequential search by traversing nodes and comparing with the target key, with a detailed iterative Java program provided for better understanding.']}], 'duration': 660.796, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY956912.jpg', 'highlights': ['Explanation of infix, prefix, and postfix notations Infix notation places operators between operands, prefix notation (polish notation) has operators before operands, and postfix notation (reverse polish) has operators after operands.', 'Definition and use of multi-dimensional arrays Defines multi-dimensional arrays as arrays with more than one dimension, useful for data representation in scenarios such as board games or tables with data stored in multiple columns.', 'The chapter explains hashing as a technique to convert key values into indexes of an array, and covers the concepts of linked lists, including types, applications, differences from arrays, and search methods.', 'Detailed explanation of types of linked lists, including singly linked list, doubly linked list, and circular linked list, with specific characteristics and applications provided.', 'Applications of doubly linked list in browsers for backward and forward navigation, image viewers, music players, and deck of cards games, with specific functionalities described.']}, {'end': 2299.955, 'segs': [{'end': 1649.951, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1617.728, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 1622.322, 'text': 'No Now moving ahead to the questions based on stack.', 'start': 1617.728, 'duration': 4.594}, {'end': 1627.563, 'text': 'So the first question we have here is what is a stack stack?', 'start': 1623.042, 'duration': 4.521}, {'end': 1631.544, 'text': 'is a data structure used to store a collection of objects.', 'start': 1627.563, 'duration': 3.981}, {'end': 1637.505, 'text': 'individual items can be added and stored in a stack using a push operation.', 'start': 1631.544, 'duration': 5.961}, {'end': 1643.046, 'text': 'objects can be retrieved using a pop operation which removes an item from the stack.', 'start': 1637.505, 'duration': 5.541}, {'end': 1649.951, 'text': 'When an object is added to a stack it is placed on the top of all previously entered elements.', 'start': 1643.906, 'duration': 6.045}], 'summary': 'A stack is a data structure used to store objects, adding items with push and retrieving with pop.', 'duration': 32.223, 'max_score': 1617.728, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY1617728.jpg'}, {'end': 1705.177, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1673.103, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 1677.324, 'text': 'So the first application is expression handling.', 'start': 1673.103, 'duration': 4.221}, {'end': 1682.866, 'text': 'it is used in infix to postfix or infix to prefix conversion.', 'start': 1677.324, 'duration': 5.542}, {'end': 1690.429, 'text': 'the stack can be used to convert some infix expression into its postfix equivalent or prefix equivalent.', 'start': 1682.866, 'duration': 7.563}, {'end': 1697.354, 'text': 'These postfix or prefix notations are used in computers to express some expressions.', 'start': 1691.172, 'duration': 6.182}, {'end': 1705.177, 'text': 'These expressions are not so much familiar to infix expression, but they have some great advantages also.', 'start': 1698.114, 'duration': 7.063}], 'summary': 'Stack used for infix to postfix/prefix conversion in expression handling.', 'duration': 32.074, 'max_score': 1673.103, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY1673103.jpg'}, {'end': 1774.528, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1750.047, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 1755.695, 'text': 'If that way is not efficient, we come back to the previous state and go into some other path.', 'start': 1750.047, 'duration': 5.648}, {'end': 1760.165, 'text': 'To get back to the current state, we need to store the previous state.', 'start': 1756.584, 'duration': 3.581}, {'end': 1763.025, 'text': 'For that purpose, we need a stack.', 'start': 1760.645, 'duration': 2.38}, {'end': 1769.106, 'text': 'One of the example of backtracking is finding the solution for nqueen problem.', 'start': 1763.865, 'duration': 5.241}, {'end': 1774.528, 'text': 'Another great use of stack is during the function call and return process.', 'start': 1769.987, 'duration': 4.541}], 'summary': 'Backtracking and stack usage for efficient problem solving.', 'duration': 24.481, 'max_score': 1750.047, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY1750047.jpg'}, {'end': 2049.429, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2023.025, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 2030.807, 'text': 'However, the time complexity in both the scenarios is the same for all the operations like push pop and peak.', 'start': 2023.025, 'duration': 7.782}, {'end': 2041.788, 'text': 'The main advantage of using linked list over arrays is that it is possible to implement a stack that can shrink or grow as much as needed.', 'start': 2031.624, 'duration': 10.164}, {'end': 2049.429, 'text': 'using an array will put you a restriction to the maximum capacity of the array, which can lead to stack overflow.', 'start': 2041.788, 'duration': 7.641}], 'summary': 'Linked lists allow dynamic size for stacks, avoiding stack overflow with no change in time complexity for operations.', 'duration': 26.404, 'max_score': 2023.025, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY2023025.jpg'}, {'end': 2159.718, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 2105.485, 'weight': 0.73, 'content': [{'end': 2117.448, 'text': 'Moving ahead with the next question which operations can be performed on queue?. So the operations include enqueue, dequeue, pick isEmpty and isFull.', 'start': 2105.485, 'duration': 11.963}, {'end': 2121.836, 'text': 'So NQ is used to add an element to the queue.', 'start': 2118.533, 'duration': 3.303}, {'end': 2126.219, 'text': 'DQ is used to remove the item from the front of the queue.', 'start': 2122.396, 'duration': 3.823}, {'end': 2128.04, 'text': 'Then we have peak.', 'start': 2126.999, 'duration': 1.041}, {'end': 2132.604, 'text': 'It gives the value of the front item without removing it.', 'start': 2128.781, 'duration': 3.823}, {'end': 2135.726, 'text': 'After that we have isEmpty function.', 'start': 2133.424, 'duration': 2.302}, {'end': 2142.331, 'text': 'It checks if the stack is empty and then isFull function checks if the stack is full.', 'start': 2136.326, 'duration': 6.005}, {'end': 2148.913, 'text': 'So the next question is list some applications of queue data structure.', 'start': 2143.951, 'duration': 4.962}, {'end': 2159.718, 'text': 'So the first one is that queues are widely used as waiting list for a single shared resource, like printer, disk or CPU.', 'start': 2149.594, 'duration': 10.124}], 'summary': 'Queue operations: enqueue, dequeue, peak, isempty, isfull. queue used as waiting list for shared resources.', 'duration': 54.233, 'max_score': 2105.485, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY2105485.jpg'}, {'end': 2270.319, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 2227, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 2232.585, 'text': 'and the next condition is when front is exactly equal to rear plus 1.', 'start': 2227, 'duration': 5.585}, {'end': 2237.409, 'text': 'Now moving on to the next question, explain the concept of priority queue.', 'start': 2232.585, 'duration': 4.824}, {'end': 2246.416, 'text': 'Priority queue is the collection of elements such that each element has been assigned a priority, that is,', 'start': 2238.129, 'duration': 8.287}, {'end': 2249.599, 'text': 'order in which elements are deleted or processed.', 'start': 2246.416, 'duration': 3.183}, {'end': 2255.844, 'text': 'An element of high priority is processed before any element of lower priority.', 'start': 2250.58, 'duration': 5.264}, {'end': 2268.237, 'text': 'The next question is which data structure is used for implementing LRU cache? So we have two data structures to implement LRU cache.', 'start': 2257.455, 'duration': 10.782}, {'end': 2270.319, 'text': 'First one is queue.', 'start': 2269.098, 'duration': 1.221}], 'summary': 'Explains conditions for front and rear, priority queue, and data structures for lru cache.', 'duration': 32.19, 'max_score': 2227, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY2227000.jpg'}], 'start': 1617.728, 'title': 'Stack and queue data structures', 'summary': 'Covers the stack data structure with applications in expression handling and conversion, as well as the use of stack and queue in backtracking, recursion, and implementation details including arrays and linked lists.', 'chapters': [{'end': 1724.702, 'start': 1617.728, 'title': 'Stack data structure', 'summary': 'Discusses the stack data structure, which is used to store objects with a last in, first out approach, and its applications in expression handling, infix to postfix or prefix conversion, and evaluation.', 'duration': 106.974, 'highlights': ['Stack is a data structure used to store a collection of objects with last in, first out approach, and individual items can be added and retrieved using push and pop operations respectively.', 'One application of stack is in expression handling, where it is used for infix to postfix or prefix conversion, enabling advantages such as not needing to maintain operator ordering or parenthesis.', 'Another application of stack is in postfix or prefix evaluation, after converting the expressions, the stack is used to evaluate the expression to get the result.']}, {'end': 2299.955, 'start': 1725.063, 'title': 'Stack, queue & backtracking', 'summary': 'Discusses the use of stack in backtracking, function call and return process, recursion, stack overflow and underflow, implementation of stack using arrays and linked lists, the concept of queue, its operations, applications, circular queue, priority queue, and implementation of lru cache.', 'duration': 574.892, 'highlights': ['Stack is used in backtracking, function call and return process, recursion, and to handle stack overflow and underflow. The usage of stack in backtracking, function call and return process, recursion, and handling stack overflow and underflow is explained.', 'Explanation of the implementation of stack using arrays and linked lists. The implementation of stack using arrays and linked lists is detailed, including the advantages of using linked lists over arrays.', 'Overview of the concept of queue, its operations, applications, circular queue, priority queue, and implementation of LRU cache. The concept of queue, its operations, applications, circular queue, priority queue, and implementation of LRU cache is discussed.']}], 'duration': 682.227, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY1617728.jpg', 'highlights': ['Stack is used in backtracking, function call and return process, recursion, and to handle stack overflow and underflow.', 'One application of stack is in expression handling, where it is used for infix to postfix or prefix conversion, enabling advantages such as not needing to maintain operator ordering or parenthesis.', 'Explanation of the implementation of stack using arrays and linked lists. The implementation of stack using arrays and linked lists is detailed, including the advantages of using linked lists over arrays.', 'Overview of the concept of queue, its operations, applications, circular queue, priority queue, and implementation of LRU cache.', 'Another application of stack is in postfix or prefix evaluation, after converting the expressions, the stack is used to evaluate the expression to get the result.', 'Stack is a data structure used to store a collection of objects with last in, first out approach, and individual items can be added and retrieved using push and pop operations respectively.']}, {'end': 2622.894, 'segs': [{'end': 2371.363, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2346.724, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 2354.476, 'text': 'The nodes other than the root nodes are partitioned into non-empty sets where each one of them is called to be a subtree.', 'start': 2346.724, 'duration': 7.752}, {'end': 2357.641, 'text': 'Now moving ahead to the next question.', 'start': 2355.838, 'duration': 1.803}, {'end': 2367.3, 'text': 'What is a binary tree? A binary tree is a special type of generic tree in which each node can have at most two children.', 'start': 2358.182, 'duration': 9.118}, {'end': 2371.363, 'text': 'A binary tree is generally partitioned into three subsets.', 'start': 2367.98, 'duration': 3.383}], 'summary': 'A binary tree is a special type of generic tree with at most two children.', 'duration': 24.639, 'max_score': 2346.724, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY2346724.jpg'}, {'end': 2466.26, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 2381.471, 'weight': 0.935, 'content': [{'end': 2388.077, 'text': 'First is data, then pointer to the left child and pointer to the right child.', 'start': 2381.471, 'duration': 6.606}, {'end': 2395.197, 'text': 'Now the next question we are going to discuss is explain the different types of binary tree.', 'start': 2389.574, 'duration': 5.623}, {'end': 2406.102, 'text': 'So the types include full binary tree complete binary tree skewed tree under which we have left skewed tree and right skewed tree.', 'start': 2396.497, 'duration': 9.605}, {'end': 2411.545, 'text': 'So in full binary tree every node has zero or two children.', 'start': 2407.223, 'duration': 4.322}, {'end': 2416.933, 'text': 'While in complete binary tree all internal nodes have two children.', 'start': 2412.392, 'duration': 4.541}, {'end': 2422.014, 'text': 'A skewed tree is a type of tree that goes in a single direction.', 'start': 2417.713, 'duration': 4.301}, {'end': 2425.235, 'text': 'It can be either left skewed or right skewed.', 'start': 2422.835, 'duration': 2.4}, {'end': 2430.777, 'text': 'In left skewed tree node have only left child and no right child.', 'start': 2426.115, 'duration': 4.662}, {'end': 2435.838, 'text': 'While in right skewed tree nodes have only right child and no left child.', 'start': 2431.277, 'duration': 4.561}, {'end': 2442.787, 'text': 'Moving ahead to the next question give a basic algorithm for searching a binary search tree.', 'start': 2436.96, 'duration': 5.827}, {'end': 2450.876, 'text': 'So here we first check if the tree is empty if the tree is not empty then the target is in the tree.', 'start': 2443.528, 'duration': 7.348}, {'end': 2454.951, 'text': 'Then we check if the target is in the root item.', 'start': 2451.789, 'duration': 3.162}, {'end': 2461.336, 'text': "If the target is not the root item, then we check if the target is smaller than the root's value.", 'start': 2455.612, 'duration': 5.724}, {'end': 2466.26, 'text': "If the target is smaller than the root's value, then we search the left subtree.", 'start': 2461.977, 'duration': 4.283}], 'summary': 'Types of binary trees: full, complete, skewed. basic search algorithm for binary search tree.', 'duration': 84.789, 'max_score': 2381.471, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY2381471.jpg'}, {'end': 2454.951, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2396.497, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 2406.102, 'text': 'So the types include full binary tree complete binary tree skewed tree under which we have left skewed tree and right skewed tree.', 'start': 2396.497, 'duration': 9.605}, {'end': 2411.545, 'text': 'So in full binary tree every node has zero or two children.', 'start': 2407.223, 'duration': 4.322}, {'end': 2416.933, 'text': 'While in complete binary tree all internal nodes have two children.', 'start': 2412.392, 'duration': 4.541}, {'end': 2422.014, 'text': 'A skewed tree is a type of tree that goes in a single direction.', 'start': 2417.713, 'duration': 4.301}, {'end': 2425.235, 'text': 'It can be either left skewed or right skewed.', 'start': 2422.835, 'duration': 2.4}, {'end': 2430.777, 'text': 'In left skewed tree node have only left child and no right child.', 'start': 2426.115, 'duration': 4.662}, {'end': 2435.838, 'text': 'While in right skewed tree nodes have only right child and no left child.', 'start': 2431.277, 'duration': 4.561}, {'end': 2442.787, 'text': 'Moving ahead to the next question give a basic algorithm for searching a binary search tree.', 'start': 2436.96, 'duration': 5.827}, {'end': 2450.876, 'text': 'So here we first check if the tree is empty if the tree is not empty then the target is in the tree.', 'start': 2443.528, 'duration': 7.348}, {'end': 2454.951, 'text': 'Then we check if the target is in the root item.', 'start': 2451.789, 'duration': 3.162}], 'summary': 'Explanation of full, complete, and skewed binary trees with details on their node structures and characteristics, followed by a basic algorithm for searching a binary search tree.', 'duration': 58.454, 'max_score': 2396.497, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY2396497.jpg'}, {'end': 2594.041, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 2533.182, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 2539.584, 'text': 'While in B plus tree leaf nodes are linked together to make search operation more efficient.', 'start': 2533.182, 'duration': 6.402}, {'end': 2545.304, 'text': 'So the next question we have here is what is an AVL tree?', 'start': 2540.799, 'duration': 4.505}, {'end': 2551.531, 'text': 'An AVL tree is a height balancing binary search tree,', 'start': 2546.966, 'duration': 4.565}, {'end': 2559.744, 'text': 'in which differences of heights of the left and right sub trees of any node is less than or equal to 1..', 'start': 2551.531, 'duration': 8.213}, {'end': 2564.566, 'text': 'This controls the height of the binary search tree by not letting it get skewed.', 'start': 2559.744, 'duration': 4.822}, {'end': 2571.949, 'text': 'This is used when working with a large data set with continual pruning through insertion and deletion of data.', 'start': 2565.266, 'duration': 6.683}, {'end': 2578.991, 'text': 'So the next question we are going to discuss is what are the different operations applied on AVL tree?', 'start': 2572.829, 'duration': 6.162}, {'end': 2588.995, 'text': 'So the operations include left left rotation, left right rotation, right right rotation and right left rotation.', 'start': 2580.172, 'duration': 8.823}, {'end': 2594.041, 'text': "Let's consider P is the node with violating balance factor.", 'start': 2590.259, 'duration': 3.782}], 'summary': "Avl trees balance binary search trees, preventing skewing. they're used for large datasets with operations like left/right rotations.", 'duration': 87.95, 'max_score': 2533.182, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY2533182.jpg'}], 'start': 2301.417, 'title': 'Tree data structure and search algorithms', 'summary': 'Covers the definition of a tree data structure, types of binary trees, and a basic algorithm for searching a binary search tree. it also discusses tree search algorithms, comparing b-tree and b plus tree, and explains the concept of avl tree and its operations.', 'chapters': [{'end': 2454.951, 'start': 2301.417, 'title': 'Tree data structure and binary tree overview', 'summary': 'Covers the definition of a tree data structure, types of binary trees including full, complete, and skewed trees, and a basic algorithm for searching a binary search tree.', 'duration': 153.534, 'highlights': ['A binary tree is a special type of generic tree in which each node can have at most two children. Highlights the definition of a binary tree as a tree where each node can have at most two children.', 'Types of binary tree include full binary tree, complete binary tree, left skewed tree, and right skewed tree. Enumerates the different types of binary trees, providing a brief description of each type.', 'A basic algorithm for searching a binary search tree involves checking if the tree is empty and determining if the target is in the root item. Discusses a fundamental algorithm for searching a binary search tree, outlining the initial steps for the search process.']}, {'end': 2622.894, 'start': 2455.612, 'title': 'Tree search and comparison', 'summary': 'Discusses tree search algorithms, comparing b-tree and b plus tree, and explains the concept of avl tree and its operations including rotations for balancing the tree.', 'duration': 167.282, 'highlights': ['B plus tree has faster search process compared to B tree Searching in B plus tree is faster as data can only be found on the leaf nodes.', 'B plus tree allows for simpler deletion process compared to B tree Deletion in B plus tree is simpler and less time-consuming as elements are always deleted from the leaf node.', 'AVL tree maintains height balance with rotations AVL tree is a height balancing binary search tree that maintains the height balance by using rotations, ensuring differences of heights of the left and right subtrees of any node are less than or equal to 1.', 'Operations on AVL tree involve various rotation types for balancing The operations on AVL tree include left-left rotation, left-right rotation, right-right rotation, and right-left rotation to balance the tree by addressing violating balance factors.']}], 'duration': 321.477, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY2301417.jpg', 'highlights': ['A binary tree is a tree where each node can have at most two children.', 'Types of binary tree include full binary tree, complete binary tree, left skewed tree, and right skewed tree.', 'A basic algorithm for searching a binary search tree involves checking if the tree is empty and determining if the target is in the root item.', 'B plus tree has faster search process compared to B tree as data can only be found on the leaf nodes.', 'B plus tree allows for simpler deletion process compared to B tree as elements are always deleted from the leaf node.', 'AVL tree maintains height balance with rotations.', 'Operations on AVL tree involve various rotation types for balancing.']}, {'end': 3150, 'segs': [{'end': 2683.041, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2623.635, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 2632.943, 'text': 'So what is the degree of a node? The degree of a node is the number of children or you can say the number of subtrees of a node.', 'start': 2623.635, 'duration': 9.308}, {'end': 2639.288, 'text': 'Here in the example, you can see the node 1 has 2 children or you can say 2 subtrees.', 'start': 2633.483, 'duration': 5.805}, {'end': 2643.557, 'text': 'Hence the degree of that node is 2.', 'start': 2639.895, 'duration': 3.662}, {'end': 2648.32, 'text': 'Similarly, we have node 5 but here it has 3 children.', 'start': 2643.557, 'duration': 4.763}, {'end': 2652.862, 'text': 'So the degree of node 5 will be 3.', 'start': 2648.86, 'duration': 4.002}, {'end': 2662.068, 'text': 'So the next question is what is the degree of a tree? So degree of a tree is the maximum degree of any of its node.', 'start': 2652.862, 'duration': 9.206}, {'end': 2674.236, 'text': "For example, here you can see the node 1's degree is 2, node 2's degree is again 2, node 3's degree is 0, as it does not have any children,", 'start': 2662.95, 'duration': 11.286}, {'end': 2678.398, 'text': "but node 5's degree is 3, which is highest among all the nodes.", 'start': 2674.236, 'duration': 4.162}, {'end': 2683.041, 'text': 'Hence, the degree of the tree will be 3.', 'start': 2679.059, 'duration': 3.982}], 'summary': "Node 1 has a degree of 2, node 5 has a degree of 3, and the tree's degree is 3.", 'duration': 59.406, 'max_score': 2623.635, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY2623635.jpg'}, {'end': 2757.307, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2732.464, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 2742.086, 'text': 'In real world situation, this weight can be measured as distance, congestion, traffic load or any arbitrary value denoted to the edges.', 'start': 2732.464, 'duration': 9.622}, {'end': 2747.143, 'text': "Now, let's see some questions based on graph data structure.", 'start': 2743.482, 'duration': 3.661}, {'end': 2751.025, 'text': 'So the first question is define the graph data structure.', 'start': 2747.724, 'duration': 3.301}, {'end': 2757.307, 'text': 'So a graph is a nonlinear data structure consisting of nodes and edges.', 'start': 2752.025, 'duration': 5.282}], 'summary': 'Graphs are nonlinear data structures with nodes and edges.', 'duration': 24.843, 'max_score': 2732.464, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY2732464.jpg'}, {'end': 2850.292, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 2804.848, 'weight': 0.861, 'content': [{'end': 2806.229, 'text': 'The third one is circuit.', 'start': 2804.848, 'duration': 1.381}, {'end': 2816.076, 'text': 'A circuit can be defined as a closed path where initial vertex is identical to the end vertex and any vertex may be repeated.', 'start': 2807.029, 'duration': 9.047}, {'end': 2822.061, 'text': "So the next question we'll be discussing is how does depth first traversal work?", 'start': 2816.837, 'duration': 5.224}, {'end': 2824.596, 'text': 'In depth first search.', 'start': 2823.095, 'duration': 1.501}, {'end': 2831.04, 'text': 'we traverse the graph in a depth word motion and use a stack to remember to get to the next vortex,', 'start': 2824.596, 'duration': 6.444}, {'end': 2834.842, 'text': 'to start the search when a dead end occurs in any iteration.', 'start': 2831.04, 'duration': 3.802}, {'end': 2840.726, 'text': 'Now the next question is how does breadth first traversal work?', 'start': 2836.663, 'duration': 4.063}, {'end': 2850.292, 'text': 'So in breadth first traversal we traverse a graph in a breadth word motion and use a queue to remember to get to the next vertex,', 'start': 2841.727, 'duration': 8.565}], 'summary': 'Circuit is a closed path where initial vertex is identical to the end vertex. depth first traversal uses stack, breadth first uses queue.', 'duration': 45.444, 'max_score': 2804.848, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY2804848.jpg'}, {'end': 2891.626, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2865.749, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 2874.652, 'text': "So Dijkstra's algorithm allows you to calculate the shortest path between one node of your choice and every other node in a graph.", 'start': 2865.749, 'duration': 8.903}, {'end': 2878.713, 'text': "Let's understand this better by knowing how the algorithm works.", 'start': 2875.312, 'duration': 3.401}, {'end': 2884.441, 'text': 'So first we mark all the nodes of the graph as unvisited.', 'start': 2879.557, 'duration': 4.884}, {'end': 2891.626, 'text': 'then we mark the selected initial node with the current distance of 0 and rest as infinity.', 'start': 2884.441, 'duration': 7.185}], 'summary': "Dijkstra's algorithm finds shortest path between nodes in a graph.", 'duration': 25.877, 'max_score': 2865.749, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY2865749.jpg'}, {'end': 3001.107, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 2957.303, 'weight': 0.75, 'content': [{'end': 2962.366, 'text': 'Then you have divide and conquer approach and the third one is dynamic programming.', 'start': 2957.303, 'duration': 5.063}, {'end': 2966.449, 'text': 'Now the next question is explain greedy approach.', 'start': 2963.287, 'duration': 3.162}, {'end': 2973.08, 'text': 'An algorithm that follows greedy approach builds up solution in a step-by-step manner.', 'start': 2967.375, 'duration': 5.705}, {'end': 2976.682, 'text': 'It is mostly used in optimization problems.', 'start': 2973.68, 'duration': 3.002}, {'end': 2981.826, 'text': 'It makes optimal choice at each step to solve the entire problem.', 'start': 2977.363, 'duration': 4.463}, {'end': 2987.251, 'text': "Its examples include Dijkstra's algorithm and primes algorithm.", 'start': 2982.667, 'duration': 4.584}, {'end': 2992.301, 'text': 'The next question is explain divide and conquer approach.', 'start': 2988.479, 'duration': 3.822}, {'end': 3001.107, 'text': 'So an algorithm that follows divide and conquer approach works in two steps divide and combine.', 'start': 2993.142, 'duration': 7.965}], 'summary': 'Greedy, divide and conquer, and dynamic programming are algorithmic approaches with specific step-by-step methodologies and use cases.', 'duration': 43.804, 'max_score': 2957.303, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY2957303.jpg'}, {'end': 3122.28, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3097.331, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 3102.502, 'text': 'In this algorithm, a variable length code is assigned to input different characters.', 'start': 3097.331, 'duration': 5.171}, {'end': 3107.49, 'text': 'The code length is related to how frequently a character is used.', 'start': 3103.427, 'duration': 4.063}, {'end': 3113.714, 'text': 'Most frequent characters have the smallest codes and longer codes for least frequent characters.', 'start': 3108.15, 'duration': 5.564}, {'end': 3115.895, 'text': 'There are mainly two parts.', 'start': 3114.515, 'duration': 1.38}, {'end': 3122.28, 'text': 'First one is to create a Huffman tree and the other one is to traverse the tree to find codes.', 'start': 3116.296, 'duration': 5.984}], 'summary': 'Algorithm assigns variable length codes based on character frequency.', 'duration': 24.949, 'max_score': 3097.331, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY3097331.jpg'}], 'start': 2623.635, 'title': 'Node and tree degrees', 'summary': "Covers the concept of node degree and tree degree, where the degree of a node is determined by the number of children or subtrees it has. it also defines the degree of a tree as the maximum degree of any of its nodes, with an example demonstrating a node with the highest degree of 3. additionally, it delves into various graph data structure and algorithms including spanning tree, minimum spanning tree, depth-first traversal, breadth-first traversal, dijkstra's algorithm, greedy approach, divide and conquer approach, dynamic programming, and huffman's algorithm.", 'chapters': [{'end': 2683.041, 'start': 2623.635, 'title': 'Node degree and tree degree', 'summary': 'Discusses the concept of node degree and tree degree, where the degree of a node is determined by the number of children or subtrees it has, and the degree of a tree is defined as the maximum degree of any of its nodes, with an example demonstrating a node with the highest degree of 3.', 'duration': 59.406, 'highlights': ['The degree of a node is the number of children or subtrees it has, with node 1 having a degree of 2 and node 5 having a degree of 3.', 'The degree of a tree is the maximum degree of any of its nodes, with the example demonstrating a tree with a degree of 3, the highest among all nodes.']}, {'end': 3150, 'start': 2683.041, 'title': 'Graph data structure and algorithms', 'summary': "Discusses spanning tree, minimum spanning tree, graph data structure, depth-first traversal, breadth-first traversal, dijkstra's algorithm, greedy approach, divide and conquer approach, dynamic programming, and huffman's algorithm.", 'duration': 466.959, 'highlights': ['A graph is a nonlinear data structure consisting of nodes and edges. A graph is a nonlinear data structure constituting nodes and edges.', "Dijkstra's algorithm allows calculating the shortest path between one node and every other node in a graph. Dijkstra's algorithm calculates the shortest path between one node and every other node in a graph.", 'Greedy approach makes optimal choices at each step to solve the entire problem, used in optimization problems. Greedy approach makes optimal choices at each step for solving the entire problem and is used in optimization problems.', 'Huffman coding is a lossless data compression algorithm where variable length codes are assigned based on character frequency. Huffman coding is a lossless data compression algorithm that assigns variable length codes based on character frequency.']}], 'duration': 526.365, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY2623635.jpg', 'highlights': ['The degree of a tree is the maximum degree of any of its nodes, with the example demonstrating a tree with a degree of 3, the highest among all nodes.', "Dijkstra's algorithm calculates the shortest path between one node and every other node in a graph.", 'Huffman coding is a lossless data compression algorithm that assigns variable length codes based on character frequency.', 'The degree of a node is the number of children or subtrees it has, with node 1 having a degree of 2 and node 5 having a degree of 3.', 'A graph is a nonlinear data structure consisting of nodes and edges.']}, {'end': 3829.397, 'segs': [{'end': 3204.656, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3150.82, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 3158.566, 'text': 'What is Fibonacci series? Fibonacci series is a search algorithm that applies to a sorted array.', 'start': 3150.82, 'duration': 7.746}, {'end': 3167.252, 'text': 'It makes use of divide and conquer approach that can significantly reduce the time needed in order to reach the target element.', 'start': 3159.187, 'duration': 8.065}, {'end': 3172.796, 'text': 'In Fibonacci series next number is the sum of previous two numbers.', 'start': 3168.053, 'duration': 4.743}, {'end': 3176.319, 'text': 'For example, the series as shown here on the screen.', 'start': 3173.337, 'duration': 2.982}, {'end': 3182.543, 'text': 'The first two numbers of Fibonacci series are 0 and 1.', 'start': 3177.259, 'duration': 5.284}, {'end': 3191.748, 'text': 'Now the next question is what is an interpolation search technique? Interpolation search is an improved variant of binary search.', 'start': 3182.543, 'duration': 9.205}, {'end': 3196.991, 'text': 'This search algorithm works on probing positions of required values.', 'start': 3192.388, 'duration': 4.603}, {'end': 3204.656, 'text': 'For this algorithm to work properly the data collection should be in a sorted form and equally distributed.', 'start': 3197.671, 'duration': 6.985}], 'summary': 'Fibonacci series: reduces search time; interpolation search: improved binary search variant', 'duration': 53.836, 'max_score': 3150.82, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY3150820.jpg'}, {'end': 3310.419, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 3262.268, 'weight': 0.763, 'content': [{'end': 3266.189, 'text': 'If data is greater than middle, search in higher sublist.', 'start': 3262.268, 'duration': 3.921}, {'end': 3270.369, 'text': 'If data is smaller than the middle, search in the lower sublist.', 'start': 3266.669, 'duration': 3.7}, {'end': 3272.87, 'text': 'Repeat until the match is found.', 'start': 3271.09, 'duration': 1.78}, {'end': 3282.259, 'text': 'Moving ahead the next question is what is merge sort? Merge sort is a divide-and-conquer algorithm for sorting the data.', 'start': 3273.755, 'duration': 8.504}, {'end': 3288.883, 'text': 'It works by merging and sorting adjacent data to create bigger sorted lists,', 'start': 3282.98, 'duration': 5.903}, {'end': 3295.987, 'text': 'which can then be merged recursively to form even bigger sorted lists until you have one single sorted list.', 'start': 3288.883, 'duration': 7.104}, {'end': 3300.509, 'text': 'Now the next question is how does selection sort work?', 'start': 3296.987, 'duration': 3.522}, {'end': 3310.419, 'text': 'So selection sort works by repeatedly picking the smallest number in ascending order from the list and placing it at the beginning.', 'start': 3301.673, 'duration': 8.746}], 'summary': 'Divide and conquer algorithm for sorting data. selection sort works by picking smallest number and placing at beginning.', 'duration': 48.151, 'max_score': 3262.268, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY3262268.jpg'}, {'end': 3361.077, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3310.959, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 3316.143, 'text': 'This process is repeated moving towards the end of the list or sorted subarray.', 'start': 3310.959, 'duration': 5.184}, {'end': 3321.046, 'text': 'How it works is we scan all the elements and find the smallest one.', 'start': 3316.703, 'duration': 4.343}, {'end': 3326.09, 'text': 'We then switch over the position of that element with the first element.', 'start': 3321.767, 'duration': 4.323}, {'end': 3331.143, 'text': 'Then we repeat the selection sort on the remaining n-1 items.', 'start': 3326.84, 'duration': 4.303}, {'end': 3335.746, 'text': 'We always iterate forward and swap with the smallest element.', 'start': 3331.843, 'duration': 3.903}, {'end': 3348.113, 'text': 'The best case and worst case time complexity for selection sort is O and the worst case space complexity is O.', 'start': 3336.446, 'duration': 11.667}, {'end': 3348.774, 'text': 'Moving ahead.', 'start': 3348.113, 'duration': 0.661}, {'end': 3352.296, 'text': 'the next question is explain the working of quick sort.', 'start': 3348.774, 'duration': 3.522}, {'end': 3361.077, 'text': 'Quicksort is a highly efficient sorting algorithm and is based on partitioning array of data into smaller arrays.', 'start': 3353.291, 'duration': 7.786}], 'summary': 'Selection sort iterates forward, swapping smallest element, time complexity o, space complexity o. quicksort partitions data for efficiency.', 'duration': 50.118, 'max_score': 3310.959, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY3310959.jpg'}, {'end': 3461.617, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3434.494, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 3443.244, 'text': 'This happens when array is already sorted in the same order, or if array is already sorted in the reverse order.', 'start': 3434.494, 'duration': 8.75}, {'end': 3446.828, 'text': 'or this happens even if all the elements are the exact same.', 'start': 3443.244, 'duration': 3.584}, {'end': 3452.147, 'text': 'Now moving ahead to the next question what is Radix sort?', 'start': 3448.283, 'duration': 3.864}, {'end': 3461.617, 'text': 'Radix sort is a sorting technique that sorts the elements by first grouping the individual digits of the same place value.', 'start': 3452.928, 'duration': 8.689}], 'summary': 'Array can be sorted in same/reverse order or with same elements. radix sort groups digits by place value.', 'duration': 27.123, 'max_score': 3434.494, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY3434494.jpg'}], 'start': 3150.82, 'title': 'Search and sorting algorithms overview', 'summary': 'Provides an overview of search algorithms like fibonacci series and interpolation search, and sorting algorithms such as merge sort, selection sort, quicksort, and radix sort, highlighting their key working principles and complexities.', 'chapters': [{'end': 3572.574, 'start': 3150.82, 'title': 'Search and sorting algorithms overview', 'summary': 'Provides an overview of search algorithms like fibonacci series and interpolation search, and sorting algorithms such as merge sort, selection sort, quicksort, and radix sort, highlighting their key working principles and complexities.', 'duration': 421.754, 'highlights': ['Fibonacci series: A search algorithm with time reduction approach, next number is the sum of previous two numbers Fibonacci series is a search algorithm that significantly reduces the time needed for searching by using a divide and conquer approach, where the next number is the sum of the previous two numbers.', 'Interpolation search: Improved variant of binary search, works on probing positions of required values, requires sorted and equally distributed data Interpolation search is an improved variant of binary search that works on probing positions of required values, requiring the data to be sorted and equally distributed for proper functioning.', 'Quicksort: Highly efficient sorting algorithm based on partitioning array into smaller arrays, worst time complexity of O(n^2) Quicksort is a highly efficient sorting algorithm based on partitioning the array into smaller arrays, with a worst time complexity of O(n^2) when the array is already sorted or all elements are the same.', "Radix sort: Sorting technique grouping digits and sorting elements based on increasing or decreasing order of place values Radix sort is a sorting technique that sorts elements by grouping digits and sorting them based on increasing or decreasing order of place values, such as unit's place, tenths place, and so on.", 'Selection sort: Works by repeatedly picking the smallest number and placing it at the beginning, with time complexity of O(n^2) Selection sort works by repeatedly picking the smallest number and placing it at the beginning, with a time complexity of O(n^2) in the worst case.']}, {'end': 3829.397, 'start': 3573.513, 'title': 'Tower of hanoi puzzle', 'summary': 'Introduces the tower of hanoi mathematical puzzle, explaining its rules and approach, and provides a java code implementation for solving the puzzle with three disks, following a recursive approach.', 'duration': 255.884, 'highlights': ['The Tower of Hanoi puzzle is a mathematical problem involving three rods and n disks, with the objective of moving the entire stack to another rod, following specific rules.', 'The Tower of Hanoi puzzle can be solved using a recursive approach, as demonstrated in the Java code provided, which successfully moves three disks from the initial to the final destination.', 'The Java code for Tower of Hanoi utilizes a recursive function, TowerOfHanoi, to handle the movement of disks between rods, with the base case checking if the number of disks is equal to 1 and performing the necessary move.', 'The chapter concludes by highlighting the resemblance of the solution obtained from the code to the manual solution, and encourages viewers to ask queries and subscribe for more content.']}], 'duration': 678.577, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/ZV1GwGA1QlY/pics/ZV1GwGA1QlY3150820.jpg', 'highlights': ['Quicksort: Highly efficient sorting algorithm based on partitioning array into smaller arrays, worst time complexity of O(n^2)', 'Radix sort: Sorting technique grouping digits and sorting elements based on increasing or decreasing order of place values', 'Interpolation search: Improved variant of binary search, works on probing positions of required values, requires sorted and equally distributed data', 'Fibonacci series: A search algorithm with time reduction approach, next number is the sum of previous two numbers', 'Selection sort: Works by repeatedly picking the smallest number and placing it at the beginning, with time complexity of O(n^2)']}], 'highlights': ['Binary search reduces search time from hours to seconds, making it significantly more efficient.', 'Practical application of binary search involves iteratively narrowing down the search space.', 'Major companies such as Facebook, Google, Netflix, Airbnb, and DoorDash utilize data structures in their daily operations.', 'Data structures encompass primitive and non-primitive types, with instances of linear and nonlinear structures.', 'Proper choice of data structure leads to efficient program in terms of time and space.', 'Dynamic memory allocation is done at runtime, unlike static memory allocation, and functions like malloc, calloc, realloc support allocating dynamic memory.', 'Recursion allows a function to call itself, requiring a base case, work towards the base case, and recursive call, while iteration explicitly uses repeated structure and terminates when loop condition fails.', 'Signed numbers use one bit for sign, reducing available bits for value representation, affecting the number range, while unsigned numbers utilize all bits, resulting in a larger range.', 'Explanation of infix, prefix, and postfix notations Infix notation places operators between operands, prefix notation (polish notation) has operators before operands, and postfix notation (reverse polish) has operators after operands.', 'Definition and use of multi-dimensional arrays Defines multi-dimensional arrays as arrays with more than one dimension, useful for data representation in scenarios such as board games or tables with data stored in multiple columns.', 'The chapter explains hashing as a technique to convert key values into indexes of an array, and covers the concepts of linked lists, including types, applications, differences from arrays, and search methods.', 'Detailed explanation of types of linked lists, including singly linked list, doubly linked list, and circular linked list, with specific characteristics and applications provided.', 'Stack is used in backtracking, function call and return process, recursion, and to handle stack overflow and underflow.', 'One application of stack is in expression handling, where it is used for infix to postfix or prefix conversion, enabling advantages such as not needing to maintain operator ordering or parenthesis.', 'A binary tree is a tree where each node can have at most two children.', 'Types of binary tree include full binary tree, complete binary tree, left skewed tree, and right skewed tree.', "Dijkstra's algorithm calculates the shortest path between one node and every other node in a graph.", 'Huffman coding is a lossless data compression algorithm that assigns variable length codes based on character frequency.', 'Quicksort: Highly efficient sorting algorithm based on partitioning array into smaller arrays, worst time complexity of O(n^2)', 'Radix sort: Sorting technique grouping digits and sorting elements based on increasing or decreasing order of place values', 'Interpolation search: Improved variant of binary search, works on probing positions of required values, requires sorted and equally distributed data', 'Fibonacci series: A search algorithm with time reduction approach, next number is the sum of previous two numbers', 'Selection sort: Works by repeatedly picking the smallest number and placing it at the beginning, with time complexity of O(n^2)']}