title

5.1 Tree in Data Structure | Introduction to Trees | Data Structures Tutorials

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Discussed the logical model of tree data structure in computer programming. I have discussed tree as a non-linear hierarchical data structure, tree terminologies and its applications in detail.
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{'title': '5.1 Tree in Data Structure | Introduction to Trees | Data Structures Tutorials', 'heatmap': [{'end': 663.989, 'start': 631.648, 'weight': 0.705}, {'end': 1107.678, 'start': 998.66, 'weight': 0.712}, {'end': 1512.303, 'start': 1475.753, 'weight': 0.946}, {'end': 1564.23, 'start': 1542.692, 'weight': 0.823}], 'summary': 'Provides an introduction to tree data structures, explaining the concept of hierarchical data using examples from college and company organizational structures, exploring logical representation, hierarchical relationships, node hierarchy, node types, and tree terminologies with practical applications in hierarchical data, file systems, and routing protocols.', 'chapters': [{'end': 160.759, 'segs': [{'end': 69.733, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 20.124, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 23.487, 'text': 'So we have discussed arrays, linked list, queue and stacks.', 'start': 20.124, 'duration': 3.363}, {'end': 25.809, 'text': 'These are linear data structures.', 'start': 24.087, 'duration': 1.722}, {'end': 33.232, 'text': 'like. see, this is array, how we are going to represent, logically, how we are going to represent, all the four type of data structures.', 'start': 26.209, 'duration': 7.023}, {'end': 34.493, 'text': 'that is this thing.', 'start': 33.232, 'duration': 1.261}, {'end': 35.594, 'text': 'this is linked list.', 'start': 34.493, 'duration': 1.101}, {'end': 38.275, 'text': 'this is stack and this one is queue.', 'start': 35.594, 'duration': 2.681}, {'end': 42.997, 'text': 'right. stack is following li fo structure and this is following fifo.', 'start': 38.275, 'duration': 4.722}, {'end': 46.359, 'text': 'right. this thing we have discussed already in the previous videos.', 'start': 42.997, 'duration': 3.362}, {'end': 52.305, 'text': 'fine, now, tree and graph, both are non-linear data structures.', 'start': 46.359, 'duration': 5.946}, {'end': 62.069, 'text': 'see linear data structures means here the data is arranged, you can say, in a sequential form, one after another, right,', 'start': 52.305, 'duration': 9.764}, {'end': 66.992, 'text': 'and non-linear means the data is having multiple levels.', 'start': 62.069, 'duration': 4.923}, {'end': 69.733, 'text': 'you can say it is a form of hierarchy.', 'start': 66.992, 'duration': 2.741}], 'summary': 'Discussed linear and non-linear data structures including arrays, linked list, queue, stacks, tree, and graph.', 'duration': 49.609, 'max_score': 20.124, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/YAdLFsTG70w/pics/YAdLFsTG70w20124.jpg'}, {'end': 118.019, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 90.34, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 97.745, 'text': 'you can say right, the difference between linear and non-linear data structure we will discuss in a separate video, right.', 'start': 90.34, 'duration': 7.405}, {'end': 99.606, 'text': 'so now what is a hierarchical data?', 'start': 97.745, 'duration': 1.861}, {'end': 100.347, 'text': 'see you can.', 'start': 99.606, 'duration': 0.741}, {'end': 103.088, 'text': 'you can take an example of a college employees.', 'start': 100.347, 'duration': 2.741}, {'end': 112.897, 'text': 'fine, see, here at this level maybe you have the director and below this three persons are also there.', 'start': 103.088, 'duration': 9.809}, {'end': 118.019, 'text': 'here you can say a and this one is b, c and d.', 'start': 112.897, 'duration': 5.122}], 'summary': 'Hierarchical data structures organize data in a tree-like format, such as college employees with a director and three subordinates.', 'duration': 27.679, 'max_score': 90.34, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/YAdLFsTG70w/pics/YAdLFsTG70w90340.jpg'}], 'start': 0.349, 'title': 'Tree data structures', 'summary': 'Explains tree data structures as a non-linear data structure, highlighting the concept of hierarchical data using examples from college and company organizational structures.', 'chapters': [{'end': 160.759, 'start': 0.349, 'title': 'Tree data structures', 'summary': 'Discusses tree data structures as a non-linear data structure, highlighting the difference between linear and non-linear data structures and explaining the concept of hierarchical data using examples from college and company organizational structures.', 'duration': 160.41, 'highlights': ['Explaining the difference between linear and non-linear data structures, with linear data structures having one level and non-linear data structures having multiple levels. Non-linear data structures have multiple levels compared to linear data structures.', 'Providing examples of hierarchical data using organizational structures from college and company settings. Examples of hierarchical data include college employee levels and company organizational roles.', 'Discussing the representation of linear data structures such as arrays, linked lists, queues, and stacks. Linear data structures like arrays, linked lists, queues, and stacks are explained.']}], 'duration': 160.41, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/YAdLFsTG70w/pics/YAdLFsTG70w349.jpg', 'highlights': ['Explaining the difference between linear and non-linear data structures', 'Providing examples of hierarchical data using organizational structures', 'Discussing the representation of linear data structures']}, {'end': 567.364, 'segs': [{'end': 265.607, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 160.959, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 166.263, 'text': "This is what a hierarchy, it's not like that faculty is directly going to report to the director of the college.", 'start': 160.959, 'duration': 5.304}, {'end': 169.005, 'text': 'So here I have added some more nodes.', 'start': 166.983, 'duration': 2.022}, {'end': 177.292, 'text': 'So this is what data items which are having hierarchical relationship among them, right?', 'start': 169.345, 'duration': 7.947}, {'end': 179.914, 'text': 'So you can say tree is what?', 'start': 178.052, 'duration': 1.862}, {'end': 185.98, 'text': 'Tree is basically a non-linear data structure which is going to simulate this hierarchy.', 'start': 180.154, 'duration': 5.826}, {'end': 191.883, 'text': 'tree is basically going to represent this hierarchy, or you can say,', 'start': 187.039, 'duration': 4.844}, {'end': 197.908, 'text': 'trees used to represent the data items which are having hierarchical relationship between them.', 'start': 191.883, 'duration': 6.025}, {'end': 202.772, 'text': 'So now this is what the logical representation of tree in data structure.', 'start': 198.429, 'duration': 4.343}, {'end': 207.156, 'text': 'See you have to figure it out in which context you are discussing the tree.', 'start': 203.132, 'duration': 4.024}, {'end': 215.002, 'text': 'Tree in the context of graph theory or in the mathematical form, or tree in the context of computer programming or data structure.', 'start': 207.256, 'duration': 7.746}, {'end': 225.451, 'text': "because in that case, in the graph theory, we are considering that tree is what it's an undirected graph which is connected and acyclic right.", 'start': 215.002, 'duration': 10.449}, {'end': 231.595, 'text': 'but here, when we are discussing the tree in the form of in the context of data structure, here we consider that tree.', 'start': 225.451, 'duration': 6.144}, {'end': 233.397, 'text': 'this is having a direction.', 'start': 231.595, 'duration': 1.802}, {'end': 235.619, 'text': 'see here if this is a tree.', 'start': 233.397, 'duration': 2.222}, {'end': 241.444, 'text': 'in that case you can go from A to B, But you cannot go from B to A.', 'start': 235.619, 'duration': 5.825}, {'end': 246.949, 'text': 'So tree basically grows from here top to bottom.', 'start': 241.444, 'duration': 5.505}, {'end': 250.152, 'text': 'We can go from B to E, F.', 'start': 247.51, 'duration': 2.642}, {'end': 253.035, 'text': 'You cannot go from E to B.', 'start': 250.152, 'duration': 2.883}, {'end': 255.257, 'text': 'Sorry F to B.', 'start': 253.035, 'duration': 2.222}, {'end': 257.519, 'text': 'So this is you can say a direction.', 'start': 255.257, 'duration': 2.262}, {'end': 265.607, 'text': 'right, somewhere it is represented with directions and somewhere it is represented without directions.', 'start': 258.683, 'duration': 6.924}], 'summary': 'Tree is a non-linear data structure representing hierarchical relationships, with direction in data structure context.', 'duration': 104.648, 'max_score': 160.959, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/YAdLFsTG70w/pics/YAdLFsTG70w160959.jpg'}, {'end': 361.736, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 333.846, 'weight': 7, 'content': [{'end': 337.227, 'text': 'but here I am just writing ABCD right.', 'start': 333.846, 'duration': 3.381}, {'end': 341.088, 'text': 'so the tree, the nodes, can have numbers also 1, 2, 3, 4.', 'start': 337.227, 'duration': 3.861}, {'end': 342.668, 'text': 'the nodes can have characters also.', 'start': 341.088, 'duration': 1.58}, {'end': 344.669, 'text': 'the nodes can have strings also.', 'start': 342.668, 'duration': 2.001}, {'end': 349.37, 'text': 'but the main thing is what nodes are having some information.', 'start': 344.669, 'duration': 4.701}, {'end': 351.571, 'text': 'so how can you define a tree?', 'start': 349.37, 'duration': 2.201}, {'end': 355.412, 'text': 'see, tree is what it can be defined as a collection of elements.', 'start': 351.571, 'duration': 3.841}, {'end': 357.232, 'text': 'or here we call not elements.', 'start': 355.412, 'duration': 1.82}, {'end': 360.174, 'text': 'here we will call nodes right in array.', 'start': 357.232, 'duration': 2.942}, {'end': 361.736, 'text': 'we call elements in linked list.', 'start': 360.174, 'duration': 1.562}], 'summary': 'A tree can be defined as a collection of nodes, which can contain numbers, characters, and strings, forming a structured data set.', 'duration': 27.89, 'max_score': 333.846, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/YAdLFsTG70w/pics/YAdLFsTG70w333846.jpg'}, {'end': 417.154, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 389.065, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 390.987, 'text': 'It is a non-linear data structure.', 'start': 389.065, 'duration': 1.922}, {'end': 397.08, 'text': 'Fine. now we will discuss some basic terminologies used in tree.', 'start': 391.668, 'duration': 5.412}, {'end': 399.802, 'text': 'fine, first, is what root of a tree?', 'start': 397.08, 'duration': 2.722}, {'end': 404.765, 'text': 'root means the topmost element, right, or you can say root.', 'start': 399.802, 'duration': 4.963}, {'end': 407.327, 'text': 'this is not having any parent.', 'start': 404.765, 'duration': 2.562}, {'end': 412.951, 'text': 'the node which is not having any parent that is known as root node of the tree,', 'start': 407.327, 'duration': 5.624}, {'end': 417.154, 'text': 'the topmost element or the first element in the hierarchy that is known as root.', 'start': 412.951, 'duration': 4.203}], 'summary': 'A tree is a non-linear data structure. the root is the topmost element without any parent.', 'duration': 28.089, 'max_score': 389.065, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/YAdLFsTG70w/pics/YAdLFsTG70w389065.jpg'}, {'end': 473.564, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 447.095, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 452.176, 'text': 'so here i guess, by looking at this tree, you can easily say which is now parent.', 'start': 447.095, 'duration': 5.081}, {'end': 461.699, 'text': 'in this case see a is parent of b, c and d, fine, and c is what parent of g.', 'start': 452.176, 'duration': 9.523}, {'end': 464.42, 'text': 'so parent definition, what you will see parent node.', 'start': 461.699, 'duration': 2.721}, {'end': 471.923, 'text': 'the definition of parent node is what the immediate predecessor of any node is known as parent of that node.', 'start': 464.42, 'duration': 7.503}, {'end': 473.564, 'text': 'see immediate predecessor.', 'start': 471.923, 'duration': 1.641}], 'summary': 'Parent node is the immediate predecessor of any node, e.g., a is parent of b, c, and d, and c is parent of g.', 'duration': 26.469, 'max_score': 447.095, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/YAdLFsTG70w/pics/YAdLFsTG70w447095.jpg'}, {'end': 535.08, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 504.18, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 508.144, 'text': 'so root is not having any parent node.', 'start': 504.18, 'duration': 3.964}, {'end': 510.126, 'text': 'now what is child node?', 'start': 508.144, 'duration': 1.982}, {'end': 516.892, 'text': 'so child, you can say the immediate successor of a node is known as child of that node.', 'start': 510.126, 'duration': 6.766}, {'end': 518.873, 'text': 'C. now what about A?', 'start': 517.412, 'duration': 1.461}, {'end': 521.774, 'text': 'if you say what is the child of A?', 'start': 518.873, 'duration': 2.901}, {'end': 526.456, 'text': 'so the immediate successor successor means the next nodes.', 'start': 521.774, 'duration': 4.682}, {'end': 531.138, 'text': 'immediate successor is B also, C also and D also.', 'start': 526.456, 'duration': 4.682}, {'end': 532.999, 'text': 'right after A.', 'start': 531.138, 'duration': 1.861}, {'end': 535.08, 'text': 'the immediate nodes are B, C and D.', 'start': 532.999, 'duration': 2.081}], 'summary': 'Root node has no parent. a has 3 immediate children: b, c, d.', 'duration': 30.9, 'max_score': 504.18, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/YAdLFsTG70w/pics/YAdLFsTG70w504180.jpg'}], 'start': 160.959, 'title': 'Understanding tree hierarchies', 'summary': 'Explores the logical representation of trees in data structures, detailing hierarchical relationships, non-linear structure, and directional nature, distinguishing between graph theory and data structure contexts. it also explains the concept of trees, defining nodes, root, parent and child nodes, emphasizing the non-linear data structure aspect, with examples and terminology.', 'chapters': [{'end': 281.937, 'start': 160.959, 'title': 'Understanding tree hierarchies in data structures', 'summary': 'Explains the logical representation of trees in data structures, detailing their hierarchical relationships, non-linear structure, and directional nature, with a distinction between graph theory and data structure contexts.', 'duration': 120.978, 'highlights': ['The logical representation of tree in data structure involves a hierarchical relationship among data items, simulating a non-linear structure.', 'In the context of graph theory, a tree is considered as an undirected graph which is connected and acyclic, while in the context of data structure, it is represented with direction and grows from top to bottom.', 'The directional nature of trees in the context of data structure implies a one-way path from top to bottom, allowing traversal in that direction only.']}, {'end': 567.364, 'start': 281.937, 'title': 'Understanding trees in data structures', 'summary': 'Explains the concept of trees in data structures, defining nodes, root, parent and child nodes, and emphasizing the non-linear data structure aspect, with examples and terminology.', 'duration': 285.427, 'highlights': ['The chapter explains that a tree is a collection of nodes linked together to simulate a hierarchy, with nodes containing information and links to the next node, and can be defined as a non-linear data structure.', 'It defines the root as the topmost element that does not have any parent, and nodes as elements that store information and contain links to other nodes, exemplifying with the hierarchy of a college represented as nodes.', 'It details the concept of parent nodes as the immediate predecessor of any node, with examples of identifying parent nodes in the hierarchy.', 'It describes child nodes as the immediate successors of a node, exemplifying with the immediate successors of a node in the hierarchy and highlighting nodes without children.', 'It explains the types of data that nodes can contain, including numbers, characters, and strings, emphasizing that nodes are the fundamental elements of a tree data structure.']}], 'duration': 406.405, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/YAdLFsTG70w/pics/YAdLFsTG70w160959.jpg', 'highlights': ['The logical representation of tree in data structure involves a hierarchical relationship among data items, simulating a non-linear structure.', 'The directional nature of trees in the context of data structure implies a one-way path from top to bottom, allowing traversal in that direction only.', 'In the context of graph theory, a tree is considered as an undirected graph which is connected and acyclic, while in the context of data structure, it is represented with direction and grows from top to bottom.', 'The chapter explains that a tree is a collection of nodes linked together to simulate a hierarchy, with nodes containing information and links to the next node, and can be defined as a non-linear data structure.', 'It defines the root as the topmost element that does not have any parent, and nodes as elements that store information and contain links to other nodes, exemplifying with the hierarchy of a college represented as nodes.', 'It details the concept of parent nodes as the immediate predecessor of any node, with examples of identifying parent nodes in the hierarchy.', 'It describes child nodes as the immediate successors of a node, exemplifying with the immediate successors of a node in the hierarchy and highlighting nodes without children.', 'It explains the types of data that nodes can contain, including numbers, characters, and strings, emphasizing that nodes are the fundamental elements of a tree data structure.']}, {'end': 1008.732, 'segs': [{'end': 663.989, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 600.67, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 604.771, 'text': 'so the leaf node is what the node which is having no child.', 'start': 600.67, 'duration': 4.101}, {'end': 607.992, 'text': 'that is known as leaf node, right.', 'start': 604.771, 'duration': 3.221}, {'end': 611.173, 'text': 'so here in this case leaf nodes are.', 'start': 607.992, 'duration': 3.181}, {'end': 614.194, 'text': 'see, I is a leaf node.', 'start': 611.173, 'duration': 3.021}, {'end': 614.694, 'text': 'J and K.', 'start': 614.194, 'duration': 0.5}, {'end': 618.923, 'text': 'f is also leaf node.', 'start': 616.902, 'duration': 2.021}, {'end': 622.885, 'text': 'l and m are also leaf node, plus h.', 'start': 618.923, 'duration': 3.962}, {'end': 627.166, 'text': 'these are leaf nodes which are not having any child.', 'start': 622.885, 'duration': 4.281}, {'end': 631.648, 'text': 'plus leaf node are also known as external nodes.', 'start': 627.166, 'duration': 4.482}, {'end': 632.869, 'text': 'you have to take care of this thing.', 'start': 631.648, 'duration': 1.221}, {'end': 634.209, 'text': 'external nodes, right.', 'start': 632.869, 'duration': 1.34}, {'end': 639.772, 'text': 'so now what is known leaf node which is having at least one child right.', 'start': 634.209, 'duration': 5.563}, {'end': 648.781, 'text': 'so all the other node except leaf nodes are known as known leaf node as well as these are known as internal nodes.', 'start': 639.772, 'duration': 9.009}, {'end': 663.989, 'text': 'so here known leaf node are a, b, c and d also plus e and g, right.', 'start': 648.781, 'duration': 15.208}], 'summary': 'The transcript explains leaf nodes and internal nodes in a tree, with 6 leaf nodes and 6 non-leaf nodes.', 'duration': 33.539, 'max_score': 600.67, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/YAdLFsTG70w/pics/YAdLFsTG70w600670.jpg'}, {'end': 708.931, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 677.625, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 682.69, 'text': 'you will say from a to c, then c to g and g to l.', 'start': 677.625, 'duration': 5.065}, {'end': 683.992, 'text': 'so this is what this is.', 'start': 682.69, 'duration': 1.302}, {'end': 686.434, 'text': 'what a path right.', 'start': 683.992, 'duration': 2.442}, {'end': 694.301, 'text': 'first of all, this edge, this edge and this edge right see edge is what link between two nodes.', 'start': 686.434, 'duration': 7.867}, {'end': 697.705, 'text': 'these are nodes and the link between a and c is what this one.', 'start': 694.301, 'duration': 3.404}, {'end': 700.307, 'text': 'so this is known as an edge.', 'start': 697.705, 'duration': 2.602}, {'end': 702.748, 'text': 'so path is what you can say.', 'start': 700.307, 'duration': 2.441}, {'end': 708.931, 'text': 'it is a sequence of consecutive edges from source node to destination node.', 'start': 702.748, 'duration': 6.183}], 'summary': 'A path is a sequence of consecutive edges from source node to destination node.', 'duration': 31.306, 'max_score': 677.625, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/YAdLFsTG70w/pics/YAdLFsTG70w677625.jpg'}, {'end': 764.617, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 735.934, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 748.603, 'text': 'see ancestor is what simply, in simple terms, you can say here in this tree, if you can go from a node a to b, it means see, like this one,', 'start': 735.934, 'duration': 12.669}, {'end': 754.508, 'text': 'if you can go from this a node to b node right and see one more thing, you need to take care.', 'start': 748.603, 'duration': 5.905}, {'end': 757.571, 'text': 'these links are unidirectional, not bidirectional.', 'start': 754.508, 'duration': 3.063}, {'end': 760.133, 'text': 'i have told you earlier also right.', 'start': 757.571, 'duration': 2.562}, {'end': 764.617, 'text': 'so now here a is what ancestor and b is what descendant.', 'start': 760.133, 'duration': 4.484}], 'summary': 'Explains the concept of ancestor and descendant in a tree structure, emphasizing the unidirectional nature of links.', 'duration': 28.683, 'max_score': 735.934, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/YAdLFsTG70w/pics/YAdLFsTG70w735934.jpg'}, {'end': 892.673, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 858.261, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 869.376, 'text': 'if I ask you what is descendant of C, first of all find out the path from that node means from C to leaf nodes.', 'start': 858.261, 'duration': 11.115}, {'end': 876.478, 'text': 'so from C, here I can go, I can go to G, after that I can go to L, I can go to M also.', 'start': 869.376, 'duration': 7.102}, {'end': 877.298, 'text': 'these are leaf node.', 'start': 876.478, 'duration': 0.82}, {'end': 878.919, 'text': 'we have reached to the leaf node.', 'start': 877.298, 'duration': 1.621}, {'end': 885.665, 'text': 'fine. so these are two paths means So now any successor node.', 'start': 878.919, 'duration': 6.746}, {'end': 888.608, 'text': 'successor means after C, after C.', 'start': 885.665, 'duration': 2.943}, {'end': 892.673, 'text': 'on this path, successor node are G, L and M.', 'start': 888.608, 'duration': 4.065}], 'summary': 'To find the descendants of c, two paths lead to leaf nodes: c→g→l and c→m. the successor nodes after c are g, l, and m.', 'duration': 34.412, 'max_score': 858.261, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/YAdLFsTG70w/pics/YAdLFsTG70w858261.jpg'}, {'end': 1012.354, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 984.499, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 988.69, 'text': 'So the subtree of this is what? This is what a subtree.', 'start': 984.499, 'duration': 4.191}, {'end': 990.812, 'text': 'This is another subtree.', 'start': 989.571, 'duration': 1.241}, {'end': 993.155, 'text': 'And this is what another subtree.', 'start': 991.653, 'duration': 1.502}, {'end': 994.816, 'text': 'Three subtrees are there.', 'start': 993.515, 'duration': 1.301}, {'end': 998.52, 'text': 'Right? Means subtree is what? It is containing a node.', 'start': 995.397, 'duration': 3.123}, {'end': 1002.645, 'text': 'Suppose this is what? You can say a node with all its descendants.', 'start': 998.66, 'duration': 3.985}, {'end': 1004.487, 'text': 'So this is what? One subtree.', 'start': 1003.185, 'duration': 1.302}, {'end': 1005.508, 'text': 'This is another subtree.', 'start': 1004.527, 'duration': 0.981}, {'end': 1006.489, 'text': 'This is another subtree.', 'start': 1005.548, 'duration': 0.941}, {'end': 1008.732, 'text': 'within this tree.', 'start': 1007.591, 'duration': 1.141}, {'end': 1012.354, 'text': 'also, if you consider this one, so within this tree also, there is two sub tree.', 'start': 1008.732, 'duration': 3.622}], 'summary': 'The transcript discusses subtrees within a larger tree, with a total of three subtrees and two subtrees within one of them.', 'duration': 27.855, 'max_score': 984.499, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/YAdLFsTG70w/pics/YAdLFsTG70w984499.jpg'}], 'start': 567.924, 'title': 'Tree structures', 'summary': 'Covers the hierarchy of nodes, distinguishing between leaf and non-leaf nodes, internal and external nodes with quantifiable examples. it also explains path, ancestor, and descendant in trees, emphasizing unidirectional links, common ancestors and descendants, and defining subtrees.', 'chapters': [{'end': 677.625, 'start': 567.924, 'title': 'Understanding node hierarchy', 'summary': 'Explains the hierarchy of nodes, distinguishing between leaf nodes (with no child) and non-leaf nodes (with at least one child), and also highlights the concept of internal and external nodes with quantifiable examples.', 'duration': 109.701, 'highlights': ['The concept of leaf nodes is discussed, where nodes with no child are identified as leaf nodes, including examples such as I, J, K, f, l, m, and h.', 'The distinction between leaf nodes (external nodes) and non-leaf nodes (internal nodes) is highlighted, with quantifiable examples including a, b, c, d, e, and g.', 'The different types of nodes, such as grandparent, parent, and child nodes, are introduced to illustrate the hierarchy within the node structure.']}, {'end': 1008.732, 'start': 677.625, 'title': 'Path, ancestor, and descendant in trees', 'summary': 'Explains the concepts of path, ancestor, and descendant in trees, illustrating with examples and formal definitions, emphasizing the importance of unidirectional links and identifying common ancestors and descendants, and defining subtrees within a tree.', 'duration': 331.107, 'highlights': ['The chapter emphasizes the concept of path as a sequence of consecutive edges from source node to destination node, exemplifying the path from B to J as BE and EJ, highlighting the importance of unidirectional links and emphasizing the formal definition of a path.', 'It discusses the concept of ancestor as any predecessor node on the path from root to that node, exemplifying the ancestor of L as A, C, and G, and emphasizing the importance of identifying common ancestors and descendants within a tree.', 'The chapter defines descendant as any successor node on the path from that node to the leaf node, exemplifying the descendant of C as G, L, and M, and explaining the concept of subtree as containing a node of the tree and all its descendants, with examples of three subtrees within a given tree.']}], 'duration': 440.808, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/YAdLFsTG70w/pics/YAdLFsTG70w567924.jpg', 'highlights': ['The concept of subtree is explained, containing a node and all its descendants.', 'The distinction between leaf and non-leaf nodes is highlighted with quantifiable examples.', 'The concept of ancestor is discussed, exemplifying the ancestor of a specific node.', 'The concept of descendant is explained, exemplifying the descendant of a specific node.', 'The concept of path is emphasized as a sequence of consecutive edges from source to destination node.']}, {'end': 1498.14, 'segs': [{'end': 1037.704, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1008.732, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 1012.354, 'text': 'also, if you consider this one, so within this tree also, there is two sub tree.', 'start': 1008.732, 'duration': 3.622}, {'end': 1013.795, 'text': 'one is this one.', 'start': 1012.354, 'duration': 1.441}, {'end': 1015.256, 'text': 'one is this one now.', 'start': 1013.795, 'duration': 1.461}, {'end': 1018.338, 'text': 'next is sibling and degree.', 'start': 1015.256, 'duration': 3.082}, {'end': 1022.735, 'text': 'sibling is what All the children of same parent.', 'start': 1018.338, 'duration': 4.397}, {'end': 1024.396, 'text': 'Those are known as sibling.', 'start': 1023.035, 'duration': 1.361}, {'end': 1027.358, 'text': 'So you can say E and F.', 'start': 1024.935, 'duration': 2.423}, {'end': 1029.419, 'text': 'The parent of E and F is what? Same.', 'start': 1027.358, 'duration': 2.061}, {'end': 1030.06, 'text': 'That is B.', 'start': 1029.459, 'duration': 0.601}, {'end': 1031.481, 'text': 'So E and F are sibling.', 'start': 1030.06, 'duration': 1.421}, {'end': 1035.463, 'text': 'Can we say F and G are sibling? No.', 'start': 1032.32, 'duration': 3.143}, {'end': 1037.704, 'text': 'See the parent of F is what? B.', 'start': 1035.583, 'duration': 2.121}], 'summary': 'The transcript discusses tree structures and explains the concept of siblings within the tree, with an example of e and f being siblings under parent b.', 'duration': 28.972, 'max_score': 1008.732, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/YAdLFsTG70w/pics/YAdLFsTG70w1008732.jpg'}, {'end': 1150.977, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1064.904, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 1067.506, 'text': 'is m having any child node?', 'start': 1064.904, 'duration': 2.602}, {'end': 1069.928, 'text': 'no, so degree of m is what zero.', 'start': 1067.506, 'duration': 2.422}, {'end': 1073.21, 'text': 'so degree of all the leaf nodes are zero.', 'start': 1069.928, 'duration': 3.282}, {'end': 1077.871, 'text': 'fine, now, See, degree of F is also 0..', 'start': 1073.21, 'duration': 4.661}, {'end': 1080.955, 'text': 'Now degree of E is what? 1, 2 and 3, number of children.', 'start': 1077.871, 'duration': 3.084}, {'end': 1087.062, 'text': 'Now if I ask you degree of this tree, then what you can say? The maximum degree.', 'start': 1081.195, 'duration': 5.867}, {'end': 1089.206, 'text': 'Of any node.', 'start': 1088.365, 'duration': 0.841}, {'end': 1091.907, 'text': 'That is known as degree of this tree.', 'start': 1089.686, 'duration': 2.221}, {'end': 1095.99, 'text': 'So the maximum degree in this tree is what? 3 only.', 'start': 1092.768, 'duration': 3.222}, {'end': 1100.293, 'text': 'Right? Because no node is having more than 3 children.', 'start': 1096.45, 'duration': 3.843}, {'end': 1102.254, 'text': 'So the maximum degree is 3.', 'start': 1100.833, 'duration': 1.421}, {'end': 1105.777, 'text': 'So you can say degree of this tree is also 3.', 'start': 1102.254, 'duration': 3.523}, {'end': 1107.678, 'text': 'So next is depth of a node.', 'start': 1105.777, 'duration': 1.901}, {'end': 1110.4, 'text': 'Here I have written sibling and what is? Degree.', 'start': 1107.938, 'duration': 2.462}, {'end': 1117.965, 'text': 'Right? Now depth of a node is what? See the length of the path from root to that node.', 'start': 1110.74, 'duration': 7.225}, {'end': 1121.906, 'text': 'now how to find out the length of the path.', 'start': 1118.845, 'duration': 3.061}, {'end': 1127.267, 'text': 'see now, path is what, as we have discussed, it is sequence of consecutive edges.', 'start': 1121.906, 'duration': 5.361}, {'end': 1135.67, 'text': 'right. so, in the simple terms, you can say what is depth of a node, number of edges from root to that node.', 'start': 1127.267, 'duration': 8.403}, {'end': 1137.41, 'text': 'as simple as that right now.', 'start': 1135.67, 'duration': 1.74}, {'end': 1140.371, 'text': 'if i ask you what is depth of f?', 'start': 1137.41, 'duration': 2.961}, {'end': 1146.075, 'text': 'fine, so find out the number of edges from root to this node.', 'start': 1141.493, 'duration': 4.582}, {'end': 1148.516, 'text': 'so root is a number of edges from root to this node.', 'start': 1146.075, 'duration': 2.441}, {'end': 1150.977, 'text': 'is what one and two.', 'start': 1148.516, 'duration': 2.461}], 'summary': 'The maximum degree of the tree is 3, and the depth of node f is 2.', 'duration': 86.073, 'max_score': 1064.904, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/YAdLFsTG70w/pics/YAdLFsTG70w1064904.jpg'}, {'end': 1279.648, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1248.3, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 1261.711, 'text': 'now, if I ask you height of B, just find out the path from that node to its leaf node, right, or you can say to its deepest leaf node,', 'start': 1248.3, 'duration': 13.411}, {'end': 1263.393, 'text': 'or you can say the longest path.', 'start': 1261.711, 'duration': 1.682}, {'end': 1265.395, 'text': 'you have to find out right.', 'start': 1263.393, 'duration': 2.002}, {'end': 1272.203, 'text': 'so now from b, see the leaf node are f also, but the path is having only one edge.', 'start': 1265.395, 'duration': 6.808}, {'end': 1275.526, 'text': 'so this is one edge From B to I.', 'start': 1272.203, 'duration': 3.323}, {'end': 1277.147, 'text': '1,, 2, 2 edges are there.', 'start': 1275.526, 'duration': 1.621}, {'end': 1279.648, 'text': 'From B to J, we have 1, 2 edges are there.', 'start': 1277.267, 'duration': 2.381}], 'summary': 'Finding the longest path from node b to its deepest leaf node, reveals 2 edges to nodes f and j.', 'duration': 31.348, 'max_score': 1248.3, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/YAdLFsTG70w/pics/YAdLFsTG70w1248300.jpg'}, {'end': 1498.14, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1471.89, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 1475.713, 'text': 'And height of this tree is what? Just find out height of the root node.', 'start': 1471.89, 'duration': 3.823}, {'end': 1478.315, 'text': 'Height of the root node is what? 1, 2 and 3.', 'start': 1475.753, 'duration': 2.562}, {'end': 1479.836, 'text': 'The longest path is having 3 edges.', 'start': 1478.315, 'duration': 1.521}, {'end': 1485.761, 'text': 'So you can say level of a tree is equal to height of a tree.', 'start': 1480.236, 'duration': 5.525}, {'end': 1491.479, 'text': 'Level of a node is not equal to height of a node.', 'start': 1487.538, 'duration': 3.941}, {'end': 1494.959, 'text': 'And level of the tree is also equal to depth of the tree.', 'start': 1492.319, 'duration': 2.64}, {'end': 1498.14, 'text': 'And level of a node is equal to depth of a node.', 'start': 1495.239, 'duration': 2.901}], 'summary': "The height of the tree's root node is 3, and the longest path has 3 edges.", 'duration': 26.25, 'max_score': 1471.89, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/YAdLFsTG70w/pics/YAdLFsTG70w1471890.jpg'}], 'start': 1008.732, 'title': 'Tree structures and concepts', 'summary': 'Discusses sibling and degree concepts in tree structures, with sibling nodes sharing the same parent, and the degree of a node referring to the number of its children. it also covers tree degree, depth, height, and level, with the maximum tree degree being 3, the depth determined by the number of edges from the root, the height calculated as the longest path to the leaf node, and the level being equivalent to the depth, while the tree level equals its height.', 'chapters': [{'end': 1064.904, 'start': 1008.732, 'title': 'Tree structure and node relationships', 'summary': 'Discusses the concept of sibling and degree in tree structures, where sibling nodes share the same parent and the degree of a node refers to the number of its children.', 'duration': 56.172, 'highlights': ['Sibling nodes share the same parent, while non-sibling nodes are considered as cousins. Nodes E and F are siblings as they share the same parent (B), while F and G are not siblings but cousins because they have different parents (B and C).', 'Degree of a node is defined as the number of its children. For example, the degree of node A is three as it has three children, and the degree of node M is not provided in the given transcript.']}, {'end': 1498.14, 'start': 1064.904, 'title': 'Tree degree, depth, height & level', 'summary': 'Discusses the concepts of tree degree, depth, height, and level, where the maximum degree of the tree is 3, the depth of a node is determined by the number of edges from the root, the height of a node is found by calculating the longest path to its leaf node, and the level of a node is equivalent to its depth, with the level of the tree being equal to its height.', 'duration': 433.236, 'highlights': ["The maximum degree in this tree is 3. The tree's maximum degree is 3 as no node has more than 3 children.", 'The height of the root node is 3. The longest path from the root node to its leaf nodes comprises 3 edges, determining the height of the root node as 3.', 'The level of the tree is equal to the height of the tree, both being 3. The level of the tree, representing the number of hierarchies, is 3, which is equivalent to the height of the tree.', 'The depth of a node is determined by the number of edges from the root. The depth of a node is calculated based on the number of edges from the root to that particular node.', 'The height of a node is found by calculating the longest path to its leaf node. The height of a node is determined by identifying the longest path from the node to its leaf node.']}], 'duration': 489.408, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/YAdLFsTG70w/pics/YAdLFsTG70w1008732.jpg', 'highlights': ['Sibling nodes share the same parent, while non-sibling nodes are considered as cousins.', 'Degree of a node is defined as the number of its children.', 'The maximum degree in this tree is 3.', 'The height of the root node is 3.', 'The level of the tree is equal to the height of the tree, both being 3.', 'The depth of a node is determined by the number of edges from the root.', 'The height of a node is found by calculating the longest path to its leaf node.']}, {'end': 1756.052, 'segs': [{'end': 1591.475, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 1542.692, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 1547.219, 'text': 'obviously, we cannot represent a tree in the memory, something like this, right.', 'start': 1542.692, 'duration': 4.527}, {'end': 1551.185, 'text': 'so how we are going to represent that this tree into the memory?', 'start': 1547.219, 'duration': 3.966}, {'end': 1552.206, 'text': 'see, See.', 'start': 1551.185, 'duration': 1.021}, {'end': 1554.387, 'text': 'now, here, basically, we will discuss about binary trees.', 'start': 1552.206, 'duration': 2.181}, {'end': 1557.828, 'text': 'It means a tree can have at most two children.', 'start': 1554.507, 'duration': 3.321}, {'end': 1564.23, 'text': 'So how you are going to represent this binary tree actually? How you are going to implement this one? See these are nodes.', 'start': 1557.948, 'duration': 6.282}, {'end': 1566.931, 'text': 'So how you are going to represent a node here?', 'start': 1564.65, 'duration': 2.281}, {'end': 1570.452, 'text': 'dynamically. obviously we are going to create a node.', 'start': 1567.851, 'duration': 2.601}, {'end': 1575.052, 'text': 'so this is what a data part which is containing this data as well as two links are there.', 'start': 1570.452, 'duration': 4.6}, {'end': 1578.033, 'text': 'one is link means one link, left link.', 'start': 1575.052, 'duration': 2.981}, {'end': 1582.634, 'text': 'this will contain address of the sub, this left subtree.', 'start': 1578.033, 'duration': 4.601}, {'end': 1585.934, 'text': 'this is going to contain address of this subtree.', 'start': 1582.634, 'duration': 3.3}, {'end': 1589.935, 'text': 'right, or you can say root of this subtree and root of this subtree.', 'start': 1585.934, 'duration': 4.001}, {'end': 1591.475, 'text': 'so two links would be there.', 'start': 1589.935, 'duration': 1.54}], 'summary': 'Discussion on representing binary trees in memory with data and two links.', 'duration': 65.4, 'max_score': 1542.692, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/YAdLFsTG70w/pics/YAdLFsTG70w1542692.jpg'}, {'end': 1696.248, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1650.362, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 1653.944, 'text': 'this thing we have already discussed when we were discussing the linked list.', 'start': 1650.362, 'duration': 3.582}, {'end': 1656.845, 'text': 'obviously we are going to dynamically create this node.', 'start': 1653.944, 'duration': 2.901}, {'end': 1663.511, 'text': "so we are going to use what struct name is what i'm taking node.", 'start': 1656.845, 'duration': 6.666}, {'end': 1665.614, 'text': "and here i'm taking three parts.", 'start': 1663.511, 'duration': 2.103}, {'end': 1669.059, 'text': 'one is data part, next is two links would be there.', 'start': 1665.614, 'duration': 3.445}, {'end': 1676.07, 'text': 'one is left and one is what struct node, a strict right link, right.', 'start': 1669.059, 'duration': 7.011}, {'end': 1681.493, 'text': 'this should be the this representation of this node right.', 'start': 1676.07, 'duration': 5.423}, {'end': 1682.314, 'text': 'here i am taking.', 'start': 1681.493, 'duration': 0.821}, {'end': 1683.335, 'text': 'b means character.', 'start': 1682.314, 'duration': 1.021}, {'end': 1683.876, 'text': 'we are taking.', 'start': 1683.335, 'duration': 0.541}, {'end': 1685.958, 'text': 'so here you can take character.', 'start': 1683.876, 'duration': 2.082}, {'end': 1687.72, 'text': 'that data type should be character.', 'start': 1685.958, 'duration': 1.762}, {'end': 1688.781, 'text': 'here i am taking int.', 'start': 1687.72, 'duration': 1.061}, {'end': 1692.484, 'text': 'so basically you can consider here i am having one, two, three, four, right.', 'start': 1688.781, 'duration': 3.703}, {'end': 1696.248, 'text': 'or you can write here care also float also, as you wish, or you can take string also.', 'start': 1692.484, 'duration': 3.764}], 'summary': 'Creating a node with data and two links for a linked list implementation.', 'duration': 45.886, 'max_score': 1650.362, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/YAdLFsTG70w/pics/YAdLFsTG70w1650362.jpg'}, {'end': 1747.25, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1718.311, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 1722.995, 'text': 'So trees are used to basically implement this model, that file system.', 'start': 1718.311, 'duration': 4.684}, {'end': 1727.259, 'text': 'In routing protocols also we are going to use tree data structure.', 'start': 1724.136, 'duration': 3.123}, {'end': 1736.107, 'text': 'Next application may be it organize the data for a quick search or insertion and deletion like you can say as a binary search tree, heap tree also.', 'start': 1727.799, 'duration': 8.308}, {'end': 1743.389, 'text': 'right. so there are many applications of tree, one by one applications also we will discuss in later videos with the implementation.', 'start': 1736.627, 'duration': 6.762}, {'end': 1747.25, 'text': 'so now, in next video, we will discuss types of trees that you know you can say.', 'start': 1743.389, 'duration': 3.861}], 'summary': 'Trees are used in file systems and routing protocols, and have various applications like organizing data for quick search, insertion, and deletion. types of trees will be discussed in the next video.', 'duration': 28.939, 'max_score': 1718.311, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/YAdLFsTG70w/pics/YAdLFsTG70w1718311.jpg'}], 'start': 1499, 'title': 'Tree data structure', 'summary': 'Covers tree terminologies, binary tree representation, node structure, implementation, and applications such as hierarchical data, file systems, routing protocols, and data organization for efficient operations.', 'chapters': [{'end': 1566.931, 'start': 1499, 'title': 'Tree terminologies and representation', 'summary': 'Discusses tree terminologies including the condition that a tree with n nodes should have n-1 edges, and explains the representation of a binary tree with at most two children in memory.', 'duration': 67.931, 'highlights': ['The condition of a tree states that if a tree has n nodes, it should have n-1 edges, and adding one more edge would form a cycle, which is not allowed in a tree.', 'A binary tree can have at most two children, and the chapter explains the representation of a binary tree in memory through logical discussion.']}, {'end': 1696.248, 'start': 1567.851, 'title': 'Tree node structure and implementation', 'summary': 'Discusses the structure and implementation of tree nodes, containing data and two links, and creating nodes dynamically to form a tree with varying degrees of child nodes and link storage.', 'duration': 128.397, 'highlights': ['The chapter explains the structure of a tree node, comprising data and two links, left and right, used to store the address of the left subtree and right subtree respectively.', "It details the implementation of tree nodes, involving the dynamic creation of nodes using a struct named 'node' with three parts: data and two links, left and right.", 'The transcript discusses the creation of nodes with varying data types, such as character, integer, float, or string, to accommodate different types of data within the nodes.']}, {'end': 1756.052, 'start': 1696.248, 'title': 'Applications of tree data structure', 'summary': 'Discusses the applications of tree data structure, such as implementing hierarchical data, file systems, routing protocols, and organizing data for quick search, insertion, and deletion. it also provides a brief introduction to types of trees for future discussions.', 'duration': 59.804, 'highlights': ['Trees are used to implement hierarchical data and file systems, with directories, subdirectories, and files, providing a hierarchical form.', 'Routing protocols also make use of tree data structure for implementation.', 'Tree data structure organizes data for quick search, insertion, and deletion, as seen in binary search tree and heap tree applications.']}], 'duration': 257.052, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/YAdLFsTG70w/pics/YAdLFsTG70w1499000.jpg', 'highlights': ['The tree condition: n nodes should have n-1 edges, adding one more edge forms a cycle.', 'Binary tree can have at most two children, explained in memory representation.', 'Tree node structure: data and two links for left and right subtrees.', "Implementation of tree nodes using a struct named 'node' with data and links.", 'Creation of nodes with varying data types: character, integer, float, or string.', 'Trees used for hierarchical data, file systems, and routing protocols.', 'Tree data structure organizes data for quick search, insertion, and deletion.']}], 'highlights': ['The tree data structure organizes data for quick search, insertion, and deletion.', 'The logical representation of a tree in data structure involves a hierarchical relationship among data items, simulating a non-linear structure.', 'The directional nature of trees in the context of data structure implies a one-way path from top to bottom, allowing traversal in that direction only.', 'The concept of subtree is explained, containing a node and all its descendants.', 'The distinction between leaf and non-leaf nodes is highlighted with quantifiable examples.', 'The concept of ancestor is discussed, exemplifying the ancestor of a specific node.', 'The concept of descendant is explained, exemplifying the descendant of a specific node.', 'The concept of path is emphasized as a sequence of consecutive edges from source to destination node.', 'The maximum degree in this tree is 3.', 'The height of the root node is 3.', 'The level of the tree is equal to the height of the tree, both being 3.', 'The depth of a node is determined by the number of edges from the root.', 'The height of a node is found by calculating the longest path to its leaf node.', 'The tree condition: n nodes should have n-1 edges, adding one more edge forms a cycle.', 'Binary tree can have at most two children, explained in memory representation.', 'Tree node structure: data and two links for left and right subtrees.', "Implementation of tree nodes using a struct named 'node' with data and links.", 'Creation of nodes with varying data types: character, integer, float, or string.', 'Trees used for hierarchical data, file systems, and routing protocols.', 'Explaining the difference between linear and non-linear data structures', 'Providing examples of hierarchical data using organizational structures', 'Discussing the representation of linear data structures', 'The concept of parent nodes as the immediate predecessor of any node, with examples of identifying parent nodes in the hierarchy.', 'It describes child nodes as the immediate successors of a node, exemplifying with the immediate successors of a node in the hierarchy and highlighting nodes without children.', 'It explains the types of data that nodes can contain, including numbers, characters, and strings, emphasizing that nodes are the fundamental elements of a tree data structure.', 'The chapter explains that a tree is a collection of nodes linked together to simulate a hierarchy, with nodes containing information and links to the next node, and can be defined as a non-linear data structure.', 'It defines the root as the topmost element that does not have any parent, and nodes as elements that store information and contain links to other nodes, exemplifying with the hierarchy of a college represented as nodes.']}