title

Six Sigma Full Course in 7 Hours | Six Sigma Green Belt Training | Six Sigma Training | Simplilearn

description

🔥 Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Certification Training Course: https://www.simplilearn.com/quality-management/lean-six-sigma-green-belt-training?utm_campaign=SixSigma-KfFez57ay6E&utm_medium=Descriptionff&utm_source=youtube
Excel in process improvement and quality management with our comprehensive Six Sigma Full Course, providing in-depth training on key methodologies.
In this Six Sigma Full Course Video, we'll teach you everything you need to know about Six Sigma and its underlying concepts in detail! Starting with Lean Six Sigma Explained with Six Sigma Green Belt Training including proper references. By the end of this video all your doubts related to lean six sigma would be cleared.
So without further ado, let’s jump in.
00:00:00 Six Sigma Explained
00:16:11 Introduction to six sigma
00:29:02 Six Sigma overview
01:07:09 Six Sigma Green belt - Define
02:38:01 Six Sigma Green belt - Measure
04:35:47 Six Sigma Green belt - Analyze
06:13:49 Six Sigma Green belt - Improve
06:44:25 Six Sigma vs Lean
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#SixSigmaFullCourse #LeanSixSigma #SixSigmaGreenBeltTraining #WhatIsLearnSixSigma #LeanSixSigmaExplained #LeanSixSigmaExplainedSimply #LeanSixSigmaTraining #Simplilearn
Learn to develop your organizational projects with the Lean Six Sigma Green Belt certification online program. Aligned to the IASSC exam, this online six sigma certification integrates lean and the DMAIC methodology with case studies to provide you the skills required for an organization's growth.
✅About Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Certification Training Course
Designed to align with the leading Green Belt certifications at IASSC, this Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Certification Course offers a complete introduction to Six Sigma, DMAIC methodology, how to measure company performance, identify issues and offer solutions using real-world examples. Enroll now!
✅Key features
- 35 PDUs offered
- 4 simulation test papers, 4 real-life projects
- Aligned to IASSC
✅Skills Covered
- Implement Lean Six Sigma projects
- Project Management
- Measurement System Analysis
- Data Analysis
- Lean Principles
- Hypothesis Testing
- Process Analysis
- DFSS tools
👉Learn More at: https://www.simplilearn.com/quality-management/lean-six-sigma-green-belt-training?utm_campaign=SixSigma-KfFez57ay6E&utm_medium=Description&utm_source=youtube
🔥🔥 Interested in Attending Live Classes? Call Us: IN - 18002127688 / US - +18445327688

detail

{'title': 'Six Sigma Full Course in 7 Hours | Six Sigma Green Belt Training | Six Sigma Training | Simplilearn', 'heatmap': [{'end': 1962.776, 'start': 735.157, 'weight': 1}, {'end': 3187.436, 'start': 2934.185, 'weight': 0.742}, {'end': 4168.939, 'start': 3922.699, 'weight': 0.783}], 'summary': 'This 7-hour six sigma green belt training video covers comprehensive topics including lean six sigma methodologies, statistical analysis, process improvement tools, and practical examples, aimed at project professionals, with a focus on luxury car production industry challenges and solutions.', 'chapters': [{'end': 46.771, 'segs': [{'end': 46.771, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4.482, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 8.545, 'text': 'Hello guys, welcome to this Six Sigma full course video by Simply Learn.', 'start': 4.482, 'duration': 4.063}, {'end': 15.589, 'text': "In this video, we'll cover everything you'll need to know about Six Sigma and cover the major concepts of Lean Six Sigma.", 'start': 9.125, 'duration': 6.464}, {'end': 22.814, 'text': 'We will start out with an animated video covering each of these concepts and go into more detail on the DMEIC process.', 'start': 16.329, 'duration': 6.485}, {'end': 26.279, 'text': 'We will also cover the different Six Sigma Bells and much more.', 'start': 23.234, 'duration': 3.045}, {'end': 29.063, 'text': "So without further ado, let's jump right into it.", 'start': 26.719, 'duration': 2.344}, {'end': 30.725, 'text': 'Before we do that,', 'start': 29.764, 'duration': 0.961}, {'end': 37.234, 'text': "don't forget to get subscribed to our YouTube channel and don't forget to hit that bell icon so that you can never miss an update from Simply Learn.", 'start': 30.725, 'duration': 6.509}, {'end': 39.478, 'text': 'Now over to our training experts.', 'start': 37.755, 'duration': 1.723}, {'end': 43.55, 'text': "Imagine you've been tasked with a really important project at work.", 'start': 40.009, 'duration': 3.541}, {'end': 46.771, 'text': "The company you're working for produces luxury cars.", 'start': 44.01, 'duration': 2.761}], 'summary': 'Six sigma full course covering lean six sigma concepts and dmeic process, for professionals in luxury car production.', 'duration': 42.289, 'max_score': 4.482, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E4482.jpg'}], 'start': 4.482, 'title': 'Six sigma and lean six sigma', 'summary': 'Provides a comprehensive overview of six sigma and lean six sigma, including the dmeic process and various six sigma bells, in an animated video targeted at individuals involved in significant projects, particularly within the luxury car production industry.', 'chapters': [{'end': 46.771, 'start': 4.482, 'title': 'Six sigma full course', 'summary': 'Covers everything about six sigma and lean six sigma, including the dmeic process and different six sigma bells, presented in an animated video and is targeted at individuals tasked with important projects at work, specifically within the luxury car production industry.', 'duration': 42.289, 'highlights': ['The chapter covers everything about Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma, including the DMEIC process and different Six Sigma Bells.', 'The video is presented in an animated format, making the learning experience engaging and interactive.', 'The content is targeted at individuals tasked with important projects at work, specifically within the luxury car production industry.']}], 'duration': 42.289, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E4482.jpg', 'highlights': ['The chapter covers everything about Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma, including the DMEIC process and different Six Sigma Bells.', 'The content is targeted at individuals tasked with important projects at work, specifically within the luxury car production industry.', 'The video is presented in an animated format, making the learning experience engaging and interactive.']}, {'end': 1006.275, 'segs': [{'end': 123.969, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 92.535, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 96.117, 'text': 'Since then, Six Sigma has seen worldwide adoption.', 'start': 92.535, 'duration': 3.582}, {'end': 103.86, 'text': 'Six Sigma aims to reduce the time, defects, and variability experienced by processes in an organization.', 'start': 96.717, 'duration': 7.143}, {'end': 110.603, 'text': 'Thanks to Six Sigma, you can produce a defect-free product 99.9996% of the time, allowing only 3.4 errors per 1 million opportunities.', 'start': 104.381, 'duration': 6.222}, {'end': 123.969, 'text': 'Six Sigma also increases customer loyalty towards the brand, improves employee morale, leading to higher productivity.', 'start': 116.306, 'duration': 7.663}], 'summary': 'Six sigma achieves 99.9996% defect-free products, improving customer loyalty and employee morale.', 'duration': 31.434, 'max_score': 92.535, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E92535.jpg'}, {'end': 284.137, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 255.299, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 258.781, 'text': 'Now the car can be moved across the assembly area faster.', 'start': 255.299, 'duration': 3.482}, {'end': 266.086, 'text': 'And finally, in the control phase, you make regular adjustments to control new processes and future performance.', 'start': 259.382, 'duration': 6.704}, {'end': 275.652, 'text': 'Based on the changes made, the company was able to reduce production time and manufacture about 2,000 cars a day with a higher quality of output.', 'start': 266.666, 'duration': 8.986}, {'end': 280.095, 'text': 'DMAIC is one of the most commonly used methodologies in the world.', 'start': 276.032, 'duration': 4.063}, {'end': 284.137, 'text': 'It focuses on improving the existing products of the organization.', 'start': 280.695, 'duration': 3.442}], 'summary': 'Using dmaic, company reduced production time, making 2,000 cars/day with higher quality output.', 'duration': 28.838, 'max_score': 255.299, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E255299.jpg'}, {'end': 472.231, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 447.75, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 453.456, 'text': 'Lean is a methodology that aims to remove any part of the process that does not bring value to the customer.', 'start': 447.75, 'duration': 5.706}, {'end': 457.48, 'text': 'It means doing more with less while doing it better.', 'start': 453.957, 'duration': 3.523}, {'end': 464.627, 'text': 'The philosophy behind Lean comes from the Japanese manufacturing industry by Bob Hartman, who at the time was part of Toyota.', 'start': 458.041, 'duration': 6.586}, {'end': 472.231, 'text': 'Since then, across the world, services and manufacturing organizations have incorporated Lean within their businesses.', 'start': 465.248, 'duration': 6.983}], 'summary': 'Lean methodology aims to remove non-value adding processes, inspired by japanese manufacturing, widely adopted worldwide.', 'duration': 24.481, 'max_score': 447.75, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E447750.jpg'}, {'end': 550.978, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 520.472, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 522.794, 'text': "Now, let's get back to Lean Six Sigma.", 'start': 520.472, 'duration': 2.322}, {'end': 529.981, 'text': 'Lean Six Sigma is a methodology that focuses on eliminating problems, removing inefficiencies and waste,', 'start': 523.476, 'duration': 6.505}, {'end': 534.564, 'text': "while improving the working conditions to ensure the customer's needs are better satisfied.", 'start': 529.981, 'duration': 4.583}, {'end': 539.367, 'text': 'It combines the tools, methods and principles of Lean and Six Sigma.', 'start': 535.144, 'duration': 4.223}, {'end': 543.871, 'text': "We'll have another video detailing the process of Lean Six Sigma very soon.", 'start': 539.928, 'duration': 3.943}, {'end': 547.194, 'text': "Imagine you're the manager of a supermarket chain.", 'start': 544.711, 'duration': 2.483}, {'end': 550.978, 'text': "You've noticed that two things need your immediate attention.", 'start': 547.815, 'duration': 3.163}], 'summary': 'Lean six sigma focuses on eliminating problems, waste, and improving customer satisfaction. it combines lean and six sigma principles.', 'duration': 30.506, 'max_score': 520.472, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E520472.jpg'}], 'start': 47.312, 'title': 'Production improvement and lean six sigma methodology', 'summary': 'Discusses the decrease in production numbers from 1000 to 2000 cars per day, windshield wiper quality issues, and the potential solution using six sigma, achieving a defect-free product 99.9996% of the time. it also details the use of dmaic methodology to improve the manufacturing process and introduces lean six sigma, with examples demonstrating its benefits like reduced defects, process standardization, and increased profits.', 'chapters': [{'end': 145.836, 'start': 47.312, 'title': 'Production improvement and quality control', 'summary': 'Discusses the decrease in production numbers from 1000 to 2000 cars per day, the issue with windshield wiper quality, and the potential solution using six sigma, which can achieve a defect-free product 99.9996% of the time and increase customer loyalty.', 'duration': 98.524, 'highlights': ['Six Sigma allows for a defect-free product 99.9996% of the time, with only 3.4 errors per 1 million opportunities, leading to increased customer loyalty and improved employee morale.', 'The DMAIC methodology in Six Sigma (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control) can be utilized to address the decrease in production numbers and the quality issue with windshield wipers.', 'The concept of Six Sigma was introduced in 1980 by Bill Smith and has since seen worldwide adoption, aiming to reduce time, defects, and variability experienced by processes in an organization.']}, {'end': 519.832, 'start': 146.516, 'title': 'Improving manufacturing process with dmaic methodology', 'summary': 'Details the use of the dmaic methodology to improve the manufacturing process, resulting in an increase in car production from 1000 to 2000 cars per day, along with the introduction of lean six sigma and its success in various industries.', 'duration': 373.316, 'highlights': ['DMAIC methodology resulted in doubling the car production from 1000 to 2000 cars per day, along with higher quality output.', 'The utilization of Lean Six Sigma philosophy in various industries, including petrochemical, healthcare, banking, government, and software, has contributed to achieving business goals.', 'The concept of Lean aims to remove non-value adding parts of the process and has been widely adopted by services and manufacturing organizations globally.', 'The DMADV methodology is used when creating a new product or service from scratch, with a focus on Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, and Verify phases.']}, {'end': 1006.275, 'start': 520.472, 'title': 'Lean six sigma overview', 'summary': 'Introduces lean six sigma, a methodology combining lean and six sigma to eliminate waste, improve processes, and meet customer needs, with examples demonstrating its benefits like reduced defects, process standardization, and increased profits.', 'duration': 485.803, 'highlights': ['Lean Six Sigma methodology combines Lean and Six Sigma to eliminate waste, improve processes, and satisfy customer needs, leading to benefits like increased profits, reduced errors, and value to customers. The Lean Six Sigma methodology offers many benefits such as increased profits, standardized and simplified processes, reduced errors, employee development, and value to customers.', 'Lean focuses on providing value to the customer, eliminating waste, continuous improvement, and reducing cycle time, while Six Sigma aims to handle waste and defects, with methodologies like DMAIC and DMADV for process improvement and defect removal. Lean methodology focuses on providing value to the customer, eliminating waste, continuous improvement, and reducing cycle time, while Six Sigma aims to handle waste and defects through methodologies like DMAIC and DMADV.', 'Lean and Six Sigma both aim to handle different types of waste, with Lean focusing on waste reduction through methodologies like JIT, 5S, and Kanban, while Six Sigma uses tools and techniques to remove defects and improve processes. Lean and Six Sigma both aim to handle different types of waste, with Lean focusing on waste reduction through methodologies like JIT, 5S, and Kanban, while Six Sigma uses tools and techniques to remove defects and improve processes.']}], 'duration': 958.963, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E47312.jpg', 'highlights': ['Six Sigma allows for a defect-free product 99.9996% of the time, with only 3.4 errors per 1 million opportunities, leading to increased customer loyalty and improved employee morale.', 'DMAIC methodology resulted in doubling the car production from 1000 to 2000 cars per day, along with higher quality output.', 'The concept of Lean aims to remove non-value adding parts of the process and has been widely adopted by services and manufacturing organizations globally.', 'Lean Six Sigma methodology combines Lean and Six Sigma to eliminate waste, improve processes, and satisfy customer needs, leading to benefits like increased profits, reduced errors, and value to customers.']}, {'end': 3194.838, 'segs': [{'end': 1097.732, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1037.335, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 1045.06, 'text': 'The Six Sigma methodology makes sure to find, as well as eliminate, any sort of defect or variation that could be affecting your product,', 'start': 1037.335, 'duration': 7.725}, {'end': 1046.121, 'text': 'service or process.', 'start': 1045.06, 'duration': 1.061}, {'end': 1051.364, 'text': 'Now this methodology is statistics based, is data driven and focused on continuous improvement.', 'start': 1046.32, 'duration': 5.044}, {'end': 1053.786, 'text': "Now this means that there's no end goal in the horizon.", 'start': 1051.524, 'duration': 2.262}, {'end': 1055.787, 'text': "There's always another goal to reach.", 'start': 1053.926, 'duration': 1.861}, {'end': 1059.03, 'text': 'There are three core ideologies behind Six Sigma.', 'start': 1056.147, 'duration': 2.883}, {'end': 1062.434, 'text': 'The first one states that for any business to be successful,', 'start': 1059.19, 'duration': 3.244}, {'end': 1067.82, 'text': "there's continuous efforts that are required so that you can achieve stable as well as predictable process results.", 'start': 1062.434, 'duration': 5.386}, {'end': 1074.988, 'text': 'The second ideology states that in any business or manufacturing process there are certain characteristics that can be defined, measured,', 'start': 1068.12, 'duration': 6.868}, {'end': 1076.57, 'text': 'analyzed and controlled.', 'start': 1075.288, 'duration': 1.282}, {'end': 1080.313, 'text': 'The final ideology says that, along with the rest of the organization,', 'start': 1076.75, 'duration': 3.563}, {'end': 1085.239, 'text': "the top-level management plays a very important role to making sure that there's sustained quality.", 'start': 1080.313, 'duration': 4.926}, {'end': 1087.942, 'text': "Now let's talk about the advantages of Six Sigma.", 'start': 1085.399, 'duration': 2.543}, {'end': 1097.732, 'text': 'Six Sigma can help produce a roadmap or a path through which you can easily find and reduce any sort of organizational risk and reduce the operational costs.', 'start': 1088.262, 'duration': 9.47}], 'summary': 'Six sigma ensures defect elimination, data-driven, continuous improvement, and cost reduction.', 'duration': 60.397, 'max_score': 1037.335, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E1037335.jpg'}, {'end': 1142.027, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1116.807, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 1122.872, 'text': 'It helps improve the cash flow and ensures that the products are complying with the regulations of the organization.', 'start': 1116.807, 'duration': 6.065}, {'end': 1125.855, 'text': 'Now let me tell you about the process of Six Sigma.', 'start': 1123.233, 'duration': 2.622}, {'end': 1132.12, 'text': 'Now Six Sigma projects are of basically two methodologies, the DMAIC and the DMADV.', 'start': 1126.075, 'duration': 6.045}, {'end': 1134.721, 'text': "Now let's talk about DMAIC in detail.", 'start': 1132.28, 'duration': 2.441}, {'end': 1138.965, 'text': "That's short for Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control.", 'start': 1134.882, 'duration': 4.083}, {'end': 1142.027, 'text': 'This is one of the most commonly used methodologies in the world.', 'start': 1139.225, 'duration': 2.802}], 'summary': 'Six sigma improves cash flow, ensures compliance, and uses dmaic methodology.', 'duration': 25.22, 'max_score': 1116.807, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E1116807.jpg'}, {'end': 1430.267, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1398.7, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 1400.462, 'text': "and now we're at level 6.", 'start': 1398.7, 'duration': 1.762}, {'end': 1403.725, 'text': 'now these are individuals who have a yellow belt certification.', 'start': 1400.462, 'duration': 3.263}, {'end': 1411.572, 'text': 'They are core members of the Six Sigma team who have an understanding of how the basic metrics work and how they can perform some sort of improvement.', 'start': 1404.065, 'duration': 7.507}, {'end': 1417.617, 'text': 'They have their own areas of expertise and they are required to determine certain processes that need to improve.', 'start': 1412.032, 'duration': 5.585}, {'end': 1421.1, 'text': 'At the same time, they are also in charge of smaller improvement projects.', 'start': 1417.877, 'duration': 3.223}, {'end': 1422.621, 'text': 'Now level 5.', 'start': 1421.34, 'duration': 1.281}, {'end': 1425.163, 'text': 'These are people who have a green belt certification.', 'start': 1422.621, 'duration': 2.542}, {'end': 1430.267, 'text': 'Now these individuals are usually part-time professionals who have a number of different duties to fulfill.', 'start': 1425.363, 'duration': 4.904}], 'summary': 'Level 6: yellow belt certification, core six sigma team members. level 5: green belt certification, part-time professionals with multiple duties.', 'duration': 31.567, 'max_score': 1398.7, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E1398700.jpg'}, {'end': 1563.961, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1540.978, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 1550.889, 'text': "Now, lean is a methodology that has a very important ideology to make sure that there's continuous optimization of the processes and there's an elimination of waste.", 'start': 1540.978, 'duration': 9.911}, {'end': 1557.136, 'text': "So what's waste? So waste is basically any part of the process that the customer doesn't want to pay for.", 'start': 1551.129, 'duration': 6.007}, {'end': 1560.858, 'text': 'It is a process that does not add any value to the customer.', 'start': 1557.456, 'duration': 3.402}, {'end': 1563.961, 'text': 'Now coming back to lean, here are some of its characteristics.', 'start': 1561.099, 'duration': 2.862}], 'summary': 'Lean methodology focuses on continuous process optimization and waste elimination by removing non-value adding processes.', 'duration': 22.983, 'max_score': 1540.978, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E1540978.jpg'}, {'end': 1634.113, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1605.318, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 1608.12, 'text': 'The Lean methodology aims to reduce waste.', 'start': 1605.318, 'duration': 2.802}, {'end': 1610.682, 'text': 'It does so by analyzing the workflow.', 'start': 1608.4, 'duration': 2.282}, {'end': 1616.125, 'text': 'It also emphasizes on minimizing resource usage and improving customer value.', 'start': 1610.862, 'duration': 5.263}, {'end': 1617.906, 'text': "Now let's talk about Six Sigma.", 'start': 1616.365, 'duration': 1.541}, {'end': 1621.309, 'text': 'The aim of Six Sigma is to provide near perfect results.', 'start': 1618.027, 'duration': 3.282}, {'end': 1624.971, 'text': 'It wants to reduce costs and improve customer satisfaction.', 'start': 1621.609, 'duration': 3.362}, {'end': 1631.673, 'text': 'Basically, both of them are moving towards the same goal to reduce the amount of waste and to create efficient processes.', 'start': 1625.211, 'duration': 6.462}, {'end': 1634.113, 'text': "Now let's talk about the process of lean now.", 'start': 1631.673, 'duration': 2.44}], 'summary': 'Lean and six sigma aim to reduce waste and improve efficiency and customer satisfaction.', 'duration': 28.795, 'max_score': 1605.318, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E1605318.jpg'}, {'end': 1727.218, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1700.443, 'weight': 7, 'content': [{'end': 1704.124, 'text': 'Lean Six Sigma is a methodology that aims to solve problems,', 'start': 1700.443, 'duration': 3.681}, {'end': 1711.706, 'text': 'removes any form of waste or inefficiency and improving the working conditions of employees to make sure that they can serve the customers better.', 'start': 1704.124, 'duration': 7.582}, {'end': 1717.69, 'text': 'Now this is a combination of the tools, methods and principles that are employed in Lean and Six Sigma.', 'start': 1711.966, 'duration': 5.724}, {'end': 1719.572, 'text': "Let's talk about some of its advantages.", 'start': 1717.83, 'duration': 1.742}, {'end': 1723.875, 'text': 'It aims to provide customers with a better experience by streamlining the process.', 'start': 1719.872, 'duration': 4.003}, {'end': 1727.218, 'text': 'With efficient power flows, it aims to drive higher results.', 'start': 1724.095, 'duration': 3.123}], 'summary': 'Lean six sigma improves efficiency, enhances customer experience, and drives higher results.', 'duration': 26.775, 'max_score': 1700.443, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E1700443.jpg'}, {'end': 1897.943, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1867.977, 'weight': 9, 'content': [{'end': 1872.279, 'text': 'with customer satisfaction and increased quality being byproducts.', 'start': 1867.977, 'duration': 4.302}, {'end': 1876.882, 'text': 'Six Sigma also requires extensive use of statistical methods.', 'start': 1873.16, 'duration': 3.722}, {'end': 1881.544, 'text': 'The next screen will focus on some key terms used in Six Sigma.', 'start': 1877.822, 'duration': 3.722}, {'end': 1886.707, 'text': 'Let us look at the Sigma level chart in this screen.', 'start': 1883.885, 'duration': 2.822}, {'end': 1897.943, 'text': 'As discussed earlier, the Six Sigma quality means 3.4 defects in 1 million opportunities or a process with a 99.99966% yield.', 'start': 1887.637, 'duration': 10.306}], 'summary': 'Six sigma aims for 3.4 defects per million, emphasizing quality and statistical methods.', 'duration': 29.966, 'max_score': 1867.977, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E1867977.jpg'}, {'end': 2112.956, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2088.568, 'weight': 8, 'content': [{'end': 2097.237, 'text': 'ISO 9000 is a set of international standards on quality management and quality assurance to help organizations implement quality management systems.', 'start': 2088.568, 'duration': 8.669}, {'end': 2098.858, 'text': 'ISO 9000 is still in effect.', 'start': 2098.017, 'duration': 0.841}, {'end': 2106.834, 'text': 'The Baldrige Award, now known as the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award,', 'start': 2101.493, 'duration': 5.341}, {'end': 2112.956, 'text': 'was developed by the U.S. Congress in 1987 to raise awareness of quality management systems,', 'start': 2106.834, 'duration': 6.122}], 'summary': 'Iso 9000 is an international standard on quality management still in effect; baldrige award raises quality management awareness.', 'duration': 24.388, 'max_score': 2088.568, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E2088568.jpg'}, {'end': 2211.237, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2156.604, 'weight': 10, 'content': [{'end': 2162.945, 'text': 'During the year 1996 through 1997, an approach known as re-engineering was developed.', 'start': 2156.604, 'duration': 6.341}, {'end': 2168.787, 'text': 'This approach involved the restructuring of an entire organization and its processes.', 'start': 2163.826, 'duration': 4.961}, {'end': 2176.888, 'text': 'Integrating various functional tasks into cross-functional processes is one of the examples of re-engineering.', 'start': 2169.687, 'duration': 7.201}, {'end': 2183.87, 'text': 'In the next screen, let us find out about the quality gurus and their contribution to the field of quality.', 'start': 2177.929, 'duration': 5.941}, {'end': 2189.723, 'text': 'Let us focus on Six Sigma and the business system in this screen.', 'start': 2185.58, 'duration': 4.143}, {'end': 2195.106, 'text': 'Business systems are designed to implement a process or a set of processes.', 'start': 2190.603, 'duration': 4.503}, {'end': 2205.473, 'text': 'A business system ensures that process inputs are at the right place and at the right time so that each step of the process has the resource it needs.', 'start': 2195.927, 'duration': 9.546}, {'end': 2211.237, 'text': 'A business system design should be responsible for collecting and analyzing data.', 'start': 2206.314, 'duration': 4.923}], 'summary': 'Re-engineering involved restructuring an org; business systems ensure process inputs are timely & resourceful.', 'duration': 54.633, 'max_score': 2156.604, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E2156604.jpg'}, {'end': 2445.779, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2415.17, 'weight': 12, 'content': [{'end': 2421.614, 'text': 'By doing so, it enables continuous improvement in strategic performance toward achieving organizational goals.', 'start': 2415.17, 'duration': 6.444}, {'end': 2433.689, 'text': 'The Balanced Scorecard achieves all this by integrating the organizational strategy with a limited number of key metrics from four major areas of performance finance,', 'start': 2422.54, 'duration': 11.149}, {'end': 2438.193, 'text': 'customer relations, internal processes and learning and growth.', 'start': 2433.689, 'duration': 4.504}, {'end': 2445.779, 'text': 'Many organizations in the world use Balanced Scorecard approaches, and the number is increasing every day.', 'start': 2439.154, 'duration': 6.625}], 'summary': 'Balanced scorecard integrates strategy with key metrics from 4 areas, used by many organizations.', 'duration': 30.609, 'max_score': 2415.17, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E2415170.jpg'}, {'end': 2479.126, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2458.594, 'weight': 13, 'content': [{'end': 2469.24, 'text': 'care must be taken to account for interactions between different perspectives or strategic business units and avoid optimizing the results of one at the expense of another.', 'start': 2458.594, 'duration': 10.646}, {'end': 2476.184, 'text': 'To outline the strategy, a top-down approach is followed by determining the strategic objectives, measures,', 'start': 2470.141, 'duration': 6.043}, {'end': 2479.126, 'text': 'targets and initiatives for each perspective.', 'start': 2476.184, 'duration': 2.942}], 'summary': 'Top-down approach used to outline strategy and optimize results for all perspectives.', 'duration': 20.532, 'max_score': 2458.594, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E2458594.jpg'}, {'end': 2598.722, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2571.993, 'weight': 14, 'content': [{'end': 2580.835, 'text': 'balanced scorecard recognizes the influence of one perspective on another and the effect of these interactions on organizational strategy.', 'start': 2571.993, 'duration': 8.842}, {'end': 2588.297, 'text': 'To achieve the objectives in one perspective, it is necessary to achieve the objectives in another perspective.', 'start': 2581.635, 'duration': 6.662}, {'end': 2593.661, 'text': 'In short, the four perspectives form a chain of cause and effect relationships.', 'start': 2589.059, 'duration': 4.602}, {'end': 2598.722, 'text': 'A map of interlinked objectives from each perspective is created.', 'start': 2594.641, 'duration': 4.081}], 'summary': 'Balanced scorecard uses 4 perspectives to create cause-effect relationships for organizational strategy.', 'duration': 26.729, 'max_score': 2571.993, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E2571993.jpg'}, {'end': 2647.472, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2622.61, 'weight': 15, 'content': [{'end': 2627.971, 'text': 'For example, financial success is dependent on giving customers what they want,', 'start': 2622.61, 'duration': 5.361}, {'end': 2633.693, 'text': 'which in turn depends on the internal processes and learning and growth at an individual level.', 'start': 2627.971, 'duration': 5.722}, {'end': 2639.595, 'text': 'In the next screen, we will look at the impact of the balanced scorecard on the organization.', 'start': 2634.693, 'duration': 4.902}, {'end': 2647.472, 'text': 'The balanced scorecard and strategy map force managers to consider cause-and-effect relationships,', 'start': 2641.411, 'duration': 6.061}], 'summary': 'Financial success depends on customer satisfaction and internal processes, influenced by balanced scorecard and strategy map.', 'duration': 24.862, 'max_score': 2622.61, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E2622610.jpg'}, {'end': 2698.809, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2667.478, 'weight': 16, 'content': [{'end': 2673.483, 'text': 'An organization is successful in meeting its objectives only when everyone understands the strategy.', 'start': 2667.478, 'duration': 6.005}, {'end': 2680.95, 'text': 'The balanced scorecard also forces an organization to measure what really matters and manage information better,', 'start': 2674.464, 'duration': 6.486}, {'end': 2683.633, 'text': 'so that quality of decision-making is higher.', 'start': 2680.95, 'duration': 2.683}, {'end': 2690.559, 'text': 'Creating performance reports against a balanced scorecard allows for a structured approach to reporting progress.', 'start': 2684.593, 'duration': 5.966}, {'end': 2698.809, 'text': 'It also enables organizations to create reports and dashboards to communicate performance transparently and meaningfully.', 'start': 2691.385, 'duration': 7.424}], 'summary': 'Understanding strategy is key to successful organization; balanced scorecard improves decision-making and reporting.', 'duration': 31.331, 'max_score': 2667.478, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E2667478.jpg'}, {'end': 2736.253, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2709.414, 'weight': 17, 'content': [{'end': 2718.218, 'text': 'The overall objectives of the BSE can be cascaded into each business unit to enable that unit to work toward the common organizational goal.', 'start': 2709.414, 'duration': 8.804}, {'end': 2726.53, 'text': 'All the activities of the organization, such as budgeting or risk management, are automatically aligned to the strategic objectives.', 'start': 2719.207, 'duration': 7.323}, {'end': 2736.253, 'text': 'To conclude, the Balance Scorecard is a simple and powerful tool that, when implemented correctly, equips an organization to perform better.', 'start': 2727.29, 'duration': 8.963}], 'summary': 'Bse aligns activities to strategic goals, improving organizational performance.', 'duration': 26.839, 'max_score': 2709.414, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E2709414.jpg'}, {'end': 2804.535, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2751.939, 'weight': 18, 'content': [{'end': 2754.681, 'text': 'Let us look at the process issues in this screen.', 'start': 2751.939, 'duration': 2.742}, {'end': 2763.306, 'text': 'Lean focuses on three major issues in a process, known by their Japanese names, Muda, Mura, and Muri.', 'start': 2755.521, 'duration': 7.785}, {'end': 2770.97, 'text': 'Muda refers to non-value-adding work, Mura represents unevenness, and Muri represents overburden.', 'start': 2764.186, 'duration': 6.784}, {'end': 2774.693, 'text': 'Together they represent the key aspects in Lean.', 'start': 2771.771, 'duration': 2.922}, {'end': 2778.383, 'text': 'Let us look at the types of waste in the next screen.', 'start': 2775.6, 'duration': 2.783}, {'end': 2786.59, 'text': 'There are seven types of muda or waste as per Lean principles.', 'start': 2782.546, 'duration': 4.044}, {'end': 2790.013, 'text': 'Let us understand these seven types of muda.', 'start': 2787.33, 'duration': 2.683}, {'end': 2795.378, 'text': 'Overproduction This refers to producing more than is required.', 'start': 2790.874, 'duration': 4.504}, {'end': 2799.982, 'text': 'For example, a customer needed 10 products and 12 were delivered.', 'start': 2796.018, 'duration': 3.964}, {'end': 2804.535, 'text': 'In simple words, this refers to stock.', 'start': 2800.931, 'duration': 3.604}], 'summary': 'Lean principles address 3 process issues: muda, mura, muri. 7 types of muda include overproduction.', 'duration': 52.596, 'max_score': 2751.939, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E2751939.jpg'}, {'end': 3187.436, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 2934.185, 'weight': 0.742, 'content': [{'end': 2942.546, 'text': 'Underperforming processes Automation of poorly performing process Improving a process that should be eliminated if possible.', 'start': 2934.185, 'duration': 8.361}, {'end': 2947.287, 'text': 'For example, the product returns department or product discounts process.', 'start': 2943.127, 'duration': 4.16}, {'end': 2950.608, 'text': 'Asymmetry in processes that should be eliminated.', 'start': 2948.108, 'duration': 2.5}, {'end': 2959.51, 'text': 'For example, two signatures to approve a cost reduction and six signatures to reverse a cost reduction that created higher costs in other areas.', 'start': 2951.108, 'duration': 8.402}, {'end': 2965.01, 'text': 'In the next screen, we will look at an exercise on identifying the waste type.', 'start': 2960.546, 'duration': 4.464}, {'end': 2969.393, 'text': 'We will cover each step of the lean process in the next few screens.', 'start': 2965.61, 'duration': 3.783}, {'end': 2973.676, 'text': 'In this screen, we will learn about the first step, identify value.', 'start': 2969.913, 'duration': 3.763}, {'end': 2979.381, 'text': 'To implement lean to a process, it is important to find out what the customer wants.', 'start': 2973.997, 'duration': 5.384}, {'end': 2988.028, 'text': 'Once this is done, the process should be evaluated to identify what it needs to possess to meet customer requirements.', 'start': 2980.242, 'duration': 7.786}, {'end': 2994.595, 'text': 'The next screen will focus on the next step of the lean process, value stream mapping.', 'start': 2988.971, 'duration': 5.624}, {'end': 3001.08, 'text': 'In this screen, we will discuss the differences between push and pull processes.', 'start': 2996.857, 'duration': 4.223}, {'end': 3006.484, 'text': 'An organization can adopt either of these processes depending on the requirement.', 'start': 3001.801, 'duration': 4.683}, {'end': 3014.671, 'text': 'Contrary to a pull process, in a push process, the first step is to forecast the demand for a product or service.', 'start': 3007.205, 'duration': 7.466}, {'end': 3022.137, 'text': 'The production line then begins to fill this demand and produced parts are stocked in anticipation of customer demand.', 'start': 3015.373, 'duration': 6.764}, {'end': 3030.863, 'text': 'For example, a garments manufacturer produces 200 shirts based on expected demand and then waits for customer orders for them.', 'start': 3022.938, 'duration': 7.925}, {'end': 3034.445, 'text': 'Note that the demand is expected and not actual.', 'start': 3031.664, 'duration': 2.781}, {'end': 3039.849, 'text': 'Discounts offered to customers by big retailers are examples of the push process.', 'start': 3035.086, 'duration': 4.763}, {'end': 3049.788, 'text': 'If the garment company adopts a pull process instead, it would start making the shirts only after receiving a confirmed demand from customers.', 'start': 3040.825, 'duration': 8.963}, {'end': 3055.41, 'text': 'Note that although the pull approach seems better, it is not applicable to all situations.', 'start': 3050.628, 'duration': 4.782}, {'end': 3058.871, 'text': 'For example, a pharmacy uses a push process.', 'start': 3055.91, 'duration': 2.961}, {'end': 3062.833, 'text': 'In the next screen, we will learn about theory of constraints.', 'start': 3059.712, 'duration': 3.121}, {'end': 3068.895, 'text': 'Let us look at an example for the TOC methodology in this screen.', 'start': 3064.853, 'duration': 4.042}, {'end': 3075.99, 'text': 'The three sub-processes in the packing process are coding or printing, filling and sealing.', 'start': 3069.807, 'duration': 6.183}, {'end': 3082.873, 'text': 'The data for the three sub-processes are observed and collected as number of units produced in an hour.', 'start': 3076.69, 'duration': 6.183}, {'end': 3085.054, 'text': 'The data is as follows.', 'start': 3083.694, 'duration': 1.36}, {'end': 3088.656, 'text': 'Coding or printing is 900 units per hour.', 'start': 3085.895, 'duration': 2.761}, {'end': 3094.639, 'text': 'Filling is 720 units per hour and sealing is 780 units per hour.', 'start': 3089.376, 'duration': 5.263}, {'end': 3103.134, 'text': 'How can you implement the TOC methodology in this example? Let us build the TOC map for this example.', 'start': 3095.419, 'duration': 7.715}, {'end': 3108.255, 'text': 'The first step in the TOC methodology is to identify the constraint.', 'start': 3103.974, 'duration': 4.281}, {'end': 3113.817, 'text': 'Looking at the data, the output per hour from the filling process is 720.', 'start': 3108.935, 'duration': 4.882}, {'end': 3116.677, 'text': 'This is the constraint in the system.', 'start': 3113.817, 'duration': 2.86}, {'end': 3122.859, 'text': 'In the second step, the constraint is exploited by analyzing the performance using data.', 'start': 3117.637, 'duration': 5.222}, {'end': 3130.396, 'text': 'To break the constraint, a repair and maintenance personnel can be assigned to maintain the filling machine on a daily basis.', 'start': 3123.632, 'duration': 6.764}, {'end': 3138.901, 'text': 'In the third step, the other fixes in the repair and maintenance function are made as subordinate decisions to the one taken in step two.', 'start': 3131.397, 'duration': 7.504}, {'end': 3142.924, 'text': 'In this example, carry out the maintenance of the filling machine.', 'start': 3139.842, 'duration': 3.082}, {'end': 3147.627, 'text': 'In the fourth step, the constraint is elevated by implementing the decisions.', 'start': 3143.884, 'duration': 3.743}, {'end': 3151.429, 'text': 'In this example, remove the damages from the filling machine.', 'start': 3148.327, 'duration': 3.102}, {'end': 3157.218, 'text': 'The next step is to go back to step 1 and identify the next system constraint.', 'start': 3152.315, 'duration': 4.903}, {'end': 3166.805, 'text': 'As per the data collected after implementation of the first cycle of the TOC, sealing can be identified as the next system constraint.', 'start': 3158.019, 'duration': 8.786}, {'end': 3173.489, 'text': 'Let us now analyze the data before and after TOC implementation in this example.', 'start': 3168.205, 'duration': 5.284}, {'end': 3181.335, 'text': 'The number of units produced per hour before implementing the TOC encoding or printing process was 900 units.', 'start': 3174.434, 'duration': 6.901}, {'end': 3187.436, 'text': 'Filling process was 720 units and sealing process was 780 units.', 'start': 3181.915, 'duration': 5.521}], 'summary': 'Improving processes, lean methodology, and toc implementation for better efficiency and productivity.', 'duration': 253.251, 'max_score': 2934.185, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E2934185.jpg'}, {'end': 3001.08, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2969.913, 'weight': 20, 'content': [{'end': 2973.676, 'text': 'In this screen, we will learn about the first step, identify value.', 'start': 2969.913, 'duration': 3.763}, {'end': 2979.381, 'text': 'To implement lean to a process, it is important to find out what the customer wants.', 'start': 2973.997, 'duration': 5.384}, {'end': 2988.028, 'text': 'Once this is done, the process should be evaluated to identify what it needs to possess to meet customer requirements.', 'start': 2980.242, 'duration': 7.786}, {'end': 2994.595, 'text': 'The next screen will focus on the next step of the lean process, value stream mapping.', 'start': 2988.971, 'duration': 5.624}, {'end': 3001.08, 'text': 'In this screen, we will discuss the differences between push and pull processes.', 'start': 2996.857, 'duration': 4.223}], 'summary': 'Lean process involves identifying customer needs and value stream mapping.', 'duration': 31.167, 'max_score': 2969.913, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E2969913.jpg'}, {'end': 3122.859, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3095.419, 'weight': 21, 'content': [{'end': 3103.134, 'text': 'How can you implement the TOC methodology in this example? Let us build the TOC map for this example.', 'start': 3095.419, 'duration': 7.715}, {'end': 3108.255, 'text': 'The first step in the TOC methodology is to identify the constraint.', 'start': 3103.974, 'duration': 4.281}, {'end': 3113.817, 'text': 'Looking at the data, the output per hour from the filling process is 720.', 'start': 3108.935, 'duration': 4.882}, {'end': 3116.677, 'text': 'This is the constraint in the system.', 'start': 3113.817, 'duration': 2.86}, {'end': 3122.859, 'text': 'In the second step, the constraint is exploited by analyzing the performance using data.', 'start': 3117.637, 'duration': 5.222}], 'summary': 'Implement toc methodology: identify constraint at 720 output per hour and exploit it for performance analysis.', 'duration': 27.44, 'max_score': 3095.419, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E3095419.jpg'}], 'start': 1006.575, 'title': 'Lean six sigma methodologies', 'summary': 'Provides an overview of lean six sigma methodologies, explaining its core ideologies, benefits, and roles within an organization. it delves into the history of quality management systems, the re-engineering approach, and the balanced scorecard while emphasizing top management involvement and waste reduction principles.', 'chapters': [{'end': 1116.547, 'start': 1006.575, 'title': 'Understanding six sigma methodology', 'summary': 'Explains the six sigma methodology, its core ideologies, advantages including risk reduction and efficiency improvement, and its role in improving customer and vendor satisfaction.', 'duration': 109.972, 'highlights': ['The Six Sigma methodology ensures to find and eliminate any defect or variation affecting products, services, or processes, with continuous improvement as its focus.', "Six Sigma's advantages include reducing organizational risk and operational costs, improving process efficiency, and enhancing customer and vendor satisfaction.", 'The core ideologies of Six Sigma emphasize stable and predictable process results, defining, measuring, analyzing, and controlling process characteristics, and the crucial role of top-level management in sustaining quality.']}, {'end': 1678.81, 'start': 1116.807, 'title': 'Six sigma and lean methodologies', 'summary': 'Explains the six sigma methodologies dmaic and dmadv, detailing the phases and applications, as well as the roles within a six sigma team, followed by an overview of lean methodology, its characteristics, and the distinctions and similarities between lean and six sigma.', 'duration': 562.003, 'highlights': ['Six Sigma Methodologies The chapter provides a detailed explanation of the two Six Sigma methodologies: DMAIC and DMADV, covering the phases of each methodology and their applications in improving existing products or processes and creating new products.', 'Roles in a Six Sigma Team The chapter outlines the different levels of Six Sigma team members, from novices to executives, detailing their certifications, responsibilities, and expertise, providing a comprehensive understanding of the roles within a Six Sigma team.', 'Lean Methodology The chapter introduces the Lean methodology, highlighting its ideology of continuous process optimization and waste elimination, along with its characteristics such as customer value emphasis, cross-functional collaboration, and long-term problem-solving.', "Differences and Similarities between Lean and Six Sigma The chapter explains the differences and similarities between Lean and Six Sigma, emphasizing Lean's focus on waste reduction and customer value improvement, while Six Sigma aims for near-perfect results, cost reduction, and enhanced customer satisfaction, ultimately aligning both methodologies in the goal of creating efficient processes and reducing waste."]}, {'end': 2155.539, 'start': 1679.01, 'title': 'Lean six sigma overview', 'summary': 'Provides an overview of lean six sigma methodology, emphasizing its benefits such as driving higher results, reducing costs, and improving customer satisfaction, with a focus on the history of quality management systems and the evolution of six sigma.', 'duration': 476.529, 'highlights': ['Lean Six Sigma methodology aims to drive higher results, reduce costs, and improve customer satisfaction through streamlining processes. It aims to provide customers with a better experience by streamlining the process, driving higher results, reducing cost, removing waste, and preventing defects.', 'The history of quality management systems, including the development of Statistical Process Control, quality circles, ISO 9000, the Baldrige Award, benchmarking, and the balanced scorecard approach, is discussed. The history of quality management systems is outlined, including the development of Statistical Process Control, quality circles, ISO 9000, the Baldrige Award, benchmarking, and the balanced scorecard approach.', 'Lean Six Sigma emphasizes the DMACC method of problem solving and requires extensive use of statistical methods. Lean Six Sigma emphasizes the DMACC method of problem solving and requires extensive use of statistical methods.', 'The Six Sigma quality means 3.4 defects in 1 million opportunities or a process with a 99.99966% yield. The Six Sigma quality is defined as 3.4 defects in 1 million opportunities or a process with a 99.99966% yield.']}, {'end': 2458.594, 'start': 2156.604, 'title': 'Business system and six sigma', 'summary': 'Discusses the re-engineering approach, business systems, six sigma, and the balanced scorecard, emphasizing the importance of top management involvement in six sigma initiatives and the holistic approach of the balanced scorecard in achieving organizational goals.', 'duration': 301.99, 'highlights': ['The re-engineering approach involves the restructuring of an entire organization and its processes, with a focus on integrating various functional tasks into cross-functional processes.', 'A business system ensures that process inputs are at the right place and at the right time, leading to continual improvement of processes, products, and services. It integrates processes, sub-processes, and steps, with examples including human resources, manufacturing, and marketing.', 'Six Sigma aims to continuously remove defects in business processes and sustain changes. It involves a structured team with different levels, including top executives, Champions, Master Black Belts, Black Belts, and Green Belts, each playing specific roles in project execution and leadership.', 'The Balanced Scorecard offers a holistic approach to strategy implementation and performance measurement, translating organizational strategy into actionable objectives and integrating key metrics from finance, customer relations, internal processes, and learning and growth.']}, {'end': 2726.53, 'start': 2458.594, 'title': 'Balanced scorecard and strategy maps', 'summary': 'Outlines the strategy for the balanced scorecard, highlighting the top-down approach to determine strategic objectives, measures, targets, and initiatives for each perspective. it emphasizes the shift from the four-box model to strategy maps, focusing on interrelations between objectives and metrics, cause-and-effect relationships, and the impact on organizational improvement.', 'duration': 267.936, 'highlights': ['The chapter outlines a top-down approach to determine strategic objectives, measures, targets, and initiatives for each perspective of the balanced scorecard. This emphasizes the structured process for setting strategic objectives and aligning measures and initiatives with organizational goals.', 'The shift from the four-box model to strategy maps emphasizes the interrelations between objectives and metrics of different perspectives, focusing on cause-and-effect relationships. This highlights the importance of understanding the interconnectedness of objectives and metrics and its impact on organizational strategy and improvement.', 'The balanced scorecard and strategy maps force managers to consider cause-and-effect relationships, leading to better identification of key drivers and a more rounded approach to strategic planning. This emphasizes the role of the balanced scorecard and strategy maps in promoting a comprehensive understanding of cause-and-effect relationships, resulting in improved strategic planning.', 'The balanced scorecard enables the organization to improve communication, alignment, and decision-making by focusing on what really matters and managing information better. This highlights the benefits of the balanced scorecard in improving communication, alignment, and decision-making through a focus on essential metrics and improved information management.', "The overall objectives of the balanced scorecard can be cascaded into each business unit to align their activities with the common organizational goal. This emphasizes the cascading of objectives to business units, ensuring alignment of activities with the organization's overarching goals."]}, {'end': 3194.838, 'start': 2727.29, 'title': 'Lean principles and waste reduction', 'summary': 'Covers the implementation of the balance scorecard and introduces the topics of lean principles, waste reduction, and theory of constraints. it explains the concepts of lean, the three major issues in a process, the seven types of waste, and the steps of the lean process, including the identification of value, value stream mapping, and push and pull processes. additionally, it provides an example of the toc methodology with data and steps for implementation.', 'duration': 467.548, 'highlights': ['Lean focuses on three major issues in a process, known by their Japanese names, Muda, Mura, and Muri, which represent non-value-adding work, unevenness, and overburden, respectively. Lean principles focus on Muda, Mura, and Muri, representing non-value-adding work, unevenness, and overburden in a process.', 'The seven types of muda or waste as per Lean principles are overproduction, inventory, defects, motion, over processing, waiting, and transport, each with specific examples and implications. The seven types of muda or waste in Lean include overproduction, inventory, defects, motion, over processing, waiting, and transport, each with specific examples and implications.', 'The chapter explains the steps of the lean process, including the identification of value, value stream mapping, and push and pull processes, with practical examples and comparisons. The chapter details the steps of the lean process, such as identifying value, value stream mapping, and the differences between push and pull processes, providing practical examples and comparisons.', 'An example of the TOC methodology is provided, demonstrating the identification of constraints, exploitation of constraints, subordinate decisions, and elevation of constraints, with quantitative data before and after TOC implementation. An example of the TOC methodology is provided, demonstrating the identification, exploitation, and elevation of constraints, along with quantitative data before and after TOC implementation.']}], 'duration': 2188.263, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E1006575.jpg', 'highlights': ['The Six Sigma methodology ensures to find and eliminate any defect or variation affecting products, services, or processes, with continuous improvement as its focus.', "Six Sigma's advantages include reducing organizational risk and operational costs, improving process efficiency, and enhancing customer and vendor satisfaction.", 'The core ideologies of Six Sigma emphasize stable and predictable process results, defining, measuring, analyzing, and controlling process characteristics, and the crucial role of top-level management in sustaining quality.', 'The chapter provides a detailed explanation of the two Six Sigma methodologies: DMAIC and DMADV, covering the phases of each methodology and their applications in improving existing products or processes and creating new products.', 'The chapter outlines the different levels of Six Sigma team members, from novices to executives, detailing their certifications, responsibilities, and expertise, providing a comprehensive understanding of the roles within a Six Sigma team.', 'The chapter introduces the Lean methodology, highlighting its ideology of continuous process optimization and waste elimination, along with its characteristics such as customer value emphasis, cross-functional collaboration, and long-term problem-solving.', "The chapter explains the differences and similarities between Lean and Six Sigma, emphasizing Lean's focus on waste reduction and customer value improvement, while Six Sigma aims for near-perfect results, cost reduction, and enhanced customer satisfaction, ultimately aligning both methodologies in the goal of creating efficient processes and reducing waste.", 'Lean Six Sigma methodology aims to drive higher results, reduce costs, and improve customer satisfaction through streamlining processes.', 'The history of quality management systems is outlined, including the development of Statistical Process Control, quality circles, ISO 9000, the Baldrige Award, benchmarking, and the balanced scorecard approach.', 'The Six Sigma quality is defined as 3.4 defects in 1 million opportunities or a process with a 99.99966% yield.', 'The re-engineering approach involves the restructuring of an entire organization and its processes, with a focus on integrating various functional tasks into cross-functional processes.', 'A business system ensures that process inputs are at the right place and at the right time, leading to continual improvement of processes, products, and services.', 'The Balanced Scorecard offers a holistic approach to strategy implementation and performance measurement, translating organizational strategy into actionable objectives and integrating key metrics from finance, customer relations, internal processes, and learning and growth.', 'The chapter outlines a top-down approach to determine strategic objectives, measures, targets, and initiatives for each perspective of the balanced scorecard.', 'The shift from the four-box model to strategy maps emphasizes the interrelations between objectives and metrics of different perspectives, focusing on cause-and-effect relationships.', 'The balanced scorecard and strategy maps force managers to consider cause-and-effect relationships, leading to better identification of key drivers and a more rounded approach to strategic planning.', 'The balanced scorecard enables the organization to improve communication, alignment, and decision-making by focusing on what really matters and managing information better.', 'The overall objectives of the balanced scorecard can be cascaded into each business unit to align their activities with the common organizational goal.', 'Lean focuses on three major issues in a process, known by their Japanese names, Muda, Mura, and Muri, which represent non-value-adding work, unevenness, and overburden, respectively.', 'The seven types of muda or waste in Lean include overproduction, inventory, defects, motion, over processing, waiting, and transport, each with specific examples and implications.', 'The chapter details the steps of the lean process, such as identifying value, value stream mapping, and the differences between push and pull processes, providing practical examples and comparisons.', 'An example of the TOC methodology is provided, demonstrating the identification, exploitation, and elevation of constraints, along with quantitative data before and after TOC implementation.']}, {'end': 5597.538, 'segs': [{'end': 3259.738, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3230.526, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 3240.49, 'text': 'DFSS uses tools such as quality function deployment, or QFD, and failure mode and effects analysis, or FMEA.', 'start': 3230.526, 'duration': 9.964}, {'end': 3248.013, 'text': 'DFSS can help a business system to introduce an entirely new product or service for the customer.', 'start': 3241.43, 'duration': 6.583}, {'end': 3254.036, 'text': 'It can also be used to introduce a new category of product or service for the business system.', 'start': 3248.854, 'duration': 5.182}, {'end': 3259.738, 'text': 'For example, an FMCG company plans to make a new brand of hair oil.', 'start': 3254.936, 'duration': 4.802}], 'summary': 'Dfss can help introduce new products or services, like a new brand of hair oil for an fmcg company.', 'duration': 29.212, 'max_score': 3230.526, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E3230526.jpg'}, {'end': 3451.16, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3425.219, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 3435.347, 'text': 'The primary difference between IDOV and DMADV is that while IDOV is used only to design a new product or service,', 'start': 3425.219, 'duration': 10.128}, {'end': 3443.233, 'text': 'DMADV can be used to design either a new product or service or redesign an existing product or service.', 'start': 3435.347, 'duration': 7.886}, {'end': 3451.16, 'text': 'IDOV involves design of a new process, while DMADV involves redesigning an existing process.', 'start': 3444.194, 'duration': 6.966}], 'summary': 'Idov is for new design, dmadv for new or redesign, involving process and product.', 'duration': 25.941, 'max_score': 3425.219, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E3425219.jpg'}, {'end': 3548.63, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3522.132, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 3531.881, 'text': "The primary learning from QFD includes which customer requirements are most important, what the organization's strengths and weaknesses are,", 'start': 3522.132, 'duration': 9.749}, {'end': 3537.146, 'text': 'where an organization should focus their efforts and where most of the work needs to be done.', 'start': 3531.881, 'duration': 5.265}, {'end': 3540.087, 'text': 'To learn from QFD.', 'start': 3538.206, 'duration': 1.881}, {'end': 3548.63, 'text': 'the organization should ask relevant questions to customers and tabulate them to bring out a set of parameters critical to the design of the product.', 'start': 3540.087, 'duration': 8.543}], 'summary': 'Qfd helps identify important customer requirements, strengths, weaknesses, and focus areas for product design through customer questions and parameter tabulation.', 'duration': 26.498, 'max_score': 3522.132, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E3522132.jpg'}, {'end': 3617.991, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3593.334, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 3602.42, 'text': 'It helps the organization to identify and prioritize the different failure modes of its product or service and what effect the failure would have on the customer.', 'start': 3593.334, 'duration': 9.086}, {'end': 3609.145, 'text': "It helps in identifying the critical areas in a system on which the organization's efforts can be focused.", 'start': 3603.201, 'duration': 5.944}, {'end': 3617.991, 'text': 'Note that while FMEA enables identification of critical areas, it does not offer solutions to the identified problems.', 'start': 3610.086, 'duration': 7.905}], 'summary': 'Fmea helps identify and prioritize failure modes, critical areas, and customer impact.', 'duration': 24.657, 'max_score': 3593.334, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E3593334.jpg'}, {'end': 3731.067, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3706.614, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 3715.239, 'text': 'RPN is a product of three numbers, severity of a failure, occurrence of a failure, and the detectability of a failure.', 'start': 3706.614, 'duration': 8.625}, {'end': 3720.123, 'text': 'All these numbers are given a value on a scale of 1 to 10.', 'start': 3716.14, 'duration': 3.983}, {'end': 3726.403, 'text': 'The minimum value of RPN is 1 and the maximum value is 1000.', 'start': 3720.123, 'duration': 6.28}, {'end': 3731.067, 'text': 'A failure mode with a high occurrence rating means the failure mode occurs very frequently.', 'start': 3726.403, 'duration': 4.664}], 'summary': 'Rpn is derived from severity, occurrence, and detectability values on a scale of 1 to 10, with a minimum of 1 and a maximum of 1000. high occurrence rating indicates frequent failure mode.', 'duration': 24.453, 'max_score': 3706.614, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E3706614.jpg'}, {'end': 3839.693, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3784.908, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 3794.897, 'text': 'In functions such as human resources, the FMEA table is very useful, as there might not be much data available to the problem-solving team.', 'start': 3784.908, 'duration': 9.989}, {'end': 3798.961, 'text': 'The sample FMEA table is given on the screen.', 'start': 3795.958, 'duration': 3.003}, {'end': 3802.204, 'text': 'Please go through the contents for better understanding.', 'start': 3799.662, 'duration': 2.542}, {'end': 3809.001, 'text': 'In the following screen, we will discuss severity of risk priority number and scale criteria.', 'start': 3803.12, 'duration': 5.881}, {'end': 3813.002, 'text': 'Let us first discuss severity.', 'start': 3811.282, 'duration': 1.72}, {'end': 3822.204, 'text': 'Severity refers to the seriousness of the effect of the failure mode or how critical the failure mode is to the customer or the process.', 'start': 3813.802, 'duration': 8.402}, {'end': 3829.086, 'text': 'The severity of a failure mode is rated on a scale of 1 to 10 using a severity table.', 'start': 3823.105, 'duration': 5.981}, {'end': 3834.03, 'text': 'Different industries follow different structures for the severity table.', 'start': 3830.188, 'duration': 3.842}, {'end': 3839.693, 'text': 'A high severity rating indicates a mode is critical to operational safety.', 'start': 3835.01, 'duration': 4.683}], 'summary': 'Fmea table is useful in human resources, rated on a scale of 1 to 10 for severity, with high severity indicating critical operational safety.', 'duration': 54.785, 'max_score': 3784.908, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E3784908.jpg'}, {'end': 3916.153, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3890.62, 'weight': 7, 'content': [{'end': 3896.143, 'text': 'Occurrence is the probability that a specific cause will result in the particular failure mode.', 'start': 3890.62, 'duration': 5.523}, {'end': 3901.525, 'text': 'As with severity, occurrence is rated on a scale of 1 to 10 based on a table.', 'start': 3897.023, 'duration': 4.502}, {'end': 3906.928, 'text': 'Like the severity table, higher the occurrence of a failure, higher is its rating.', 'start': 3902.346, 'duration': 4.582}, {'end': 3911.651, 'text': 'Again, this table might vary depending on the industry and scenario.', 'start': 3907.669, 'duration': 3.982}, {'end': 3916.153, 'text': 'Sometimes, the project team can use data here if available.', 'start': 3912.611, 'duration': 3.542}], 'summary': 'Occurrence rates from 1 to 10 based on a table; data usage possible.', 'duration': 25.533, 'max_score': 3890.62, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E3890620.jpg'}, {'end': 3975.992, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3944.676, 'weight': 8, 'content': [{'end': 3948.332, 'text': 'Higher the detectability of a failure, lower is its rating.', 'start': 3944.676, 'duration': 3.656}, {'end': 3957.659, 'text': 'This is because if the failure can easily be detected then everyone would know of it and therefore there would be less or no damage.', 'start': 3949.032, 'duration': 8.627}, {'end': 3963.943, 'text': 'For example if detection is impossible the failure is given a rating of 10.', 'start': 3958.339, 'duration': 5.604}, {'end': 3970.248, 'text': 'Please note that at the start of a Six Sigma project the failure mode is given a relatively high detection rating.', 'start': 3963.943, 'duration': 6.305}, {'end': 3975.992, 'text': 'Let us look at an example of FMEA and RPN in the next screen.', 'start': 3970.888, 'duration': 5.104}], 'summary': 'High detectability leads to lower failure rating, illustrated by fmea and rpn.', 'duration': 31.316, 'max_score': 3944.676, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E3944676.jpg'}, {'end': 4079.849, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4050.453, 'weight': 9, 'content': [{'end': 4053.234, 'text': 'The questions that need to be asked are as follows.', 'start': 4050.453, 'duration': 2.781}, {'end': 4061.455, 'text': 'Is there an existing process? To implement the DMACC methodology of problem solving, a process needs to exist.', 'start': 4054.234, 'duration': 7.221}, {'end': 4066.316, 'text': 'The process should be in operation for the development of the product or service.', 'start': 4062.335, 'duration': 3.981}, {'end': 4073.705, 'text': 'Is there a problem in the process? Ideally, the process should not have any problem.', 'start': 4067.62, 'duration': 6.085}, {'end': 4079.849, 'text': 'If there is a problem in the process performance, the process needs to be improved.', 'start': 4074.585, 'duration': 5.264}], 'summary': 'To implement dmacc methodology, an existing problem-free process is needed for product or service development.', 'duration': 29.396, 'max_score': 4050.453, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E4050453.jpg'}, {'end': 4184.377, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 3922.699, 'weight': 12, 'content': [{'end': 3924.96, 'text': 'Shown here is a generalized table.', 'start': 3922.699, 'duration': 2.261}, {'end': 3929.704, 'text': 'Let us next look at detection of RPN and scale criteria.', 'start': 3925.541, 'duration': 4.163}, {'end': 3935.889, 'text': 'Detection is the probability that a particular failure will be detected.', 'start': 3931.566, 'duration': 4.323}, {'end': 3939.672, 'text': 'The table shown here is again a generalized one.', 'start': 3936.81, 'duration': 2.862}, {'end': 3943.736, 'text': 'The rating here is a bit different from severity or occurrence.', 'start': 3940.473, 'duration': 3.263}, {'end': 3948.332, 'text': 'Higher the detectability of a failure, lower is its rating.', 'start': 3944.676, 'duration': 3.656}, {'end': 3957.659, 'text': 'This is because if the failure can easily be detected then everyone would know of it and therefore there would be less or no damage.', 'start': 3949.032, 'duration': 8.627}, {'end': 3963.943, 'text': 'For example if detection is impossible the failure is given a rating of 10.', 'start': 3958.339, 'duration': 5.604}, {'end': 3970.248, 'text': 'Please note that at the start of a Six Sigma project the failure mode is given a relatively high detection rating.', 'start': 3963.943, 'duration': 6.305}, {'end': 3975.992, 'text': 'Let us look at an example of FMEA and RPN in the next screen.', 'start': 3970.888, 'duration': 5.104}, {'end': 3986.569, 'text': 'In this example, a bank wants to recognize and prioritize the risks involved in the process of withdrawing cash from an ATM.', 'start': 3978.146, 'duration': 8.423}, {'end': 3994.433, 'text': 'It can be observed from the table that not having a control in place for network issues has the highest RPN.', 'start': 3987.57, 'duration': 6.863}, {'end': 3999.335, 'text': 'This is due to the detectability for a network issue being very low.', 'start': 3995.273, 'duration': 4.062}, {'end': 4006.938, 'text': "The next set of information in the table shows the action taken by the bank's management to address the failure modes.", 'start': 4000.315, 'duration': 6.623}, {'end': 4014.817, 'text': 'Following the implementation, the new RPN is calculated retaining the security level at 9.', 'start': 4007.912, 'duration': 6.905}, {'end': 4020.682, 'text': 'This is because the actions were not directed at reducing the severity but at the causes of failure.', 'start': 4014.817, 'duration': 5.865}, {'end': 4028.488, 'text': 'It can be seen that the new RPN is much lower and the risk for both causes has been mitigated.', 'start': 4021.763, 'duration': 6.725}, {'end': 4033.111, 'text': 'This lesson will cover the details of the define phase.', 'start': 4029.849, 'duration': 3.262}, {'end': 4036.334, 'text': 'Six Sigma can be applied to everything around.', 'start': 4033.932, 'duration': 2.402}, {'end': 4039.992, 'text': 'It can be applied across almost 70 different sectors.', 'start': 4037.091, 'duration': 2.901}, {'end': 4043.612, 'text': 'However, it cannot be applied to all problems.', 'start': 4040.572, 'duration': 3.04}, {'end': 4049.673, 'text': 'The first step is to check if the project qualifies to be a Six Sigma project.', 'start': 4044.592, 'duration': 5.081}, {'end': 4053.234, 'text': 'The questions that need to be asked are as follows.', 'start': 4050.453, 'duration': 2.781}, {'end': 4061.455, 'text': 'Is there an existing process? To implement the DMACC methodology of problem solving, a process needs to exist.', 'start': 4054.234, 'duration': 7.221}, {'end': 4066.316, 'text': 'The process should be in operation for the development of the product or service.', 'start': 4062.335, 'duration': 3.981}, {'end': 4073.705, 'text': 'Is there a problem in the process? Ideally, the process should not have any problem.', 'start': 4067.62, 'duration': 6.085}, {'end': 4079.849, 'text': 'If there is a problem in the process performance, the process needs to be improved.', 'start': 4074.585, 'duration': 5.264}, {'end': 4090.837, 'text': 'Is the problem measurable? The problem has to be measurable in order to assess the root cause and the impact of the problem on the process.', 'start': 4081.21, 'duration': 9.627}, {'end': 4094.96, 'text': 'Does the problem impact customer satisfaction?', 'start': 4092.218, 'duration': 2.742}, {'end': 4102.261, 'text': 'If the problem affects customer satisfaction, an action needs to be taken immediately,', 'start': 4096.238, 'duration': 6.023}, {'end': 4107.444, 'text': "else the customer may start finding alternate products or switch to competitors' products.", 'start': 4102.261, 'duration': 5.183}, {'end': 4117.85, 'text': 'Does working on the problem impact profits of the company? It is very essential to assess the impact of the project on the profits of the company.', 'start': 4108.765, 'duration': 9.085}, {'end': 4124.834, 'text': 'If the project affects the profits of the company adversely, then such a project is not feasible.', 'start': 4118.751, 'duration': 6.083}, {'end': 4135.408, 'text': 'Is the root cause of the problem unknown? If the root cause of the problem is visible, then a Six Sigma project is not required.', 'start': 4126.207, 'duration': 9.201}, {'end': 4139.55, 'text': 'Other problem solving techniques can be used in this case.', 'start': 4136.328, 'duration': 3.222}, {'end': 4149.011, 'text': 'Is the solution unknown? If the solution to the problem is already known, then there is no need for any project.', 'start': 4140.93, 'duration': 8.081}, {'end': 4152.033, 'text': 'The company can directly implement the solution.', 'start': 4149.692, 'duration': 2.341}, {'end': 4157.453, 'text': 'The define phase of DMACC will be introduced in the next screen.', 'start': 4153.51, 'duration': 3.943}, {'end': 4164.136, 'text': 'The Six Sigma project process is known as a DMACC process.', 'start': 4160.094, 'duration': 4.042}, {'end': 4168.939, 'text': 'Define is the first phase in the Six Sigma project process.', 'start': 4165.017, 'duration': 3.922}, {'end': 4175.484, 'text': 'In the define phase, the problem is defined and the Six Sigma team is formed.', 'start': 4169.981, 'duration': 5.503}, {'end': 4179.506, 'text': 'The objectives of the define phase are as follows.', 'start': 4176.385, 'duration': 3.121}, {'end': 4184.377, 'text': 'Clearly define the problem statement through customer analysis.', 'start': 4180.676, 'duration': 3.701}], 'summary': 'The transcript covers detection probability, case study of fmea and rpn, and criteria for six sigma project qualification.', 'duration': 30.867, 'max_score': 3922.699, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E3922699.jpg'}, {'end': 4236.421, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4214.228, 'weight': 10, 'content': [{'end': 4223.494, 'text': "Benchmarking is the process of comparing an organization's business processes, practices, and performance metrics with that of industry leaders.", 'start': 4214.228, 'duration': 9.266}, {'end': 4226.495, 'text': 'There are various types of benchmarking.', 'start': 4224.514, 'duration': 1.981}, {'end': 4228.977, 'text': 'Let us briefly look at each type.', 'start': 4227.196, 'duration': 1.781}, {'end': 4236.421, 'text': 'Process benchmarking entails comparing specific processes to a leading company or an industry standard.', 'start': 4230.117, 'duration': 6.304}], 'summary': 'Benchmarking compares business processes, practices, and metrics with industry leaders.', 'duration': 22.193, 'max_score': 4214.228, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E4214228.jpg'}, {'end': 4384.955, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4357.295, 'weight': 11, 'content': [{'end': 4363.159, 'text': 'Best practice is a method that ensures continuous improvement, leading to exceptional performance.', 'start': 4357.295, 'duration': 5.864}, {'end': 4367.922, 'text': 'It is also a method to sustain and develop the process continuously.', 'start': 4364.099, 'duration': 3.823}, {'end': 4372.284, 'text': 'Some of the best practices in benchmarking are as follows.', 'start': 4368.842, 'duration': 3.442}, {'end': 4376.307, 'text': 'Increase the objectives or scope of benchmarking.', 'start': 4373.485, 'duration': 2.822}, {'end': 4380.692, 'text': 'Set the standards and path to be followed at the initial stage.', 'start': 4377.27, 'duration': 3.422}, {'end': 4384.955, 'text': 'Reduce unnecessary effort and comply with the scope.', 'start': 4381.733, 'duration': 3.222}], 'summary': 'Best practices lead to continuous improvement and exceptional performance in benchmarking.', 'duration': 27.66, 'max_score': 4357.295, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E4357295.jpg'}, {'end': 4612.482, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4584.052, 'weight': 14, 'content': [{'end': 4588.717, 'text': 'failure to meet one or more process objectives may result in negative effects on them.', 'start': 4584.052, 'duration': 4.665}, {'end': 4594.664, 'text': 'In such situations, for the stockholders, the perceived value for the company gets reduced.', 'start': 4589.718, 'duration': 4.946}, {'end': 4603.176, 'text': 'Customers may seek other competitors for their deals while imposing penalties and finding recourse in legal action against the company.', 'start': 4595.492, 'duration': 7.684}, {'end': 4609.06, 'text': 'Suppliers may be on the losing front with delayed payments or not being paid at all.', 'start': 4604.057, 'duration': 5.003}, {'end': 4612.482, 'text': 'Company management may require cost cut down.', 'start': 4609.9, 'duration': 2.582}], 'summary': 'Failure to meet process objectives can reduce stock value, lead to customer loss, penalties, legal action, and supplier payment issues, requiring cost-cutting.', 'duration': 28.43, 'max_score': 4584.052, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E4584052.jpg'}, {'end': 4680.477, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4655.994, 'weight': 13, 'content': [{'end': 4661.899, 'text': 'Stakeholder analysis is an important task to be completed before doing a Six Sigma project.', 'start': 4655.994, 'duration': 5.905}, {'end': 4670.006, 'text': 'A business has many stakeholders, and any change to a business process affects some or all of them.', 'start': 4662.839, 'duration': 7.167}, {'end': 4677.152, 'text': 'When a process does not meet its objectives, it results in the stakeholders being negatively affected.', 'start': 4670.726, 'duration': 6.426}, {'end': 4680.477, 'text': "which in turn affects the organization's performance.", 'start': 4677.816, 'duration': 2.661}], 'summary': 'Stakeholder analysis is crucial before six sigma projects, as process failures impact stakeholders and organizational performance.', 'duration': 24.483, 'max_score': 4655.994, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E4655994.jpg'}, {'end': 4733.02, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4709.19, 'weight': 15, 'content': [{'end': 4716.653, 'text': 'A customer is someone who decides to purchase, pays, consumes and gets affected by a particular product or service.', 'start': 4709.19, 'duration': 7.463}, {'end': 4721.635, 'text': 'It is critical to identify and understand the customer requirements.', 'start': 4717.613, 'duration': 4.022}, {'end': 4726.257, 'text': 'The products or services can be designed according to these requirements.', 'start': 4722.475, 'duration': 3.782}, {'end': 4733.02, 'text': 'Consequently the company is able to provide products or services the customers are willing to purchase.', 'start': 4727.117, 'duration': 5.903}], 'summary': 'Understanding customer requirements leads to designing desirable products or services.', 'duration': 23.83, 'max_score': 4709.19, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E4709190.jpg'}, {'end': 4786.901, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4760.267, 'weight': 16, 'content': [{'end': 4766.391, 'text': 'For example, let us assume that there is a series of processes in a particular business system.', 'start': 4760.267, 'duration': 6.124}, {'end': 4774.296, 'text': 'In such a scenario, the second process is the internal customer for the first process,', 'start': 4767.512, 'duration': 6.784}, {'end': 4779.38, 'text': 'the third process is an internal customer for the second process, and so on.', 'start': 4774.296, 'duration': 5.084}, {'end': 4786.901, 'text': 'The basic needs of an internal customer are to be provided proper tools and necessary equipment,', 'start': 4780.481, 'duration': 6.42}], 'summary': 'In a business system, each process has internal customers with basic needs for proper tools and equipment.', 'duration': 26.634, 'max_score': 4760.267, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E4760267.jpg'}, {'end': 4932.286, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4887.795, 'weight': 17, 'content': [{'end': 4893.556, 'text': 'Hence, the effect of the project on internal customers is a critical factor that needs to be considered.', 'start': 4887.795, 'duration': 5.761}, {'end': 4899.277, 'text': 'The positive impact of a project on the internal customers is as follows.', 'start': 4894.476, 'duration': 4.801}, {'end': 4908.219, 'text': 'The project is driven by highly motivated individuals or internal customers who are aware of the project objectives and scope.', 'start': 4900.277, 'duration': 7.942}, {'end': 4917.277, 'text': 'Individuals belonging to a credible project understand the project deliverables and display high levels of job satisfaction.', 'start': 4909.252, 'duration': 8.025}, {'end': 4923.261, 'text': 'These individuals go the extra mile to take up tasks beyond their job description.', 'start': 4918.278, 'duration': 4.983}, {'end': 4932.286, 'text': 'Such individuals make a highly motivated team focused on delivering their responsibilities in order to meet the customer requirements.', 'start': 4924.321, 'duration': 7.965}], 'summary': "Project's impact on internal customers is crucial. motivated, satisfied individuals deliver beyond tasks for customer satisfaction.", 'duration': 44.491, 'max_score': 4887.795, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E4887795.jpg'}, {'end': 5490.98, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5465.118, 'weight': 19, 'content': [{'end': 5472.52, 'text': 'Expedited service request implies that service timeliness are not meeting customer requirements, hence service has to be improved.', 'start': 5465.118, 'duration': 7.402}, {'end': 5479.09, 'text': 'Product complaint also implies that the customer needs for product are not completely identified,', 'start': 5473.38, 'duration': 5.71}, {'end': 5485.035, 'text': 'whereas expedited service request implies that the customer timings need to be recalculated.', 'start': 5479.09, 'duration': 5.945}, {'end': 5490.98, 'text': 'Let us discuss the importance and urgency of these inputs in the next screen.', 'start': 5485.996, 'duration': 4.984}], 'summary': 'Expedited service and product complaint indicate need for improved timeliness and customer needs identification.', 'duration': 25.862, 'max_score': 5465.118, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E5465118.jpg'}], 'start': 3195.018, 'title': 'Dfss, fmea, dmacc, and stakeholder analysis', 'summary': 'Explains dfss, including idov and dmadv, fmea, rpn, dmacc methodology, benchmarking best practices, and stakeholder analysis, highlighting the importance of understanding customer requirements, identifying failures, and analyzing stakeholder impact, with practical examples and measurable data.', 'chapters': [{'end': 3731.067, 'start': 3195.018, 'title': 'Dfss and idov vs dmadv', 'summary': 'Explains design for six sigma (dfss), its processes idov and dmadv, and tools like qfd and fmea, emphasizing the importance of understanding customer requirements and identifying potential failures to ensure product or service quality, with examples and measurable data.', 'duration': 536.049, 'highlights': ['DFSS ensures that any new product or service meets customer requirements and that the process for that product or service is already at Six Sigma level. DFSS guarantees new product or service quality and Six Sigma level process.', 'DFSS uses tools such as QFD and FMEA to introduce new products or services, improve existing ones, and meet customer requirements. DFSS tools like QFD and FMEA aid in introducing and improving products or services.', 'The two major processes for DFSS are IDOV and DMADV, with IDOV focusing on new product or process design and DMADV involving either new or redesigning existing products or processes. IDOV and DMADV processes cater to different design needs.', 'QFD is a systematic process to understand customer needs and convert them into a set of design and manufacturing requirements, with the primary learning including identifying important customer requirements and organizational strengths and weaknesses. QFD helps understand and convert customer needs and identify organizational strengths and weaknesses.', 'FMEA is a preemptive tool that helps identify and prioritize potential failures of products or services and their effects on customers, with varieties like DFMEA and PFMEA used for design and process respectively. FMEA aids in identifying and prioritizing potential failures and their effects.', 'FMEA Risk Priority Number (RPN) assesses risk associated with the design or process by considering the severity, occurrence, and detectability of a failure, with higher RPN indicating higher priority for product or process. RPN quantifies risk and prioritizes product or process based on failure severity, occurrence, and detectability.']}, {'end': 4049.673, 'start': 3731.887, 'title': 'Understanding fmea and rpn', 'summary': "Explains the importance of fmea and rpn in identifying and prioritizing failure modes, with severity, occurrence, and detection ratings rated on a scale of 1 to 10, highlighting the criticality and probability of failure modes, and providing a practical example of risk prioritization in a bank's atm process.", 'duration': 317.786, 'highlights': ['The FMEA table helps plan improvement initiatives by underlining why and how failure modes occur and helps organizations plan for their prevention. FMEA table aids in planning improvement initiatives and prevention of failure modes.', 'Severity refers to the seriousness of the effect of the failure mode or how critical the failure mode is to the customer or the process. Severity rating indicates the criticality of failure modes to operational safety or customer impact.', 'Occurrence is the probability that a specific cause will result in the particular failure mode. Occurrence rating quantifies the probability of specific causes leading to failure modes.', 'Detection is the probability that a particular failure will be detected. Detection rating reflects the probability of a failure being detected, highlighting the importance of detectability.', 'Not having a control in place for network issues has the highest RPN. This is due to the detectability for a network issue being very low. The example illustrates how the lack of control for network issues leads to a high Risk Priority Number (RPN) due to low detectability.']}, {'end': 4510.815, 'start': 4050.453, 'title': 'Dmacc methodology and benchmarking best practices', 'summary': 'Discusses the importance of existing processes, the dmacc methodology of problem-solving, and the various types and best practices of benchmarking, emphasizing the need for measurable problems and customer impact.', 'duration': 460.362, 'highlights': ['The DMACC methodology emphasizes the importance of an existing process for problem-solving and the need for measurable problems and customer impact. The chapter stresses the need for an existing process to implement the DMACC methodology of problem-solving and emphasizes the importance of measurable problems and their impact on customer satisfaction.', 'Types of benchmarking include process benchmarking, financial benchmarking, performance benchmarking, product benchmarking, strategic benchmarking, functional benchmarking, competitive benchmarking, and collaborative benchmarking. The chapter provides an overview of various types of benchmarking, including process benchmarking, financial benchmarking, performance benchmarking, product benchmarking, strategic benchmarking, functional benchmarking, competitive benchmarking, and collaborative benchmarking.', 'Best practices in benchmarking involve increasing the objectives or scope, setting standards at the initial stage, reducing unnecessary effort, recognizing industry benchmarks, and sharing benchmarking information. The chapter outlines best practices in benchmarking, including increasing objectives or scope, setting initial standards, reducing unnecessary effort, recognizing industry benchmarks, and sharing benchmarking information.', "The DMACC methodology involves the define phase as the first phase in the Six Sigma project process, where the problem is defined, customer requirements are understood, project objectives are defined, and the team structure is planned. The DMACC methodology's define phase is introduced, emphasizing the definition of the problem, understanding customer requirements, defining project objectives, and planning the project and team structure.", 'Challenges to business process improvement include traditional functional grouping, which complicates the flow of products or services and their management across functional elements. The chapter discusses challenges to business process improvement, highlighting the complications arising from traditional functional grouping and the management of product or service flow across functional elements.']}, {'end': 4810.821, 'start': 4511.896, 'title': 'Stakeholder analysis and business relationships', 'summary': 'Covers the importance of stakeholder analysis in project management, emphasizing the negative impact of process failure on stakeholders and the subsequent consequences for the organization, as well as the significance of understanding customer requirements and the role of internal customers in a business system.', 'duration': 298.925, 'highlights': ["Stakeholder analysis is crucial for project management as any change to a business process affects some or all stakeholders, impacting the organization's performance. Stakeholder analysis is vital as it helps understand the impact of business process changes on stakeholders, thereby affecting the organization's performance.", 'Process failure can have adverse effects on stakeholders, such as reduced perceived value for stockholders, seeking alternatives for customers, delayed or non-payment for suppliers, cost-cutting for company management, and diminishing wages for employees. Process failure can lead to negative consequences for stakeholders, including reduced company value, customer attrition, delayed or non-payment for suppliers, cost-cutting for management, and diminishing employee wages.', 'Understanding and meeting customer requirements are crucial for designing products or services that customers are willing to purchase, emphasizing the importance of identifying and satisfying customer needs. Identifying and meeting customer requirements is essential for designing products or services that align with customer preferences, highlighting the significance of understanding and fulfilling customer needs.', 'Internal customers, typically employees, play a vital role in the business system, requiring proper tools, training, and instructions, as well as access to company newsletters, projects, and quality awards from suppliers. Internal customers, such as employees, have essential needs, including proper tools, training, company updates, and quality recognition from suppliers, contributing significantly to the business system.']}, {'end': 5597.538, 'start': 4812.037, 'title': 'Internal customer and data collection', 'summary': 'Emphasizes the importance of satisfying internal customers, the positive impact of project on internal and external customers, methods of customer data collection, and the best method for data collection being a web survey.', 'duration': 785.501, 'highlights': ['The positive impact of a project on the internal customers is as follows. Highly motivated individuals aware of project objectives, leading to a highly motivated team focused on delivering responsibilities to meet customer requirements.', 'The most important aspect of any process improvement project is the customers. Internal customers drive the project, and the effect of the project on them is critical.', 'The organization needs to choose a method of collecting data according to the situation. The popular methods of survey are the telephone survey and web survey, each with its own drawbacks and benefits.', 'The total of other two methods are 744 and 522 respectively. Looking at the overall total of the methods, 744 is the highest. After rating all the methods with the factors listed, the highest total indicates that the web survey is the best method for data collection.', 'Product complaints and expedited service requests can act as inputs to the company for improving their process. Product complaints imply the need for product improvement, while expedited service requests imply the need for service improvement.']}], 'duration': 2402.52, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E3195018.jpg', 'highlights': ['DFSS ensures new product or service quality and Six Sigma level process.', 'IDOV and DMADV cater to different design needs in DFSS.', 'QFD helps understand and convert customer needs and identify organizational strengths and weaknesses.', 'FMEA aids in identifying and prioritizing potential failures and their effects.', 'RPN quantifies risk and prioritizes product or process based on failure severity, occurrence, and detectability.', 'FMEA table aids in planning improvement initiatives and prevention of failure modes.', 'Severity rating indicates the criticality of failure modes to operational safety or customer impact.', 'Occurrence rating quantifies the probability of specific causes leading to failure modes.', 'Detection rating reflects the probability of a failure being detected, highlighting the importance of detectability.', 'The DMACC methodology emphasizes the importance of an existing process for problem-solving and the need for measurable problems and customer impact.', 'The chapter provides an overview of various types of benchmarking, including process benchmarking, financial benchmarking, performance benchmarking, product benchmarking, strategic benchmarking, functional benchmarking, competitive benchmarking, and collaborative benchmarking.', 'The chapter outlines best practices in benchmarking, including increasing objectives or scope, setting initial standards, reducing unnecessary effort, recognizing industry benchmarks, and sharing benchmarking information.', "The DMACC methodology's define phase is introduced, emphasizing the definition of the problem, understanding customer requirements, defining project objectives, and planning the project and team structure.", "Stakeholder analysis is vital as it helps understand the impact of business process changes on stakeholders, thereby affecting the organization's performance.", 'Process failure can lead to negative consequences for stakeholders, including reduced company value, customer attrition, delayed or non-payment for suppliers, cost-cutting for management, and diminishing employee wages.', 'Identifying and meeting customer requirements is essential for designing products or services that align with customer preferences, highlighting the significance of understanding and fulfilling customer needs.', 'Internal customers, such as employees, have essential needs, including proper tools, training, company updates, and quality recognition from suppliers, contributing significantly to the business system.', 'Highly motivated individuals aware of project objectives lead to a highly motivated team focused on delivering responsibilities to meet customer requirements.', 'Internal customers drive the project, and the effect of the project on them is critical.', 'Product complaints imply the need for product improvement, while expedited service requests imply the need for service improvement.']}, {'end': 6841.126, 'segs': [{'end': 5649.533, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5598.299, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 5604.464, 'text': 'The total of expedited service request is 817 and hence it is effective to the organization.', 'start': 5598.299, 'duration': 6.165}, {'end': 5609.388, 'text': 'Let us discuss the key elements of data collection tools in the next screen.', 'start': 5605.405, 'duration': 3.983}, {'end': 5616.013, 'text': 'Data collection tools will be selected based on the type of data to be collected.', 'start': 5611.709, 'duration': 4.304}, {'end': 5619.916, 'text': 'The key elements that make these tools effective are as follows.', 'start': 5616.733, 'duration': 3.183}, {'end': 5624.472, 'text': 'Data is collected directly from the primary source or customer.', 'start': 5620.848, 'duration': 3.624}, {'end': 5628.756, 'text': 'Hence there is no scope for miscommunication or loss of information.', 'start': 5624.992, 'duration': 3.764}, {'end': 5632.68, 'text': 'Data is collected exclusively for the stated purpose.', 'start': 5629.737, 'duration': 2.943}, {'end': 5635.022, 'text': 'Hence data is highly reliable.', 'start': 5633.34, 'duration': 1.682}, {'end': 5639.546, 'text': 'The data is captured is after understanding the organizational purpose.', 'start': 5635.682, 'duration': 3.864}, {'end': 5644.851, 'text': 'This makes the data exclusively relevant and serves the purpose of the organization.', 'start': 5640.267, 'duration': 4.584}, {'end': 5649.533, 'text': 'Data is collected instantaneously when there is a requirement.', 'start': 5645.851, 'duration': 3.682}], 'summary': 'Expedited service requests total 817, ensuring organizational effectiveness. key data collection tools are discussed, ensuring reliable, relevant, and instantaneous data capture.', 'duration': 51.234, 'max_score': 5598.299, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E5598299.jpg'}, {'end': 5694.359, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5668.84, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 5674.943, 'text': 'through which the process for improving or creating the product or service that the customer requires can be developed.', 'start': 5668.84, 'duration': 6.103}, {'end': 5679.67, 'text': 'In the next screen, we will discuss how the collected data can be reviewed.', 'start': 5675.908, 'duration': 3.762}, {'end': 5686.895, 'text': 'Collated data must be reviewed to eliminate vagueness, ambiguity, and any unintended bias.', 'start': 5681.411, 'duration': 5.484}, {'end': 5694.359, 'text': 'NutraWorldwide buys laptops for its employees from a company that is into manufacture and sales of laptops.', 'start': 5687.855, 'duration': 6.504}], 'summary': 'Discussing data review and product development process, nutraworldwide buys laptops.', 'duration': 25.519, 'max_score': 5668.84, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E5668840.jpg'}, {'end': 5993.609, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5966.784, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 5970.706, 'text': 'QFD helps in prioritizing customer requirements,', 'start': 5966.784, 'duration': 3.922}, {'end': 5979.63, 'text': 'recognizing strengths and weaknesses of an organization and recognizing areas that need to be worked on and areas that need immediate focus of efforts.', 'start': 5970.706, 'duration': 8.924}, {'end': 5989.108, 'text': 'QFD is carried out by asking relevant questions to the customers and tabulating them to bring out a set of parameters critical to the product design.', 'start': 5980.626, 'duration': 8.482}, {'end': 5993.609, 'text': 'Let us discuss phases of QFD in the next screen.', 'start': 5990.068, 'duration': 3.541}], 'summary': 'Qfd prioritizes customer requirements, identifies strengths and weaknesses, and determines critical design parameters.', 'duration': 26.825, 'max_score': 5966.784, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E5966784.jpg'}, {'end': 6106.734, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 6078.664, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 6082.506, 'text': 'Let us proceed to the next topic of this lesson in the following screen.', 'start': 6078.664, 'duration': 3.842}, {'end': 6087.609, 'text': 'In this topic, we will discuss the basics of project management.', 'start': 6084.147, 'duration': 3.462}, {'end': 6091.171, 'text': 'Let us start with a discussion on problem statement.', 'start': 6088.289, 'duration': 2.882}, {'end': 6096.907, 'text': 'Every Six Sigma project targets a problem that needs to be resolved.', 'start': 6093.064, 'duration': 3.843}, {'end': 6101.67, 'text': 'The first step of project initiation is defining the problem statement.', 'start': 6097.427, 'duration': 4.243}, {'end': 6106.734, 'text': 'A problem statement needs to describe the problem in a clear and concise manner.', 'start': 6102.431, 'duration': 4.303}], 'summary': 'Basics of project management including defining problem statement for six sigma projects.', 'duration': 28.07, 'max_score': 6078.664, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E6078664.jpg'}, {'end': 6226.701, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 6200.058, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 6204.561, 'text': 'SMARTS is an acronym of the characteristics desired in project objectives.', 'start': 6200.058, 'duration': 4.503}, {'end': 6212.412, 'text': 'Specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, time-based and stretch.', 'start': 6205.261, 'duration': 7.151}, {'end': 6215.794, 'text': 'the project deliverables should be specific.', 'start': 6212.412, 'duration': 3.382}, {'end': 6220.017, 'text': 'example hospitals maintain records of all patients.', 'start': 6215.794, 'duration': 4.223}, {'end': 6226.701, 'text': 'often a few forms are rejected or missed due to errors in recording the ID numbers.', 'start': 6220.017, 'duration': 6.684}], 'summary': 'Smarts: specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, time-based, stretch. example: hospitals maintain patient records.', 'duration': 26.643, 'max_score': 6200.058, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E6200058.jpg'}, {'end': 6339.268, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 6310.165, 'weight': 7, 'content': [{'end': 6313.788, 'text': 'Documentation of a project is critical throughout the project.', 'start': 6310.165, 'duration': 3.623}, {'end': 6319.901, 'text': 'Some of the benefits achieved through project documentation are mentioned below.', 'start': 6314.679, 'duration': 5.222}, {'end': 6325.043, 'text': 'Documentation serves as written proof for execution of the project.', 'start': 6319.901, 'duration': 5.142}, {'end': 6331.105, 'text': 'It helps teams achieve a common understanding of the requirements and the status of the project.', 'start': 6325.043, 'duration': 6.062}, {'end': 6339.268, 'text': 'It removes personal bias, as there is a documented history of discussions and decisions made for the project.', 'start': 6331.105, 'duration': 8.163}], 'summary': 'Project documentation is critical, providing written proof, common understanding, and removing bias.', 'duration': 29.103, 'max_score': 6310.165, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E6310165.jpg'}, {'end': 6592.48, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 6562.754, 'weight': 8, 'content': [{'end': 6566.135, 'text': 'In the subsequent screen, we will learn about process maps.', 'start': 6562.754, 'duration': 3.381}, {'end': 6574.216, 'text': 'SIPOC is a macro-level map that provides an overview of the business process,', 'start': 6568.315, 'duration': 5.901}, {'end': 6580.498, 'text': 'where a process map is a micro-level flowchart that provides an in-depth detail of a process.', 'start': 6574.216, 'duration': 6.282}, {'end': 6587.499, 'text': 'The process map covers details at all levels and provides a walkthrough of the current process experience.', 'start': 6581.398, 'duration': 6.101}, {'end': 6592.48, 'text': 'The SIPOC map is used as a basis while drawing a process map.', 'start': 6588.399, 'duration': 4.081}], 'summary': 'Introduction to process maps: sipoc provides overview, process map details at all levels.', 'duration': 29.726, 'max_score': 6562.754, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E6562754.jpg'}, {'end': 6666.831, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 6640.724, 'weight': 9, 'content': [{'end': 6651.387, 'text': 'Consequential metrics help to understand the cause and effect relationship between the primary and the secondary metrics and the impact it has on the organization.', 'start': 6640.724, 'duration': 10.663}, {'end': 6657.049, 'text': 'Let us take a look at an example for consequential metrics in the next screen.', 'start': 6652.508, 'duration': 4.541}, {'end': 6662.27, 'text': 'We will discuss the best practices in this screen.', 'start': 6659.549, 'duration': 2.721}, {'end': 6666.831, 'text': 'The following are some of the best practices of consequential metrics.', 'start': 6663.11, 'duration': 3.721}], 'summary': 'Understanding cause and effect relationship between primary and secondary metrics, and impact on organization.', 'duration': 26.107, 'max_score': 6640.724, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E6640724.jpg'}, {'end': 6799.664, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 6772.367, 'weight': 10, 'content': [{'end': 6775.449, 'text': 'Pareto chart emphasizes that 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes.', 'start': 6772.367, 'duration': 3.082}, {'end': 6786.176, 'text': 'Thus, a Pareto chart narrows the scope of the project or problem solving by identifying the major causes affecting quality.', 'start': 6778.752, 'duration': 7.424}, {'end': 6790.779, 'text': 'Pareto charts are useful only when required data is available.', 'start': 6786.917, 'duration': 3.862}, {'end': 6799.664, 'text': 'If data is not available, then other tools such as brainstorming and multivoting should be used to find the root cause of any problem.', 'start': 6791.619, 'duration': 8.045}], 'summary': 'Pareto chart shows 80% effects from 20% causes, useful with available data', 'duration': 27.297, 'max_score': 6772.367, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E6772367.jpg'}], 'start': 5598.299, 'title': 'Effective data collection and project management basics', 'summary': 'Emphasizes the effectiveness of data collection tools with 817 expedited service requests, discusses reviewing collected data for eliminating ambiguity and unintended bias, and covers the basics of project management including defining problem statements, using the is or is not template, setting smarts criteria for project objectives, understanding project documentation, and using tools like pareto chart and sipoc map.', 'chapters': [{'end': 5668.84, 'start': 5598.299, 'title': 'Data collection tools for effective information', 'summary': 'Highlights the effectiveness of data collection tools with 817 expedited service requests, emphasizing the key elements such as direct collection from primary source, exclusive relevance, and instantaneous data capture.', 'duration': 70.541, 'highlights': ['Data collection tools will be selected based on the type of data to be collected.', 'Data is collected instantaneously when there is a requirement, ensuring the data is up to date and valid.', 'The total of expedited service request is 817, making it effective to the organization.', 'Data is collected exclusively for the stated purpose, ensuring high reliability.', 'Data is collected directly from the primary source or customer, minimizing miscommunication or loss of information.']}, {'end': 5870.081, 'start': 5668.84, 'title': 'Customer survey and voice of customer', 'summary': 'Discusses the importance of reviewing collected data for eliminating ambiguity and unintended bias, as well as the technique of voice of customer for organizing and analyzing customer requirements, using examples from a laptop company and air conditioner purchase.', 'duration': 201.241, 'highlights': ['The company reviews the collected data to eliminate vagueness, ambiguity, and unintended bias, improving the customer survey process. The company reviews the collected data to eliminate ambiguity and unintended bias in the customer survey process, ensuring better data for improving the process.', "The survey questionnaire for NutraWorldwide's customer satisfaction had questions leading to ambiguity, vagueness, and unintended bias, which were identified and rectified through the review process. The survey questionnaire for NutraWorldwide's customer satisfaction had questions leading to ambiguity, vagueness, and unintended bias, which were identified and rectified through the review process, ensuring better data collection for process improvement.", 'The voice of the customer technique is used to organize, analyze, and profile customer requirements, with examples of customer needs for air conditioner purchase. The voice of the customer technique is used to organize, analyze, and profile customer requirements, exemplified by different customer needs for air conditioner purchase, such as silent operation, efficiency, and affordability.']}, {'end': 6077.724, 'start': 5870.722, 'title': 'Understanding quality function deployment', 'summary': 'Explains the importance of translating customer requirements, the concept of critical-to-quality (ctq) factors, and the process of quality function deployment (qfd) which helps in prioritizing customer requirements and designing competitive products in less time and cost.', 'duration': 207.002, 'highlights': ['Quality Function Deployment (QFD) helps in prioritizing customer requirements, recognizing strengths and weaknesses of an organization and recognizing areas that need to be worked on and areas that need immediate focus of efforts. QFD prioritizes customer requirements, identifies organizational strengths and weaknesses, and highlights areas needing immediate attention.', 'Customer requirements when translated into critical process requirements that are specific and measurable are called critical-to-quality (CTQ) factors. Translated customer requirements become critical-to-quality (CTQ) factors when they are specific and measurable.', 'The process of QFD involves four phases: product planning, product design, process planning, and production planning or process control. QFD process includes four phases: product planning, product design, process planning, and production planning/process control.']}, {'end': 6532.992, 'start': 6078.664, 'title': 'Project management basics', 'summary': 'Covers the basics of project management, including defining problem statements, using the is or is not template, setting smarts criteria for project objectives, understanding project documentation, project charter, project plan, and interpreting project scope using tools like pareto chart and sipoc map.', 'duration': 454.328, 'highlights': ['The chapter covers the basics of project management, including defining problem statements, using the is or is not template, setting SMARTS criteria for project objectives, understanding project documentation, project charter, project plan, and interpreting project scope using tools like Pareto chart and SIPOC map. This encompasses the key points of the entire chapter, providing a comprehensive overview of the topics covered.', 'The project objectives must meet the SMARTS criteria: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Time-based, and Stretch. It emphasizes the specific criteria required for project objectives, ensuring they are measurable, achievable, relevant, time-bound, and challenging.', 'Documentation serves as written proof for execution of the project and helps teams achieve a common understanding of the requirements and the status of the project. This highlights the importance of project documentation in providing evidence of execution, facilitating a shared understanding, and preventing conflicts.', 'The Pareto chart helps the teams to trim the scope of the project by identifying the causes which have a major impact on the outcome of the project. It explains the purpose of using the Pareto chart to prioritize and focus on causes with significant impacts on the project outcome.']}, {'end': 6841.126, 'start': 6533.833, 'title': 'Understanding sipoc and project metrics', 'summary': 'Discusses the importance of sipoc maps in understanding process functions, the use of consequential metrics to measure negative impacts, and the significance of pareto charts in identifying major causes affecting quality in the project.', 'duration': 307.293, 'highlights': ['SIPOC map provides an overview of the business process, while a process map gives in-depth details of a process. The SIPOC map is a macro-level map that provides an overview of the business process, while a process map is a micro-level flowchart that provides in-depth detail of a process.', 'Consequential metrics measure negative consequences and help understand the cause and effect relationship between primary and secondary metrics. Consequential metrics measure any negative consequences and help to understand the cause and effect relationship between the primary and the secondary metrics and the impact it has on the organization.', 'Pareto chart emphasizes that 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes, helping to narrow the scope of problem solving. Pareto chart emphasizes that 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes, thus narrowing the scope of the project or problem solving by identifying the major causes affecting quality.']}], 'duration': 1242.827, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E5598299.jpg', 'highlights': ['Data collection tools are selected based on the type of data to be collected.', 'Data is collected instantaneously when there is a requirement, ensuring the data is up to date and valid.', 'The total of expedited service request is 817, making it effective to the organization.', 'The company reviews the collected data to eliminate vagueness, ambiguity, and unintended bias, improving the customer survey process.', 'Quality Function Deployment (QFD) helps in prioritizing customer requirements, recognizing strengths and weaknesses of an organization and recognizing areas that need to be worked on and areas that need immediate focus of efforts.', 'The chapter covers the basics of project management, including defining problem statements, using the is or is not template, setting SMARTS criteria for project objectives, understanding project documentation, project charter, project plan, and interpreting project scope using tools like Pareto chart and SIPOC map.', 'The project objectives must meet the SMARTS criteria: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Time-based, and Stretch.', 'Documentation serves as written proof for execution of the project and helps teams achieve a common understanding of the requirements and the status of the project.', 'SIPOC map provides an overview of the business process, while a process map gives in-depth details of a process.', 'Consequential metrics measure negative consequences and help understand the cause and effect relationship between primary and secondary metrics.', 'Pareto chart emphasizes that 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes, helping to narrow the scope of problem solving.']}, {'end': 7985.622, 'segs': [{'end': 6870.225, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 6842.147, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 6845.189, 'text': 'In the next screen, we will discuss network diagrams.', 'start': 6842.147, 'duration': 3.042}, {'end': 6852.814, 'text': 'Network diagrams are one of the tools used by the project manager for project planning.', 'start': 6847.491, 'duration': 5.323}, {'end': 6857.477, 'text': 'They are also sometimes referred to as arrow diagrams,', 'start': 6853.615, 'duration': 3.862}, {'end': 6865.024, 'text': 'because they use arrows to connect activities and represent precedents and interdependencies between activities of a project.', 'start': 6857.477, 'duration': 7.547}, {'end': 6870.225, 'text': 'There are some assumptions that need to be made while forming the network diagram.', 'start': 6865.964, 'duration': 4.261}], 'summary': 'Network diagrams are a project management tool using arrows to represent activity interdependencies.', 'duration': 28.078, 'max_score': 6842.147, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E6842147.jpg'}, {'end': 7013.885, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 6988.733, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 6996.857, 'text': 'is an important tool used by project managers to monitor the progress of the project and to ensure that the project is on schedule.', 'start': 6988.733, 'duration': 8.124}, {'end': 7003.498, 'text': 'The critical path for a project is the longest sequence of tasks on the network diagram.', 'start': 6997.674, 'duration': 5.824}, {'end': 7008.181, 'text': 'The critical path in the given network diagram is highlighted in orange.', 'start': 7004.198, 'duration': 3.983}, {'end': 7013.885, 'text': 'Critical path is characterized by zero slack for all tasks on the sequence.', 'start': 7009.062, 'duration': 4.823}], 'summary': 'Critical path is key for project progress, highlighted in orange with zero slack.', 'duration': 25.152, 'max_score': 6988.733, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E6988733.jpg'}, {'end': 7107.258, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 7082.242, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 7087.846, 'text': 'Risk is an uncertain event or consequence probable of occurring during a project.', 'start': 7082.242, 'duration': 5.604}, {'end': 7093.749, 'text': 'The main objectives of any project are time, cost, quality, and scope.', 'start': 7088.606, 'duration': 5.143}, {'end': 7097.912, 'text': 'Risk affects at least one of the four project objectives.', 'start': 7094.71, 'duration': 3.202}, {'end': 7103.396, 'text': 'It is important to understand that risk can be both positive as well as negative.', 'start': 7098.873, 'duration': 4.523}, {'end': 7107.258, 'text': 'A positive risk enhances the success of the project.', 'start': 7104.196, 'duration': 3.062}], 'summary': 'Risk impacts project objectives, including time, cost, quality, and scope. it can be positive or negative, enhancing or impeding project success.', 'duration': 25.016, 'max_score': 7082.242, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E7082242.jpg'}, {'end': 7245, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 7214.548, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 7222.07, 'text': 'RPN RPN of a failure is the product of its probability of occurrence, severity, and detectability.', 'start': 7214.548, 'duration': 7.522}, {'end': 7226.772, 'text': 'A failure is prioritized based on its RPN value.', 'start': 7223.03, 'duration': 3.742}, {'end': 7230.173, 'text': 'A high RPN indicates high risk.', 'start': 7227.792, 'duration': 2.381}, {'end': 7233.395, 'text': 'RPN assists to prioritize risks.', 'start': 7231.074, 'duration': 2.321}, {'end': 7235.496, 'text': 'Avoiding risk.', 'start': 7234.715, 'duration': 0.781}, {'end': 7245, 'text': 'When potential risks are identified, their impact in terms of cost, time, resources, and objective perspective is calculated.', 'start': 7236.376, 'duration': 8.624}], 'summary': 'Rpn prioritizes failures based on probability, severity, and detectability to assess risk and avoid potential impacts.', 'duration': 30.452, 'max_score': 7214.548, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E7214548.jpg'}, {'end': 7299.237, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 7272.233, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 7277.595, 'text': "The risk will be accepted if it doesn't greatly impact the cost, time and product objective.", 'start': 7272.233, 'duration': 5.362}, {'end': 7282.516, 'text': 'In the following screen, we will discuss benefits of risk analysis.', 'start': 7278.635, 'duration': 3.881}, {'end': 7287.278, 'text': 'Benefits of risk analysis are as follows.', 'start': 7284.517, 'duration': 2.761}, {'end': 7293.58, 'text': 'Once the risk has been identified, it can be either mitigated, transferred or accepted.', 'start': 7288.118, 'duration': 5.462}, {'end': 7299.237, 'text': 'When risk is identified in a task, slack time is provided as a buffer.', 'start': 7294.534, 'duration': 4.703}], 'summary': 'Risk analysis benefits include mitigation, transfer, and slack time for tasks.', 'duration': 27.004, 'max_score': 7272.233, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E7272233.jpg'}, {'end': 7650.576, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 7625.009, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 7632.5, 'text': 'Conclude. Formal project closure ensures that the team has met its objectives, satisfied the customer,', 'start': 7625.009, 'duration': 7.491}, {'end': 7636.143, 'text': 'captured important knowledge and been rewarded for their efforts.', 'start': 7632.5, 'duration': 3.643}, {'end': 7641.047, 'text': 'Let us proceed to the next topic of this lesson in the following screen.', 'start': 7637.284, 'duration': 3.763}, {'end': 7646.092, 'text': 'In this topic, we will discuss management and planning tools.', 'start': 7642.929, 'duration': 3.163}, {'end': 7650.576, 'text': 'Let us start with the discussion on affinity diagram in the next screen.', 'start': 7646.973, 'duration': 3.603}], 'summary': 'Formal project closure ensures objectives met, customer satisfaction, knowledge captured, and team rewarded.', 'duration': 25.567, 'max_score': 7625.009, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E7625009.jpg'}, {'end': 7781.76, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 7756.84, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 7763.665, 'text': 'You can see in the diagram on that slide that once all the ideas are grouped to the respective header cards,', 'start': 7756.84, 'duration': 6.825}, {'end': 7767.909, 'text': 'a diagram is drawn and borders are placed around the group of ideas.', 'start': 7763.665, 'duration': 4.244}, {'end': 7772.873, 'text': 'Thus, Affinity Diagram helps in grouping ideas with the common theme.', 'start': 7768.669, 'duration': 4.204}, {'end': 7777.757, 'text': 'In the next screen, we will discuss the Interrelationship Diagram.', 'start': 7773.874, 'duration': 3.883}, {'end': 7781.76, 'text': 'During problem solving.', 'start': 7780.459, 'duration': 1.301}], 'summary': 'Affinity diagram groups ideas with common themes, aiding problem solving.', 'duration': 24.92, 'max_score': 7756.84, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E7756840.jpg'}], 'start': 6842.147, 'title': 'Project planning and risk analysis', 'summary': 'Covers network diagrams for project planning, project scheduling, risk analysis, and project closure. it includes critical path method, risk probability, impact, rpn, and steps for project closure.', 'chapters': [{'end': 6915.031, 'start': 6842.147, 'title': 'Network diagrams for project planning', 'summary': 'Introduces network diagrams as a project planning tool, highlighting their use of arrows to depict activity interdependencies, logical precedence, and necessity for defining task dates.', 'duration': 72.884, 'highlights': ['Network diagrams are crucial project planning tools, also known as arrow diagrams, depicting activity interdependencies and precedents.', 'Assumptions for network diagram formation include completion of pending activities before new ones begin, logical precedence indicated by arrow directions, and a single start and end point.', 'To calculate the total project duration using a network diagram, project managers need to define four dates for each task.']}, {'end': 7245, 'start': 6915.851, 'title': 'Project scheduling and risk analysis', 'summary': 'Explains project scheduling including early start, late start, slack time, and critical path method, and also delves into risk analysis and management including risk probability, impact, qualitative and quantitative methods, feasibility, potential impact, rpn, and avoiding risk.', 'duration': 329.149, 'highlights': ['The critical path for a project is the longest sequence of tasks on the network diagram, characterized by zero slack for all tasks on the sequence, requiring close monitoring by the project manager. Longest sequence of tasks on the network diagram', 'Risk is an uncertain event or consequence probable of occurring during a project and affects at least one of the four project objectives: time, cost, quality, and scope. Affects at least one of the four project objectives', 'Feasibility is the study of project risk, usually carried out at the beginning of the project to reduce risks at a relatively low cost, aiding in deciding different implementing options for the projects. Carried out in the beginning of the project', 'RPN of a failure is the product of its probability of occurrence, severity, and detectability, assisting in prioritizing risks based on their RPN value. Assists to prioritize risks', 'Qualitative methods like interview, checklists, and brainstorming are used to identify potential risks, while quantitative methods are data-based and require a computer to calculate and analyze, used to evaluate the cost, time, and probabilistic combination of individual uncertainties. Used to identify potential risks']}, {'end': 7985.622, 'start': 7246.053, 'title': 'Risk analysis and project closure', 'summary': 'Discusses the importance of risk analysis in identifying, mitigating, and accepting risks in project management, as well as the crucial steps involved in project closure to ensure the success and completion of a project.', 'duration': 739.569, 'highlights': ['The chapter emphasizes the importance of risk analysis in project management, outlining the options of mitigating, transferring, or accepting identified risks, and highlights the benefits of risk analysis in providing slack time for tasks and setting realistic project expectations (e.g., mitigating the risk results in much less loss than temporary risk avoidance).', 'The transcript delves into the significance of project closure, stressing the necessity of formal closure processes to recognize project completion, capture critical knowledge, and release resources for new projects, and outlines the goals and activities involved in a project closure report (e.g., providing a synopsis of the process and generating discussions and recommendations).', 'The provided details also cover management and planning tools, specifically the affinity diagram, interrelationship diagram, and tree diagram, explaining their applications and methodologies with practical examples, such as using the affinity diagram to group ideas with common themes and the interrelationship diagram to identify relationships between problems and ideas in complex situations.']}], 'duration': 1143.475, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E6842147.jpg', 'highlights': ['Network diagrams are crucial project planning tools, depicting activity interdependencies and precedents.', 'The critical path for a project is the longest sequence of tasks on the network diagram, requiring close monitoring.', 'Risk is an uncertain event affecting at least one of the four project objectives: time, cost, quality, and scope.', 'RPN of a failure is the product of its probability of occurrence, severity, and detectability, assisting in prioritizing risks.', 'The chapter emphasizes the importance of risk analysis in project management, outlining the options of mitigating, transferring, or accepting identified risks.', 'The chapter stresses the necessity of formal closure processes to recognize project completion, capture critical knowledge, and release resources for new projects.', 'The provided details also cover management and planning tools, specifically the affinity diagram, interrelationship diagram, and tree diagram.']}, {'end': 10595.465, 'segs': [{'end': 8073.804, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 8018.128, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 8021.79, 'text': 'Their objective is to provide information about the relationship.', 'start': 8018.128, 'duration': 3.662}, {'end': 8026.412, 'text': 'They provide importance of task and method elements of the subject.', 'start': 8022.77, 'duration': 3.642}, {'end': 8032.255, 'text': 'They also help determine the strength of relationships between a grid of rows and columns.', 'start': 8027.393, 'duration': 4.862}, {'end': 8037.178, 'text': 'They help in organizing a large amount of inter-process related activities.', 'start': 8033.156, 'duration': 4.022}, {'end': 8042.156, 'text': 'Let us discuss various types of matrices in the next screen.', 'start': 8038.274, 'duration': 3.882}, {'end': 8048.758, 'text': 'Let us learn about a process decision program chart in this screen.', 'start': 8044.477, 'duration': 4.281}, {'end': 8059.863, 'text': 'Process decision program chart, or the PDPC method, is used to chart the course of events from the beginning of a process till the goal.', 'start': 8049.839, 'duration': 10.024}, {'end': 8066.626, 'text': 'While emphasizing the ability to identify the failure of important issues on activity plans,', 'start': 8060.824, 'duration': 5.802}, {'end': 8073.804, 'text': 'The PDPC helps create appropriate contingency plans to limit the number of risks involved.', 'start': 8067.403, 'duration': 6.401}], 'summary': 'Pdpc method charts process events, identifies failures, and creates contingency plans to limit risks.', 'duration': 55.676, 'max_score': 8018.128, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E8018128.jpg'}, {'end': 8188.852, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 8153.863, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 8156.644, 'text': 'It might work and the seller might secure the order.', 'start': 8153.863, 'duration': 2.781}, {'end': 8161.406, 'text': 'In the next screen, we will discuss the activity network diagram.', 'start': 8157.805, 'duration': 3.601}, {'end': 8172.011, 'text': 'An activity network diagram is used to show the time required for solving a problem and to identify items that can be done in parallel.', 'start': 8163.467, 'duration': 8.544}, {'end': 8180.315, 'text': 'It is used in scheduling and monitoring tasks within a complex project or process with interrelated tasks and resources.', 'start': 8172.852, 'duration': 7.463}, {'end': 8188.852, 'text': 'Moreover, it is also used when you know the steps of the project or process, their sequence, and the time taken by each of the steps involved.', 'start': 8180.885, 'duration': 7.967}], 'summary': 'Activity network diagram shows time for problem solving and parallel tasks in complex projects.', 'duration': 34.989, 'max_score': 8153.863, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E8153863.jpg'}, {'end': 8316.287, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 8260.189, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 8262.991, 'text': 'We will learn about throughput yield in this screen.', 'start': 8260.189, 'duration': 2.802}, {'end': 8273.255, 'text': 'Throughput yield or TPY, is the number of acceptable pieces at the end of a process, divided by the number of starting pieces,', 'start': 8263.968, 'duration': 9.287}, {'end': 8274.857, 'text': 'excluding scrap and rework.', 'start': 8273.255, 'duration': 1.602}, {'end': 8278.84, 'text': 'Throughput yield is used to measure a single process only.', 'start': 8275.718, 'duration': 3.122}, {'end': 8287.827, 'text': 'If the DPU is known, TPY can be easily calculated as e to the power of the negative of DPU.', 'start': 8280.061, 'duration': 7.766}, {'end': 8292.807, 'text': 'Here, e is the mathematical constant and has a value of 2.7183.', 'start': 8288.789, 'duration': 4.018}, {'end': 8302.355, 'text': 'The expression can also be stated as DPU equals the negative of natural logarithm E of TPY.', 'start': 8292.807, 'duration': 9.548}, {'end': 8307.099, 'text': 'In the next screen, we will discuss rolled throughput yield.', 'start': 8303.335, 'duration': 3.764}, {'end': 8316.287, 'text': 'Rolled throughput yield, or RTY, is the probability of the entire process producing zero defects.', 'start': 8309.161, 'duration': 7.126}], 'summary': 'Throughput yield measures process efficiency; tpy calculated using dpu, e.g. e^(-dpu).', 'duration': 56.098, 'max_score': 8260.189, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E8260189.jpg'}, {'end': 8426.274, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 8399.906, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 8409.129, 'text': 'Process capability, or CP, is defined as the inherent variability of a characteristic of a process or a product.', 'start': 8399.906, 'duration': 9.223}, {'end': 8414.951, 'text': 'In other words, it might also mean how well a process meets customer requirement.', 'start': 8410.089, 'duration': 4.862}, {'end': 8426.274, 'text': 'CP is an indicator of capability of a process and is expressed as difference of USL and LSL divided by product of Six Sigma.', 'start': 8415.991, 'duration': 10.283}], 'summary': 'Cp measures process capability using usl, lsl, and six sigma.', 'duration': 26.368, 'max_score': 8399.906, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E8399906.jpg'}, {'end': 8659.619, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 8629.747, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 8634.429, 'text': 'Each team passes through these stages as they start and proceed through the project.', 'start': 8629.747, 'duration': 4.682}, {'end': 8638.791, 'text': 'The five stages in the team building process are as follows.', 'start': 8635.169, 'duration': 3.622}, {'end': 8643.633, 'text': 'Forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.', 'start': 8639.511, 'duration': 4.122}, {'end': 8647.994, 'text': 'In the next screen, we will discuss the first stage, forming.', 'start': 8644.653, 'duration': 3.341}, {'end': 8654.217, 'text': 'The first stage in the team building process is called the forming stage.', 'start': 8650.535, 'duration': 3.682}, {'end': 8659.619, 'text': 'In this stage, the team comes together and begins to formulate roles and responsibilities.', 'start': 8655.074, 'duration': 4.545}], 'summary': 'Teams progress through forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning stages, with the forming stage involving role formulation.', 'duration': 29.872, 'max_score': 8629.747, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E8629747.jpg'}, {'end': 8937.679, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 8908.704, 'weight': 7, 'content': [{'end': 8914.086, 'text': 'The first kind of negative participants fall in the category of overbearing participants.', 'start': 8908.704, 'duration': 5.382}, {'end': 8923.936, 'text': 'These participants use their influence or expertise to take on a position of authority, discounting contributions from other team members.', 'start': 8915.014, 'duration': 8.922}, {'end': 8927.156, 'text': 'To cope with such participants,', 'start': 8924.856, 'duration': 2.3}, {'end': 8937.679, 'text': 'team leaders must establish ground rules for participation and reinforce that the group has the right to explore any area pertinent to team goals and objectives.', 'start': 8927.156, 'duration': 10.523}], 'summary': 'Overbearing participants discount contributions, requiring ground rules for participation.', 'duration': 28.975, 'max_score': 8908.704, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E8908704.jpg'}, {'end': 9054.278, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 9025.973, 'weight': 8, 'content': [{'end': 9030.497, 'text': 'Various roles assist the smooth execution of a Six Sigma project.', 'start': 9025.973, 'duration': 4.524}, {'end': 9038.915, 'text': 'These roles are required to support the project by providing the information and resources that are needed to execute the project.', 'start': 9031.434, 'duration': 7.481}, {'end': 9044.696, 'text': 'The first important member of the Six Sigma team is the executive sponsor.', 'start': 9039.935, 'duration': 4.761}, {'end': 9054.278, 'text': 'Sponsors are the source or conduit for project resources and they are usually the recipients of the benefits the project will produce.', 'start': 9045.696, 'duration': 8.582}], 'summary': 'Six sigma project requires various roles to support and execute, with the executive sponsor being a key member.', 'duration': 28.305, 'max_score': 9025.973, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E9025973.jpg'}, {'end': 9506.953, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 9478.283, 'weight': 9, 'content': [{'end': 9480.564, 'text': 'Click on the link in the description to know more.', 'start': 9478.283, 'duration': 2.281}, {'end': 9484.427, 'text': 'This lesson will cover the details of the measure phase.', 'start': 9481.505, 'duration': 2.922}, {'end': 9491.325, 'text': 'The key objective of the measure phase is to gather as much information as possible on the current processes.', 'start': 9485.107, 'duration': 6.218}, {'end': 9502.511, 'text': 'This involves three key tasks, that is, creating a detailed process map, gathering baseline data, and summarizing and analyzing the data.', 'start': 9492.186, 'duration': 10.325}, {'end': 9506.953, 'text': 'Let us understand process modeling in the following screen.', 'start': 9503.432, 'duration': 3.521}], 'summary': 'The measure phase involves creating process map, gathering baseline data, and analyzing it.', 'duration': 28.67, 'max_score': 9478.283, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E9478283.jpg'}, {'end': 9980.596, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 9952.488, 'weight': 10, 'content': [{'end': 9962.988, 'text': 'The probability that a specific type of event or outcome, say F, can occur is the number of specific outcomes divided by the total possible outcomes.', 'start': 9952.488, 'duration': 10.5}, {'end': 9967.01, 'text': 'Click the button to view an example of probability.', 'start': 9963.909, 'duration': 3.101}, {'end': 9971.612, 'text': 'In the event of tossing a coin?', 'start': 9969.211, 'duration': 2.401}, {'end': 9974.613, 'text': 'what is the probability of the occurrence of heads?', 'start': 9971.612, 'duration': 3.001}, {'end': 9980.596, 'text': 'A single trial of tossing a coin has two outcomes heads and tails.', 'start': 9975.574, 'duration': 5.022}], 'summary': 'Probability of heads in a coin toss is 0.5.', 'duration': 28.108, 'max_score': 9952.488, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E9952488.jpg'}, {'end': 10038.729, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 10008.507, 'weight': 11, 'content': [{'end': 10014.918, 'text': 'According to Property 2, the probability of an event that cannot occur is 0.', 'start': 10008.507, 'duration': 6.411}, {'end': 10019.62, 'text': 'In other words, an event that cannot occur is called an impossible event.', 'start': 10014.918, 'duration': 4.702}, {'end': 10027.104, 'text': 'Property 3 states that the probability of an event that must occur is 1.', 'start': 10021.341, 'duration': 5.763}, {'end': 10031.006, 'text': 'In other words, an event that must occur is called a certain event.', 'start': 10027.104, 'duration': 3.902}, {'end': 10038.729, 'text': 'If E is an event, then the probability of its occurrence is given by P of E.', 'start': 10031.986, 'duration': 6.743}], 'summary': 'Probability of impossible event is 0, certain event is 1.', 'duration': 30.222, 'max_score': 10008.507, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E10008507.jpg'}, {'end': 10278.489, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 10253.472, 'weight': 12, 'content': [{'end': 10261.077, 'text': 'then the probability of A and B and C and so on is equal to the product of their individual probabilities.', 'start': 10253.472, 'duration': 7.605}, {'end': 10265.06, 'text': 'Click the button to view an example of this rule.', 'start': 10262.098, 'duration': 2.962}, {'end': 10270.304, 'text': 'Suppose there are three events which are independent of each other.', 'start': 10266.962, 'duration': 3.342}, {'end': 10278.489, 'text': 'such as the event of flipping a coin and getting heads, drawing a card and getting an ace, and throwing a dice and getting a one.', 'start': 10270.788, 'duration': 7.701}], 'summary': 'Probability of independent events equals product of individual probabilities.', 'duration': 25.017, 'max_score': 10253.472, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E10253472.jpg'}, {'end': 10454.565, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 10421.353, 'weight': 13, 'content': [{'end': 10426.897, 'text': 'In this screen we will look at the definitions and formulae of permutation and combination.', 'start': 10421.353, 'duration': 5.544}, {'end': 10434.222, 'text': 'Permutation is the total number of ways in which a set, group or number of things can be arranged.', 'start': 10427.918, 'duration': 6.304}, {'end': 10437.925, 'text': 'The order matters to a great extent in permutation.', 'start': 10435.083, 'duration': 2.842}, {'end': 10443.509, 'text': 'The manner in which the objects or numbers are arranged will be considered in permutation.', 'start': 10438.746, 'duration': 4.763}, {'end': 10454.565, 'text': 'The formula for permutation is NPR equals P of N and R equals N factorial, divided by N minus R factorial,', 'start': 10444.482, 'duration': 10.083}], 'summary': 'Permutation is the arrangement of n objects, where order matters, using the formula npr = n! / (n-r)!', 'duration': 33.212, 'max_score': 10421.353, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E10421353.jpg'}], 'start': 7986.523, 'title': 'Tools and concepts in process improvement', 'summary': 'Covers decision-making matrices, pdpc method, activity network diagram, process capability, team dynamics, performance, measure phase details, process mapping, probability, and statistics basics, providing comprehensive insights into tools and concepts for process improvement.', 'chapters': [{'end': 8152.838, 'start': 7986.523, 'title': 'Decision-making matrices and pdpc method', 'summary': 'Discusses the use of matrices for prioritization and the process decision program chart (pdpc) method, which helps in charting the course of events from the beginning of a process till the goal, emphasizing on identifying failure points and creating contingency plans.', 'duration': 166.315, 'highlights': ['The PDPC method is used to chart the course of events from the beginning of a process till the goal. It emphasizes the ability to identify the failure of important issues on activity plans and create appropriate contingency plans, especially when the plan is large and complex, the plan must be completed on schedule, or the price of failure is quite high.', 'Matrix diagrams show the relationship between objectives and methods, results and causes, tasks and people, etc. They provide importance of task and method elements of the subject and help determine the strength of relationships between a grid of rows and columns, organizing a large amount of inter-process related activities.', 'The tree diagram can be used to achieve a goal or define a process. A good quality sweetener, used in the right amount, makes a great cappuccino.']}, {'end': 8602.505, 'start': 8153.863, 'title': 'Activity network diagram & process capability', 'summary': 'Explains the activity network diagram for project scheduling, including the calculation of time taken for each operation, and introduces process capability indices like cp and cpk to measure process efficiency and variability, including their interpretations.', 'duration': 448.642, 'highlights': ['The activity network diagram is used to show the time required for solving a problem and to identify items that can be done in parallel. It explains the purpose of the activity network diagram for project scheduling and problem solving.', 'Throughput yield or TPY is the number of acceptable pieces at the end of a process, divided by the number of starting pieces, excluding scrap and rework. TPY can be calculated as e to the power of the negative of DPU. It defines throughput yield and the method to calculate it, providing a formula for its computation.', 'Rolled throughput yield, or RTY, is the probability of the entire process producing zero defects. It is calculated using the expression e to the power of negative of TDPU. It explains rolled throughput yield and the formula for its calculation.', 'Process capability, or CP, is defined as the inherent variability of a characteristic of a process or a product. CP is an indicator of capability of a process and is expressed as difference of USL and LSL divided by product of Six Sigma. It introduces process capability and its measurement, including the formula for its calculation.', 'Process Capability Indices or CPK was developed to objectively measure the degree to which a process meets or does not meet customer requirements. CPK takes up the value of CPKU and CPKL, depending on whichever is the lower value. It describes the development and purpose of process capability indices, including how CPK is determined.']}, {'end': 9477.963, 'start': 8603.366, 'title': 'Team dynamics & performance', 'summary': 'Explores team dynamics and performance, covering the stages of team building, negative behavior, group challenges, communication modes, and techniques, as well as the roles and responsibilities within a six sigma team.', 'duration': 874.597, 'highlights': ['The five stages in the team building process are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. The team building process consists of five stages: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning, which teams go through as they start and proceed through the project.', 'The team leader employs a directive style of management in the forming stage, promoting commitment to the project and acceptance of a common purpose. In the forming stage, the team leader uses a directive style of management to delegate responsibilities, provide structure, and ensure commitment to the project and a common purpose.', 'The second phase in the team building process, the storming stage, focuses on conflicts within the team, with the leader employing a coaching style of management to manage conflict and facilitate understanding between different parties. The storming stage involves conflicts within the team, and the leader uses a coaching style of management to manage conflict and facilitate understanding between different parties.', 'The third stage, norming, sees the team developing a unified commitment to the project goal, with the leader employing a participatory style of management to facilitate change, build consensus, and oversee quality control. In the norming stage, the team develops a unified commitment to the project goal, and the leader uses a participatory style of management to facilitate change, build consensus, and oversee quality control.', 'The performing stage is the most productive, where team members manage complex tasks and work toward common goals, with the leader employing a supervisory style of management by overseeing progress, rewarding achievement, and supervising processes. In the performing stage, team members manage complex tasks and work toward common goals, while the leader uses a supervisory style of management to oversee progress, reward achievement, and supervise processes.', 'The last stage of team building, adjourning, involves the winding down of the project, with the team leader employing a supportive style of management by giving feedback, celebrating accomplishments, and providing closure. In the adjourning stage, the team leader provides feedback, celebrates accomplishments, and provides closure, employing a supportive style of management.', "Negative participants in a team can fall into categories such as overbearing, dominant, and reluctant participants, impacting the team's dynamics and performance. Negative participants in a team can be overbearing, dominant, or reluctant, impacting the team's dynamics and performance, and requiring specific strategies from team leaders to manage their behaviors.", 'The roles within a Six Sigma team include executive sponsor, process owners, champions, master black belts, black belts, greenbelts, executive, coach, facilitator, sponsor, and team member, each contributing to the smooth execution of a Six Sigma project. The roles within a Six Sigma team, such as executive sponsor, process owners, champions, master black belts, black belts, greenbelts, executive, coach, facilitator, sponsor, and team member, contribute to the smooth execution of a Six Sigma project.', 'Communication within the team involves modes such as meetings, emails, workshops, and memos to communicate roles, responsibilities, project status, risks, and decision-making, while communication with stakeholders utilizes meetings, emails, events, and workshops to convey project objectives, status, and decision-making. Communication within the team involves modes such as meetings, emails, workshops, and memos to communicate roles, responsibilities, project status, risks, and decision-making, while communication with stakeholders utilizes meetings, emails, events, and workshops to convey project objectives, status, and decision-making.', 'Communication techniques include vertical, horizontal, verbal, nonverbal, one-way, and two-way communication, each serving different purposes within the organization and team dynamics. Communication techniques include vertical, horizontal, verbal, nonverbal, one-way, and two-way communication, each serving different purposes within the organization and team dynamics.']}, {'end': 9923.954, 'start': 9478.283, 'title': 'Measure phase details & process mapping', 'summary': 'Covers the measure phase, including the objective of gathering information on processes, process modeling, process mapping, flowcharts, written procedures, and work instructions.', 'duration': 445.671, 'highlights': ['The key objective of the measure phase is to gather as much information as possible on the current processes. This involves creating a detailed process map, gathering baseline data, and summarizing and analyzing the data. The measure phase aims to gather information on current processes, including creating a detailed process map and analyzing the data.', 'Process modeling and simulation can determine the effectiveness of a new design or process using process mapping and flowcharts. Process modeling and simulation can determine the effectiveness of a new design or process using process mapping and flowcharts.', 'Process mapping is usually the first step in process improvement, providing a wider perspective of problems and opportunities for process improvement. Process mapping is the initial step in process improvement, offering a wider perspective on opportunities for improvement.', 'Written procedures provide step-by-step guidance and are essential for everyone to strictly follow the rules, helping avoid mistakes and ensuring consistency. Written procedures provide step-by-step guidance, ensuring consistency and helping avoid mistakes.', 'Work instructions provide step-by-step details for a sequence of activities, helping employees follow them easily and independently. Work instructions provide detailed steps for activities, aiding employees in independent execution.']}, {'end': 10595.465, 'start': 9925.055, 'title': 'Probability & statistics basics', 'summary': 'Covers the basic concepts of probability and statistics, including properties of probability, common terms used in probability, multiplication rules, and definitions and formulae of permutation and combination, with examples of their applications.', 'duration': 670.41, 'highlights': ['The probability that a specific type of event or outcome, say F, can occur is the number of specific outcomes divided by the total possible outcomes. The probability of a specific event occurring is determined by the ratio of the number of specific outcomes to the total possible outcomes.', 'There are three basic properties of probability: the probability of an event is always between 0 and 1, the probability of an event that cannot occur is 0, and the probability of an event that must occur is 1. The three basic properties of probability are defined, stating that the probability of an event ranges between 0 and 1, an impossible event has a probability of 0, and a certain event has a probability of 1.', 'The probability of independent events is calculated using a special multiplication rule, where the probability of all events occurring is equal to the product of their individual probabilities. The special multiplication rule for independent events is explained, stating that the probability of multiple independent events occurring is the product of their individual probabilities.', 'Permutation is the total number of ways in which a set, group, or number of things can be arranged, and the formula for permutation is NPR equals N factorial divided by N minus R factorial. The definition and formula for permutation are provided, highlighting that permutation represents the total ways of arranging objects and the calculation formula.', 'Combination is the unordered arrangement of a set, group, or number of things, and the formula for combination is NCR equals N factorial divided by R factorial multiplied by N minus R factorial. The definition and formula for combination are explained, emphasizing the unordered arrangement of objects and the calculation formula.']}], 'duration': 2608.942, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E7986523.jpg', 'highlights': ['The PDPC method emphasizes identifying failure of important issues on activity plans and creating contingency plans.', 'Matrix diagrams show the relationship between objectives and methods, providing importance of task and method elements.', 'The activity network diagram is used to show the time required for solving a problem and to identify items that can be done in parallel.', 'Throughput yield or TPY is the number of acceptable pieces at the end of a process, divided by the number of starting pieces, excluding scrap and rework.', 'Rolled throughput yield, or RTY, is the probability of the entire process producing zero defects.', 'Process capability, or CP, is defined as the inherent variability of a characteristic of a process or a product.', 'The five stages in the team building process are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.', "Negative participants in a team can fall into categories such as overbearing, dominant, and reluctant participants, impacting the team's dynamics and performance.", 'The roles within a Six Sigma team include executive sponsor, process owners, champions, master black belts, black belts, greenbelts, executive, coach, facilitator, sponsor, and team member.', 'The key objective of the measure phase is to gather as much information as possible on the current processes.', 'The probability of a specific event occurring is determined by the ratio of the number of specific outcomes to the total possible outcomes.', 'There are three basic properties of probability: the probability of an event is always between 0 and 1, the probability of an event that cannot occur is 0, and the probability of an event that must occur is 1.', 'The probability of independent events is calculated using a special multiplication rule, where the probability of all events occurring is equal to the product of their individual probabilities.', 'Permutation is the total number of ways in which a set, group, or number of things can be arranged.', 'Combination is the unordered arrangement of a set, group, or number of things.']}, {'end': 12270.872, 'segs': [{'end': 10623.33, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 10595.465, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 10602.488, 'text': 'Therefore, the 4 employees can be selected from a group of 10 employees in 210 different ways.', 'start': 10595.465, 'duration': 7.023}, {'end': 10607.951, 'text': 'Let us understand the two types of statistics in this screen.', 'start': 10603.869, 'duration': 4.082}, {'end': 10615.286, 'text': 'Statistics refers to the science of collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data.', 'start': 10608.922, 'duration': 6.364}, {'end': 10623.33, 'text': 'In Six Sigma, statistical methods and principles are used to measure and analyze the process performance and improvements.', 'start': 10616.226, 'duration': 7.104}], 'summary': '4 employees can be selected from 10 in 210 ways. statistics in six sigma involves data collection, analysis, and process improvement.', 'duration': 27.865, 'max_score': 10595.465, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E10595465.jpg'}, {'end': 10697.792, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 10648.49, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 10654.932, 'text': 'Whereas inferential statistics includes making inferences and drawing conclusions from the data.', 'start': 10648.49, 'duration': 6.442}, {'end': 10659.313, 'text': "Descriptive statistics describes what's going on in the data.", 'start': 10655.712, 'duration': 3.601}, {'end': 10666.276, 'text': 'The main objective of inferential statistics is to make inferences from the data to more general conditions.', 'start': 10659.934, 'duration': 6.342}, {'end': 10674.882, 'text': 'Histograms, pie charts, box plots, frequency distributions and measures of central tendency, mean,', 'start': 10667.093, 'duration': 7.789}, {'end': 10678.766, 'text': 'median and mode are all examples of descriptive statistics.', 'start': 10674.882, 'duration': 3.884}, {'end': 10686.174, 'text': 'On the other hand, examples of inferential statistics are hypothesis testing, scatter diagrams, etc.', 'start': 10679.587, 'duration': 6.587}, {'end': 10697.792, 'text': 'The main objective of statistical inference is to draw conclusions on population characteristics based on the information available in the sample.', 'start': 10688.53, 'duration': 9.262}], 'summary': 'Inferential statistics draws conclusions from data to generalize conditions, while descriptive statistics describes data patterns. examples include histograms, pie charts, hypothesis testing, and scatter diagrams.', 'duration': 49.302, 'max_score': 10648.49, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E10648490.jpg'}, {'end': 10987.906, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 10957.402, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 10961.626, 'text': 'The SEM is often used to represent the standard deviation of the sample.', 'start': 10957.402, 'duration': 4.224}, {'end': 10969.412, 'text': 'The formula for SEM is population standard deviation divided by the square root of the sample size.', 'start': 10962.626, 'duration': 6.786}, {'end': 10977.142, 'text': 'Selecting a sample size also depends on the concept called power, also known as power of the test.', 'start': 10970.359, 'duration': 6.783}, {'end': 10981.583, 'text': 'We will cover this concept in detail in the later part of the course.', 'start': 10977.902, 'duration': 3.681}, {'end': 10987.906, 'text': 'Let us look at the graphical representation of the central limit theorem in the following screen.', 'start': 10982.564, 'duration': 5.342}], 'summary': 'Sem represents standard deviation of sample. formula: sem = population standard deviation / √sample size. sample size depends on power of the test.', 'duration': 30.504, 'max_score': 10957.402, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E10957402.jpg'}, {'end': 11086.421, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 11059.314, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 11064.359, 'text': 'Also the sampling distribution approaches normality as the sample size increases.', 'start': 11059.314, 'duration': 5.045}, {'end': 11072.207, 'text': 'Note that CLT enables you to draw inferences from the sample statistics about the population parameters.', 'start': 11065.46, 'duration': 6.747}, {'end': 11076.151, 'text': 'This is irrespective of the distribution of the population.', 'start': 11072.988, 'duration': 3.163}, {'end': 11086.421, 'text': 'CLT also becomes the basis for calculating confidence interval for hypothesis tests, as it allows the use of a standard normal table.', 'start': 11077.219, 'duration': 9.202}], 'summary': 'Clt enables drawing inferences from sample statistics about population parameters, irrespective of population distribution.', 'duration': 27.107, 'max_score': 11059.314, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E11059314.jpg'}, {'end': 11235.953, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 11205.782, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 11212.99, 'text': 'Binomial distribution is most suitable when the sample size is less than 30 and less than 10% of the population.', 'start': 11205.782, 'duration': 7.208}, {'end': 11221.819, 'text': 'It is the percentage of non-defective items, provided the probability of creating a defective item remains the same over a period.', 'start': 11213.61, 'duration': 8.209}, {'end': 11224.102, 'text': 'Let us look at the equation.', 'start': 11222.76, 'duration': 1.342}, {'end': 11235.953, 'text': 'The probability of exactly R successes out of a sample size of N is denoted by P of R, which is equal to NCR whole,', 'start': 11224.946, 'duration': 11.007}], 'summary': 'Binomial distribution is suitable for n<30 and <10% of population, determining non-defective item percentage.', 'duration': 30.171, 'max_score': 11205.782, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E11205782.jpg'}, {'end': 11287.456, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 11261.686, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 11268.13, 'text': 'The mean of a binomial distribution is denoted by mu and is given by N multiplied by P.', 'start': 11261.686, 'duration': 6.444}, {'end': 11280.172, 'text': 'The standard deviation of a binomial distribution is denoted by sigma, which is equal to n multiplied by p multiplied by 1 minus p.', 'start': 11269.246, 'duration': 10.926}, {'end': 11287.456, 'text': 'The method of calculating factorials, say factorial of 5, is the product of 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1, which is equal to 120.', 'start': 11280.172, 'duration': 7.284}], 'summary': 'Binomial distribution: mean = n*p, standard deviation = n*p*(1-p). factorial of 5 = 120.', 'duration': 25.77, 'max_score': 11261.686, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E11261686.jpg'}, {'end': 11472.013, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 11447.997, 'weight': 7, 'content': [{'end': 11457.083, 'text': 'This is the reason why Poisson distribution is applicable for predicting the occurrence of rare events like plane crashes, car accidents, etc.', 'start': 11447.997, 'duration': 9.086}, {'end': 11459.865, 'text': 'and is therefore widely used in the insurance sector.', 'start': 11457.083, 'duration': 2.782}, {'end': 11466.669, 'text': 'Poisson distribution can be used for predicting the number of defects as well, given a low defect occurrence rate.', 'start': 11460.205, 'duration': 6.464}, {'end': 11472.013, 'text': 'Let us look at the formula for calculating Poisson distribution in the next screen.', 'start': 11467.611, 'duration': 4.402}], 'summary': 'Poisson distribution predicts rare events like plane crashes, car accidents, and defects in insurance, based on occurrence rates.', 'duration': 24.016, 'max_score': 11447.997, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E11447997.jpg'}, {'end': 11638.858, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 11614.561, 'weight': 8, 'content': [{'end': 11622.586, 'text': 'It is often used as a first approximation to describe real valued random variables that tend to cluster around a single mean value.', 'start': 11614.561, 'duration': 8.025}, {'end': 11626.022, 'text': 'The distribution is bell-shaped and symmetrical.', 'start': 11623.479, 'duration': 2.543}, {'end': 11631.328, 'text': 'The total area under the normal curve is 1, which is p of x.', 'start': 11626.643, 'duration': 4.685}, {'end': 11638.858, 'text': 'Various types of data, such as body weight, height, the output of a manufacturing device, etc., follow the normal distribution.', 'start': 11631.328, 'duration': 7.53}], 'summary': "Normal distribution is bell-shaped, symmetrical, and total area is 1. it's a first approximation for real valued random variables.", 'duration': 24.297, 'max_score': 11614.561, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E11614561.jpg'}, {'end': 12153.184, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 12125.082, 'weight': 9, 'content': [{'end': 12130.805, 'text': 'The t-distribution method is the most appropriate method to be used in the following situations.', 'start': 12125.082, 'duration': 5.723}, {'end': 12140.837, 'text': 'When you have a sample size of less than 30, when the population standard deviation is not known, when the population is approximately normal.', 'start': 12131.605, 'duration': 9.232}, {'end': 12149.242, 'text': 'Unlike the normal distribution, a T distribution is lower at the mean and higher at the tails as seen in the image.', 'start': 12141.938, 'duration': 7.304}, {'end': 12153.184, 'text': 'T distribution is used for hypothesis testing.', 'start': 12150.102, 'duration': 3.082}], 'summary': 'T-distribution suitable for sample < 30, unknown std deviation, approximately normal population. used for hypothesis testing.', 'duration': 28.102, 'max_score': 12125.082, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E12125082.jpg'}], 'start': 10595.465, 'title': 'Statistical analysis in six sigma', 'summary': 'Explains types of statistics in six sigma, such as descriptive and inferential statistics, and discusses hypothesis testing, type 1 and type 2 errors, significance level, central limit theorem, sampling distributions, binomial and poisson distributions, and their applications with examples and quantifiable data.', 'chapters': [{'end': 10719.663, 'start': 10595.465, 'title': 'Types of statistics in six sigma', 'summary': 'Explains the two types of statistics in six sigma, namely descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. it also discusses the application of statistical methods and principles in analyzing process performance and improvements.', 'duration': 124.198, 'highlights': ['Descriptive statistics involves organizing, summarizing, and presenting data, and examples include histograms, pie charts, and measures of central tendency. Descriptive statistics encompasses methods to organize, summarize, and present data, such as histograms, pie charts, and measures of central tendency like mean, median, and mode.', 'Inferential statistics aims to draw conclusions on population characteristics based on sample information. Inferential statistics focuses on drawing conclusions about population characteristics based on sample data collected, allowing for broader insights beyond specific data points.', 'Statistical methods and principles in Six Sigma are used to measure and analyze process performance and improvements. Six Sigma utilizes statistical methods and principles to measure and analyze process performance and improvements, contributing to the enhancement of overall operational efficiency and quality.']}, {'end': 11086.421, 'start': 10721.624, 'title': 'Effectiveness of new cricket coach', 'summary': 'Discusses hypothesis testing, type 1 and type 2 errors, significance level, central limit theorem, and sampling distributions, with examples and quantifiable data, concluding that for a sample size greater than 30, the sample mean is very close to the population mean.', 'duration': 364.797, 'highlights': ["The chance of committing a Type 1 error (producer's risk) is 5%, and the chance of committing a Type II error (consumer's risk) is 20%. Type 1 error (producer's risk) chance is 5%, and Type II error (consumer's risk) chance is 20%.", 'For a sample size greater than 30, the sample mean is very close to the population mean, and the sampling distribution approaches normality as the sample size increases. For a sample size >30, sample mean ≈ population mean, and sampling distribution approaches normality with increasing sample size.', 'The SEM is often used to represent the standard deviation of the sample, with the formula being population standard deviation divided by the square root of the sample size. SEM represents sample standard deviation, calculated as population standard deviation / square root of sample size.', 'Central Limit Theorem enables drawing inferences from sample statistics about population parameters, irrespective of the distribution of the population, and becomes the basis for calculating confidence intervals for hypothesis tests. CLT allows inferences from sample statistics about population parameters and is used to calculate confidence intervals for hypothesis tests.', 'Hypothesis testing involves null and alternate hypotheses, with the null hypothesis stating that the efficiencies of the two coaches are equal, and the alternate hypothesis stating that the efficiencies differ. Hypothesis testing involves null and alternate hypotheses, stating equal efficiencies in null hypothesis and differing efficiencies in alternate hypothesis.']}, {'end': 11382.173, 'start': 11087.341, 'title': 'Statistical distributions: binomial & poisson', 'summary': 'Covers the concept of statistical distributions, focusing on binomial distribution and poisson distribution, which are used to predict sample behavior and calculate probabilities for discrete data. the chapter provides key calculations and an example to demonstrate the application of binomial distribution.', 'duration': 294.832, 'highlights': ['Binomial distribution is used to deal with defective items, and it is most suitable when the sample size is less than 30 and less than 10% of the population. The binomial distribution is suitable for dealing with defective items and is recommended for sample sizes less than 30 and less than 10% of the population.', 'The probability of getting heads five times in eight coin tosses using the binomial equation results in a probability of 0.2187, which is equal to 21.87%. Using the binomial equation, the probability of getting heads five times in eight coin tosses is calculated as 0.2187, equivalent to 21.87%.', 'The mean of a binomial distribution is denoted by mu and is given by N multiplied by P. The standard deviation of a binomial distribution is denoted by sigma, which is equal to n multiplied by p multiplied by 1 minus p. The mean and standard deviation of a binomial distribution are calculated as mu = N * P and sigma = n * p * (1 - p) respectively.', 'Poisson distribution is introduced as the next topic, following the coverage of binomial distribution. The chapter introduces Poisson distribution as the subsequent topic following the explanation of binomial distribution.']}, {'end': 12270.872, 'start': 11382.954, 'title': 'Poisson, normal, chi-square distributions', 'summary': 'Covers the poisson distribution used for predicting rare events like accidents, the formula for calculating poisson distribution, the normal distribution for describing real-valued random variables, the use of z-table, and the f distribution for comparing variances of two processes.', 'duration': 887.918, 'highlights': ['Poisson distribution is used for predicting rare events like plane crashes and car accidents and is widely used in the insurance sector. Poisson distribution is applicable for predicting the occurrence of rare events like plane crashes, car accidents, etc. and is therefore widely used in the insurance sector.', 'Formula for calculating Poisson distribution: P(x) = (2λ)^x * e^(-λ) / x! The Poisson distribution for a probability of exactly x occurrences is given by P of x equals 2 lambda to the power of x, multiplied with log e to the power of minus lambda whole divided by factorial of x.', 'The probability of zero accidents per week is 0.006, the probability of one accident per week is 0.03, and the probability of more than two accidents per week is 88.4%. The probability of zero accidents per week is 0.006. The probability of one accident per week is 0.03. The probability of more than two accidents per week is 88.4%.', 'Normal distribution is used as a first approximation to describe real-valued random variables and is often represented by the mean (µ) and standard deviation (σ). Normal distribution is often used as a first approximation to describe real valued random variables that tend to cluster around a single mean value. The normal distribution is represented as N and depends on two factors. µ, which stands for mean and sigma, which gives the standard deviation of the data points.', 'The formula for calculating Z in the normal distribution is z = (y - µ) / σ, and it is used to standardize comparisons of dispersion or different measurement units. The formula for calculating Z in the normal distribution is z equals y minus mu whole divided by sigma. The uses of Z value are as follows. While the value of Z or the number of standard deviations is unique for each probability within the normal distribution, it helps in finding probabilities of data points anywhere within the distribution.', 'Chi-square distribution is used in hypothesis tests, and the formula to calculate chi-square is (Fo - Fe)^2 / Fe. Chi-square with k minus one degrees of freedom is the distribution of a sum of the squares of k independent standard normal random variables. Chi-square calculated, or sigma, or the chi-square index equals F of O minus F of E whole square divided by F of E.', 'T distribution is used when the sample size is less than 30, the population standard deviation is not known, and the population is approximately normal. The t-distribution method is the most appropriate method to be used in the following situations. When you have a sample size of less than 30, when the population standard deviation is not known, when the population is approximately normal.', 'F distribution is used to compare standard deviations or variances of two processes, and the formula for calculating F is S1^2 / S2^2. The F distribution is a ratio of two chi-square distributions. A specific F distribution is denoted by the ratio of the degrees of freedom for the numerator chi-square and the degrees of freedom for the denominator chi-square. As per the formula, F calculated equals S1 square divided by S2 square, where S1 and S2 are the standard deviations of the two samples.']}], 'duration': 1675.407, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E10595465.jpg', 'highlights': ['Six Sigma utilizes statistical methods and principles to measure and analyze process performance and improvements.', 'Inferential statistics focuses on drawing conclusions about population characteristics based on sample data collected.', 'Descriptive statistics encompasses methods to organize, summarize, and present data, such as histograms, pie charts, and measures of central tendency.', 'For a sample size >30, sample mean ≈ population mean, and sampling distribution approaches normality with increasing sample size.', 'SEM represents sample standard deviation, calculated as population standard deviation / square root of sample size.', 'The binomial distribution is suitable for dealing with defective items and is recommended for sample sizes less than 30 and less than 10% of the population.', 'The mean and standard deviation of a binomial distribution are calculated as mu = N * P and sigma = n * p * (1 - p) respectively.', 'Poisson distribution is applicable for predicting the occurrence of rare events like plane crashes, car accidents, etc. and is widely used in the insurance sector.', 'Normal distribution is often used as a first approximation to describe real valued random variables that tend to cluster around a single mean value.', 'The t-distribution method is the most appropriate method to be used when the sample size is less than 30, the population standard deviation is not known, and the population is approximately normal.']}, {'end': 14111.703, 'segs': [{'end': 12397.556, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 12360.245, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 12364.328, 'text': 'Deciding the data type facilitates analysis and interpretation.', 'start': 12360.245, 'duration': 4.083}, {'end': 12371.273, 'text': 'Therefore, the first step in the measure phase is to determine what type of data should be collected.', 'start': 12365.149, 'duration': 6.124}, {'end': 12374.295, 'text': 'This can be done by considering the following.', 'start': 12372.113, 'duration': 2.182}, {'end': 12378.898, 'text': 'The first consideration is to identify what is already known.', 'start': 12375.175, 'duration': 3.723}, {'end': 12383.161, 'text': 'For this, the values already identified for the process are listed.', 'start': 12379.698, 'duration': 3.463}, {'end': 12397.556, 'text': 'These include critical to quality parameters or CTQs, key process output variables or KPOVs, and the key process input variable or KPIVs.', 'start': 12384.127, 'duration': 13.429}], 'summary': 'In the measure phase, determining data type is crucial for analysis. factors include ctqs, kpovs, and kpivs.', 'duration': 37.311, 'max_score': 12360.245, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E12360245.jpg'}, {'end': 12655.064, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 12627.078, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 12636.56, 'text': 'it is a non-probability sampling technique wherein the researcher picks a single subject or a group of subjects in a given time interval,', 'start': 12627.078, 'duration': 9.482}, {'end': 12643.181, 'text': 'conducts the study, analyzes the results and then picks another group of subjects if needed, and so on.', 'start': 12636.56, 'duration': 6.621}, {'end': 12650.603, 'text': 'In stratified sampling, the idea is to take samples from subgroups of a population.', 'start': 12644.802, 'duration': 5.801}, {'end': 12655.064, 'text': 'This technique gives an accurate estimate of the population parameter.', 'start': 12651.403, 'duration': 3.661}], 'summary': 'Non-probability sampling involves selecting subjects, while stratified sampling provides accurate population estimates.', 'duration': 27.986, 'max_score': 12627.078, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E12627078.jpg'}, {'end': 12863.022, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 12836.349, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 12842.974, 'text': 'In the following screen, we will discuss measures of central tendency of the descriptive statistics in detail.', 'start': 12836.349, 'duration': 6.625}, {'end': 12853.477, 'text': 'A measure of central tendency is a single value that indicates the central point in a set of data and helps in identifying data trends.', 'start': 12844.252, 'duration': 9.225}, {'end': 12860.36, 'text': 'The three most commonly used measures of the central tendency are mean, median, and mode.', 'start': 12854.357, 'duration': 6.003}, {'end': 12863.022, 'text': 'Click each measure to know more.', 'start': 12861.221, 'duration': 1.801}], 'summary': 'Discussing measures of central tendency: mean, median, mode.', 'duration': 26.673, 'max_score': 12836.349, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E12836349.jpg'}, {'end': 13069.575, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 13040.82, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 13046.443, 'text': 'contrary to the measures of central tendency, such as mean, median and mode,', 'start': 13040.82, 'duration': 5.623}, {'end': 13055.268, 'text': 'measures of dispersion express the spread of values higher the variation of data points, higher the spread of the data.', 'start': 13046.443, 'duration': 8.825}, {'end': 13061.832, 'text': 'the three main measures of dispersion are range, variance and standard deviation.', 'start': 13055.268, 'duration': 6.564}, {'end': 13065.213, 'text': 'we will discuss each of these in the upcoming screens.', 'start': 13061.832, 'duration': 3.381}, {'end': 13069.575, 'text': 'Let us start with the first measure of dispersion, range.', 'start': 13066.233, 'duration': 3.342}], 'summary': 'Measures of dispersion show spread of data; include range, variance, and standard deviation.', 'duration': 28.755, 'max_score': 13040.82, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E13040820.jpg'}, {'end': 13292.324, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 13268.205, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 13276.868, 'text': 'Frequency distribution is a method of grouping data into mutually exclusive categories showing the number of observations in each class.', 'start': 13268.205, 'duration': 8.663}, {'end': 13281.45, 'text': 'An example is presented to demonstrate frequency distribution.', 'start': 13277.869, 'duration': 3.581}, {'end': 13289.373, 'text': 'A survey was conducted among the residents of a particular area to collect data on cars owned by each home.', 'start': 13282.31, 'duration': 7.063}, {'end': 13292.324, 'text': 'a total of 20 homes were surveyed.', 'start': 13290.262, 'duration': 2.062}], 'summary': 'Frequency distribution groups data, with example. survey of 20 homes on car ownership.', 'duration': 24.119, 'max_score': 13268.205, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E13268205.jpg'}, {'end': 13775.753, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 13748.137, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 13756.06, 'text': 'A scatter diagram is also useful when cause-effect relationships have to be examined or root causes have to be identified.', 'start': 13748.137, 'duration': 7.923}, {'end': 13761.322, 'text': 'There are five different types of correlation that can be used in a scatter diagram.', 'start': 13756.96, 'duration': 4.362}, {'end': 13764.161, 'text': 'Let us learn about them in the next screen.', 'start': 13762.179, 'duration': 1.982}, {'end': 13775.753, 'text': 'The five types of correlation are perfect positive correlation, moderate positive correlation, no relation or no correlation,', 'start': 13766.403, 'duration': 9.35}], 'summary': 'A scatter diagram helps examine cause-effect relationships; five types of correlation: perfect positive, moderate positive, no relation.', 'duration': 27.616, 'max_score': 13748.137, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E13748137.jpg'}, {'end': 14014.759, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 13987.164, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 13989.945, 'text': 'Perfect correlations are rare in the real world.', 'start': 13987.164, 'duration': 2.781}, {'end': 13993.945, 'text': 'When encountered, they should be investigated and verified.', 'start': 13990.585, 'duration': 3.36}, {'end': 14000.346, 'text': 'In this screen, we will look at another graphical method, histograms.', 'start': 13996.366, 'duration': 3.98}, {'end': 14003.367, 'text': 'Histograms are similar to bar graphs.', 'start': 14001.207, 'duration': 2.16}, {'end': 14007.534, 'text': 'except that the data in histograms is grouped into intervals.', 'start': 14003.931, 'duration': 3.603}, {'end': 14011.396, 'text': 'They are used to represent category-wise data graphically.', 'start': 14008.314, 'duration': 3.082}, {'end': 14014.759, 'text': 'A histogram is best suited for continuous data.', 'start': 14012.197, 'duration': 2.562}], 'summary': 'Perfect correlations are rare; histograms represent grouped continuous data graphically.', 'duration': 27.595, 'max_score': 13987.164, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E13987164.jpg'}], 'start': 12271.533, 'title': 'Data analysis fundamentals', 'summary': 'Covers the types of data, measurement scales, measures of central tendency and dispersion, frequency distribution, graphical methods, scatter diagrams, correlation types, and their calculations, emphasizing the importance of selecting the correct data type for analysis and providing examples for better understanding.', 'chapters': [{'end': 12440.849, 'start': 12271.533, 'title': 'Types of data and importance of data type', 'summary': 'Explains the two types of data, attribute and variable data, their characteristics, and the importance of selecting the correct data type for analysis, emphasizing the need for careful consideration to facilitate accurate inferences and prevent complications.', 'duration': 169.316, 'highlights': ['Attribute data is objective information which everyone can agree on. Defines attribute data and emphasizes its objectivity.', 'Any data that can be measured on a continuous scale is continuous or variable data. Explains continuous or variable data and its characteristics.', 'Deciding the data type facilitates analysis and interpretation. Emphasizes the importance of determining the data type for analysis and interpretation.', 'Converting attribute data to variable data is difficult and requires assumptions to be made about the process. Highlights the challenges and complications of converting attribute data to variable data.']}, {'end': 12835.709, 'start': 12441.86, 'title': 'Measurement scales and data accuracy', 'summary': 'Discusses measurement scales including nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio scales, as well as sampling techniques such as random, sequential, and stratified sampling, and the check sheet method for collecting data.', 'duration': 393.849, 'highlights': ['The nominal scale consists of only names or categories, and the most appropriate measure of central tendency for this scale is mode. Nominal scale data consists of only names or categories, and an example is a bag of colored balls containing 10 green balls, 5 black balls, 8 yellow balls, and 9 white balls. The most appropriate measure of central tendency for this scale is mode.', 'Sampling saves time, money, and effort involved in collecting data, and the three types of sampling techniques described are random, sequential, and stratified sampling. Sampling saves the time, money, and effort involved in collecting data. The three types of sampling techniques described are random sampling, sequential sampling, and stratified sampling.', 'Stratified sampling gives an accurate estimate of the population parameter by taking samples from subgroups of a population. Stratified sampling gives an accurate estimate of the population parameter by taking samples from subgroups of a population.', 'Check sheets are used to collect and analyze data, particularly for observing and collecting data repeatedly by the same person or at the same location. Check sheets are used to collect and analyze data, particularly for observing and collecting data repeatedly by the same person or at the same location.', 'Data coding simplifies the large quantity of data collected from sources, making analysis and drawing conclusions easier. Data coding simplifies the large quantity of data collected from sources, making analysis and drawing conclusions easier.']}, {'end': 13267.325, 'start': 12836.349, 'title': 'Measures of central tendency & dispersion', 'summary': 'Covers measures of central tendency such as mean, median, and mode, along with their calculations and examples, and then delves into measures of dispersion including range, variance, and standard deviation, detailing their significance and calculation methods.', 'duration': 430.976, 'highlights': ['Mean, median, and mode are the most commonly used measures of central tendency. These measures help identify the central point in a set of data and are extensively used for data analysis.', 'The addition of an outlier significantly skewed the mean value. The example shows how outliers can heavily impact the mean value, making it an inappropriate measure of central tendency in such cases.', 'Variance and standard deviation are crucial measures of dispersion. They signify the variation in a data set and provide essential insights into the spread of values.', 'Range is a simple yet effective measure of dispersion. It captures the spread of values by indicating the difference between the largest and smallest values in a data set.', "Standard deviation is always relative to the mean. It shows the spread of values in relation to the mean, providing a comprehensive understanding of the data set's variability."]}, {'end': 13717.117, 'start': 13268.205, 'title': 'Frequency distribution and graphical methods', 'summary': 'Explains frequency distribution, cumulative frequency distribution, and graphical methods like stem-and-leaf plots and box-and-whisker plots, with examples including survey data on car ownership and fish length measurements.', 'duration': 448.912, 'highlights': ['A survey was conducted among the residents of a particular area to collect data on cars owned by each home, with a total of 20 homes surveyed. The survey collected data on cars owned by 20 homes in a specific area.', 'The frequency table allows viewing distribution of data across a set of values at a glance. Frequency table provides a quick overview of data distribution across different values.', 'A box and whisker graph based on medians or quartiles is used to display a data set in a way that allows viewing the distribution of the data points easily. Box and whisker plot is used to visually display the distribution of data points using medians or quartiles.']}, {'end': 14111.703, 'start': 13717.117, 'title': 'Scatter diagrams & correlation types', 'summary': 'Explains scatter diagrams and correlation types, including perfect positive and negative correlation, moderate positive and negative correlation, and no correlation, with examples and graphical representations. it also introduces histograms and normal probability plots for data analysis.', 'duration': 394.586, 'highlights': ['The chapter explains five types of correlation in scatter diagrams: perfect positive, moderate positive, no relation, moderate negative, and perfect negative correlation. It provides a comprehensive explanation of different types of correlation, offering insights into the behavior of variables and their relationship, aiding in understanding the extent and nature of correlation.', 'It presents examples of perfect positive correlation, such as the proportional increase in milk consumption with the increase in coffee consumption, demonstrated through data and a scatter diagram. The example illustrates a 1:1 correlation, showing a proportional increase in one variable resulting in an equal increase in the other, aiding in understanding the concept of perfect positive correlation.', 'The chapter also discusses moderate negative correlation, showcasing the relationship between product prices and units sold, demonstrating a non-proportional decrease in units with increasing prices. This example provides insights into the non-linear relationship between variables, highlighting the extent of decrease in one variable with an increase in the other, aiding in understanding moderate negative correlation.', 'It introduces histograms as graphical representations for category-wise data, showcasing an example of representing the number of hours spent on a project using intervals and frequency tables. This introduces the concept of histograms and their application in representing continuous data in a grouped manner, offering a visual tool for analyzing category-wise data.', 'The chapter also explains the use of normal probability plots in identifying if a sample has been taken from a normally distributed population, demonstrating the construction of a normal probability plot using a provided data set. It provides a step-by-step explanation of constructing normal probability plots, aiding in identifying the distribution of sample data and its adherence to a normal distribution.']}], 'duration': 1840.17, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E12271533.jpg', 'highlights': ['The chapter emphasizes the importance of selecting the correct data type for analysis and interpretation.', 'Stratified sampling gives an accurate estimate of the population parameter by taking samples from subgroups of a population.', 'Mean, median, and mode are the most commonly used measures of central tendency.', 'Variance and standard deviation are crucial measures of dispersion, providing essential insights into the spread of values.', 'Frequency table provides a quick overview of data distribution across different values.', 'The chapter explains five types of correlation in scatter diagrams: perfect positive, moderate positive, no relation, moderate negative, and perfect negative correlation.', 'It introduces histograms as graphical representations for category-wise data, offering a visual tool for analyzing category-wise data.']}, {'end': 15342.949, 'segs': [{'end': 14227.633, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 14199.991, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 14208.993, 'text': 'analyzed and interpreted using gauge repeatability and reproducibility to determine measurement correlation, bias, linearity,', 'start': 14199.991, 'duration': 9.002}, {'end': 14211.874, 'text': 'percent agreement and precision or tolerance.', 'start': 14208.993, 'duration': 2.881}, {'end': 14216.455, 'text': 'Let us discuss the objectives of MSA in the next screen.', 'start': 14212.794, 'duration': 3.661}, {'end': 14227.633, 'text': 'A primary objective of MSA is to obtain information about the type of measurement variation associated with the measurement system.', 'start': 14219.355, 'duration': 8.278}], 'summary': 'Msa uses gauge repeatability and reproducibility to analyze measurement correlation, bias, linearity, percent agreement, and precision.', 'duration': 27.642, 'max_score': 14199.991, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E14199991.jpg'}, {'end': 14843.031, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 14813.614, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 14816.456, 'text': 'Then this order is maintained by all other operators.', 'start': 14813.614, 'duration': 2.842}, {'end': 14819.038, 'text': 'All the trials must be repeated.', 'start': 14817.257, 'duration': 1.781}, {'end': 14824.967, 'text': 'In the next screen, we will discuss the ANOVA method of analyzing GRR studies.', 'start': 14820.086, 'duration': 4.881}, {'end': 14831.308, 'text': 'The ANOVA method is considered to be the best method for analyzing GRR studies.', 'start': 14826.427, 'duration': 4.881}, {'end': 14833.849, 'text': 'This is because of two reasons.', 'start': 14832.069, 'duration': 1.78}, {'end': 14843.031, 'text': 'The first being ANOVA not only separates equipment and operator variation, but also provides insight on the combined effect of the two.', 'start': 14834.609, 'duration': 8.422}], 'summary': 'Anova is the best method for grr studies, separating equipment and operator variation.', 'duration': 29.417, 'max_score': 14813.614, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E14813614.jpg'}, {'end': 15047.885, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 15022.416, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 15028.158, 'text': 'The percentage GRR value is highlighted in the center right of the table in the previous screen.', 'start': 15022.416, 'duration': 5.742}, {'end': 15033.42, 'text': 'There are three important observations to be made here about the Gage RR study.', 'start': 15029.178, 'duration': 4.242}, {'end': 15038.76, 'text': 'First, this study also shows the interaction between operators and parts.', 'start': 15034.278, 'duration': 4.482}, {'end': 15047.885, 'text': 'If the percentage GRR value is less than 30, then the gauge is acceptable and the measurement system does not require any change.', 'start': 15039.801, 'duration': 8.084}], 'summary': 'Grr study shows operator-part interaction. grr <30% means no change.', 'duration': 25.469, 'max_score': 15022.416, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E15022416.jpg'}, {'end': 15265.154, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 15236.661, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 15247.085, 'text': 'The two major metrics used to measure process performance are defects per unit or DPU and defects per million opportunities or DPMO.', 'start': 15236.661, 'duration': 10.424}, {'end': 15253.185, 'text': 'DPU is calculated by dividing the number of defects by the total number of units.', 'start': 15248.046, 'duration': 5.139}, {'end': 15259.189, 'text': 'DPMO is calculated by multiplying the defects per opportunity with 1 million.', 'start': 15254.066, 'duration': 5.123}, {'end': 15265.154, 'text': 'In the following screen, we will look at an example for calculating process performance.', 'start': 15260.17, 'duration': 4.984}], 'summary': 'Process performance is measured using dpu and dpmo metrics, with dpu calculated by dividing defects by units, and dpmo calculated by multiplying defects per opportunity with 1 million.', 'duration': 28.493, 'max_score': 15236.661, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E15236661.jpg'}], 'start': 14112.785, 'title': 'Measurement system analysis in six sigma', 'summary': 'Delves into measurement system analysis in six sigma, emphasizing the identification and reduction of measurement errors, evaluation of measurement system capability, components of grr studies, resolving equipment and appraiser variations, and calculation of process performance metrics, demonstrating a 2.6 sigma or 86.4% yield.', 'chapters': [{'end': 14251.029, 'start': 14112.785, 'title': 'Msa in six sigma', 'summary': 'Discusses measurement system analysis (msa) in six sigma, emphasizing the importance of msa in identifying and reducing measurement errors, evaluating measurement system capability, and establishing criteria for new measuring equipment.', 'duration': 138.244, 'highlights': ['Measurement System Analysis (MSA) is a technique that identifies measurement error or variation and sources of that error, evaluating the measuring system to ensure the integrity of data used for analysis.', 'MSA evaluates the measurement system using gauge repeatability and reproducibility to determine measurement correlation, bias, linearity, percent agreement, and precision or tolerance.', 'The primary objective of MSA is to obtain information about the type of measurement variation associated with the measurement system, establish criteria for accepting and releasing new measuring equipment, and resolve measurement system variations to arrive at correct baselines for project objectives.', 'Throughout the DMACC process, the output of the measurement system is used for metrics, analysis, and control efforts, emphasizing the importance of setting the measurement system right before collecting data.']}, {'end': 14723.327, 'start': 14252.003, 'title': 'Measurement analysis and error types', 'summary': 'Discusses the importance of measurement analysis, the types of measurement errors, and the components of gauge repeatability and reproducibility (grr) studies, emphasizing the need to address measurement variability before process variability and ensuring the accuracy and precision of the measurement system.', 'duration': 471.324, 'highlights': ['Measurement System Bias and Variation Measurement system bias and variation are crucial components of measurement error, addressed through calibration studies and GRR studies, with the need to separate and prioritize casual components of measurement variability for targeted action.', 'Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility (GRR) Studies GRR studies assess the consistency and accuracy of measurement systems, emphasizing the importance of using actual equipment, following approved practices, and targeting casual components of measurement variability for action.', 'Components of GRR Study The components of GRR study include assessing repeatability and reproducibility to ensure the consistency of measurements, and targeting casual components of measurement variability for action to improve the measurement system.', 'Measurement Resolution and Examples Measurement resolution is crucial for ensuring the smallest detectable increment in an instrument, with examples illustrating the importance of using measurement systems that match the range of the data and have acceptable resolution for GRR studies.', 'Examples for Repeatability and Reproducibility The concept of repeatability is illustrated through an example of timing a pace mechanism by a single operator, emphasizing the importance of consistent measurements under identical conditions for GRR studies.']}, {'end': 15103.053, 'start': 14724.088, 'title': 'Grr study and analysis', 'summary': 'Discusses the concepts of repeatability, reproducibility, anova method, msa interpretation, grr study template, and result interpretation, emphasizing the importance of resolving equipment variation before appraiser variation and the criteria for accepting or correcting the measurement system based on the percentage grr value.', 'duration': 378.965, 'highlights': ['The ANOVA method is considered to be the best method for analyzing GRR studies as it separates equipment and operator variation, and provides insight on the combined effect of the two, using standard deviation instead of range as a measure of variation. ANOVA method is the best for analyzing GRR studies as it separates equipment and operator variation, and provides insight on the combined effect of the two, using standard deviation instead of range as a measure of variation.', 'The percentage GRR value determines the acceptability of the gauge, with values less than 30 indicating an acceptable gauge, while values greater than 30 signal the need for correction in the gauge. The percentage GRR value determines the acceptability of the gauge, with values less than 30 indicating an acceptable gauge, while values greater than 30 signal the need for correction in the gauge.', 'It is important to resolve equipment variation before appraiser variation, as even if appraiser variation is resolved first, the results will still not be identical due to variation in the equipment itself. Resolving equipment variation before appraiser variation is crucial, as even if appraiser variation is resolved first, the results will still not be identical due to variation in the equipment itself.']}, {'end': 15342.949, 'start': 15103.053, 'title': 'Process performance and capability', 'summary': 'Discusses the difference between natural process limits and specification limits, the calculation of process performance metrics, and provides an example of calculating process performance, demonstrating a 2.6 sigma or 86.4% yield.', 'duration': 239.896, 'highlights': ['Difference between natural process limits and specification limits Natural process limits are derived from the process data and indicate variation in the process, while specification limits are customer-defined and represent the intended requirements for the product or service.', 'Calculation of process performance metrics Defects per unit (DPU) is calculated by dividing the number of defects by the total number of units, and defects per million opportunities (DPMO) is calculated by multiplying the defects per opportunity with 1 million.', 'Example of calculating process performance In the example, the process is currently working at 2.6 sigma or 86.4% yield, which is determined by calculating the defects per unit and defects per million opportunities based on the collected data.']}], 'duration': 1230.164, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E14112785.jpg', 'highlights': ['Measurement System Analysis (MSA) evaluates the measurement system using gauge repeatability and reproducibility to determine measurement correlation, bias, linearity, percent agreement, and precision or tolerance.', 'The ANOVA method is considered to be the best method for analyzing GRR studies as it separates equipment and operator variation, and provides insight on the combined effect of the two, using standard deviation instead of range as a measure of variation.', 'The percentage GRR value determines the acceptability of the gauge, with values less than 30 indicating an acceptable gauge, while values greater than 30 signal the need for correction in the gauge.', 'Calculation of process performance metrics: Defects per unit (DPU) is calculated by dividing the number of defects by the total number of units, and defects per million opportunities (DPMO) is calculated by multiplying the defects per opportunity with 1 million.']}, {'end': 17830.798, 'segs': [{'end': 15637.319, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 15613.237, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 15623.799, 'text': 'The objectives of a process capability study are to establish a state of control over a manufacturing process and then maintain the state of control over a period of time.', 'start': 15613.237, 'duration': 10.562}, {'end': 15632.561, 'text': 'On comparing the natural process limits or the control limits within the specification limits, any of the following outcomes is possible.', 'start': 15624.759, 'duration': 7.802}, {'end': 15637.319, 'text': 'First, the process limits are found to fall between the specification limits.', 'start': 15633.476, 'duration': 3.843}], 'summary': 'Process capability study aims to establish and maintain control over the manufacturing process.', 'duration': 24.082, 'max_score': 15613.237, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E15613237.jpg'}, {'end': 15828.066, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 15799.187, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 15806.292, 'text': 'It differs from the process capability in that for process performance, a state of statistical control is not required.', 'start': 15799.187, 'duration': 7.105}, {'end': 15818.26, 'text': 'The three basic process performance indices are process performance or PP, process performance index or PPK, and process capability index,', 'start': 15806.852, 'duration': 11.408}, {'end': 15821.302, 'text': 'denoted as PPM or CPM.', 'start': 15818.26, 'duration': 3.042}, {'end': 15823.943, 'text': 'Click each index to know more.', 'start': 15822.222, 'duration': 1.721}, {'end': 15828.066, 'text': 'PP stands for process performance.', 'start': 15825.444, 'duration': 2.622}], 'summary': 'Process performance indices include pp, ppk, and ppm.', 'duration': 28.879, 'max_score': 15799.187, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E15799187.jpg'}, {'end': 15997.955, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 15970.542, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 15973.946, 'text': 'It is usually a factor of 1.5.', 'start': 15970.542, 'duration': 3.404}, {'end': 15978.21, 'text': 'Let us look at short-term and long-term process capability in the next screen.', 'start': 15973.946, 'duration': 4.264}, {'end': 15984.596, 'text': 'The concept of short-term and long-term process shift is explained graphically on this screen.', 'start': 15979.551, 'duration': 5.045}, {'end': 15990.509, 'text': 'There are three different samples taken at time 1, time 2 and time 3.', 'start': 15985.357, 'duration': 5.152}, {'end': 15997.955, 'text': 'The smaller waveforms represent the short-term capability and they are joined with their means to show the shift in long-term performance.', 'start': 15990.509, 'duration': 7.446}], 'summary': 'Process capability factor is 1.5, short-term and long-term process shift explained graphically with three samples at different times.', 'duration': 27.413, 'max_score': 15970.542, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E15970542.jpg'}, {'end': 16150.712, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 16115.407, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 16119.792, 'text': 'The special causes need to be identified and corrected for process improvement.', 'start': 16115.407, 'duration': 4.385}, {'end': 16129.503, 'text': 'This screen explains how the factors of stability, capability, spread and defect summary are used to interpret the process condition.', 'start': 16121.4, 'duration': 8.103}, {'end': 16137.987, 'text': 'This table gives the process condition for different levels or types of variation with reference to common causes and special causes.', 'start': 16130.104, 'duration': 7.883}, {'end': 16140.448, 'text': 'The table is read as follows.', 'start': 16138.867, 'duration': 1.581}, {'end': 16150.712, 'text': 'In the first scenario, the process has lesser common causes of variation or CCV and no special causes of variation or SCV.', 'start': 16141.508, 'duration': 9.204}], 'summary': 'Identify and correct special causes for process improvement using stability, capability, spread, and defect summary factors.', 'duration': 35.305, 'max_score': 16115.407, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E16115407.jpg'}, {'end': 16353.766, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 16323.268, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 16330.374, 'text': 'Overall variation is given by the sum of total variation within subgroups and total variation between subgroups.', 'start': 16323.268, 'duration': 7.106}, {'end': 16337.64, 'text': 'Finally, the standard deviations for the short-term and the long-term are calculated using the formula given on the screen.', 'start': 16331.194, 'duration': 6.446}, {'end': 16342.464, 'text': 'The results for the process variation calculations are as follows.', 'start': 16338.741, 'duration': 3.723}, {'end': 16345.626, 'text': 'The grand average for all three weeks is 47.5.', 'start': 16343.244, 'duration': 2.382}, {'end': 16353.766, 'text': 'The total variation within subgroups is 1023.8.', 'start': 16345.626, 'duration': 8.14}], 'summary': 'Process variation: grand average 47.5, total variation within subgroups 1023.8', 'duration': 30.498, 'max_score': 16323.268, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E16323268.jpg'}, {'end': 16833.634, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 16803.521, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 16811.066, 'text': 'The mean of a binomial distribution is denoted by mu and is given by n multiplied by p.', 'start': 16803.521, 'duration': 7.545}, {'end': 16820.834, 'text': 'The standard deviation of a binomial distribution is denoted by sigma, which is equal to n multiplied by p multiplied by 1 minus p.', 'start': 16811.066, 'duration': 9.768}, {'end': 16833.634, 'text': 'The method of calculating factorials, say factorial of 5, is the product of 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1, which is equal to 120.', 'start': 16822.008, 'duration': 11.626}], 'summary': 'Mean and standard deviation of a binomial distribution explained with formulae. factorial of 5 is 120.', 'duration': 30.113, 'max_score': 16803.521, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E16803521.jpg'}, {'end': 17016.177, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 16971.131, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 16982.519, 'text': 'Poisson distribution is suitable for analyzing situations wherein the number of trials similar to the sample size in binomial distribution is large and tends towards infinity.', 'start': 16971.131, 'duration': 11.388}, {'end': 16991.503, 'text': 'Additionally, it is used in situations where the probability of success in each trial is very small, almost tending towards zero.', 'start': 16983.339, 'duration': 8.164}, {'end': 17001.348, 'text': 'This is the reason why Poisson distribution is applicable for predicting the occurrence of rare events like plane crashes, car accidents, etc.', 'start': 16992.284, 'duration': 9.064}, {'end': 17004.13, 'text': 'and is therefore widely used in the insurance sector.', 'start': 17001.348, 'duration': 2.782}, {'end': 17008.452, 'text': 'Poisson distribution can be used for predicting the number of defects as well.', 'start': 17004.49, 'duration': 3.962}, {'end': 17010.976, 'text': 'given a low defect occurrence rate.', 'start': 17008.976, 'duration': 2}, {'end': 17016.177, 'text': 'Let us look at the formula for calculating Poisson distribution in the next screen.', 'start': 17011.897, 'duration': 4.28}], 'summary': 'Poisson distribution is used for rare events and low defect occurrence rates, widely applied in insurance sector.', 'duration': 45.046, 'max_score': 16971.131, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E16971131.jpg'}, {'end': 17259.757, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 17232.129, 'weight': 10, 'content': [{'end': 17235.795, 'text': 'Let us continue to discuss normal distribution in the following screen.', 'start': 17232.129, 'duration': 3.666}, {'end': 17238.828, 'text': 'In a normal distribution.', 'start': 17237.327, 'duration': 1.501}, {'end': 17245.791, 'text': 'to standardize comparisons of dispersion or the different measurement units, like inches, meters, grams, etc.', 'start': 17238.828, 'duration': 6.963}, {'end': 17247.972, 'text': 'a standard Z variable is used.', 'start': 17245.791, 'duration': 2.181}, {'end': 17250.893, 'text': 'The uses of Z value are as follows.', 'start': 17248.472, 'duration': 2.421}, {'end': 17259.757, 'text': 'While the value of Z or the number of standard deviations is unique for each probability within the normal distribution,', 'start': 17251.613, 'duration': 8.144}], 'summary': 'Normal distribution uses z variable for standardized comparisons.', 'duration': 27.628, 'max_score': 17232.129, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E17232129.jpg'}, {'end': 17374.206, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 17337.205, 'weight': 9, 'content': [{'end': 17341.949, 'text': 'Applying the normal distribution formula, Z is equal to 300 minus 250 whole divided by 23.', 'start': 17337.205, 'duration': 4.744}, {'end': 17342.349, 'text': 'The result is 2.17.', 'start': 17341.949, 'duration': 0.4}, {'end': 17346.092, 'text': 'When you look at the normal distribution table, the Z value of 2.17 covers an area of 0.98499 under itself.', 'start': 17342.349, 'duration': 3.743}, {'end': 17366.604, 'text': 'This means the probability of a problem taking 0 to 300 hours to be resolved is 98.5%.', 'start': 17346.112, 'duration': 20.492}, {'end': 17374.206, 'text': 'and therefore the chances of a problem resolution taking more than 300 hours is 1.5%.', 'start': 17366.604, 'duration': 7.602}], 'summary': 'Using the normal distribution, 98.5% chance of problem resolution within 300 hours, 1.5% beyond', 'duration': 37.001, 'max_score': 17337.205, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E17337205.jpg'}, {'end': 17634.053, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 17610.319, 'weight': 13, 'content': [{'end': 17619.505, 'text': 'Chi-squared with k1 degrees of freedom is the distribution of a sum of the squares of k independent standard normal random variables.', 'start': 17610.319, 'duration': 9.186}, {'end': 17627.329, 'text': 'The chi-squared distribution is one of the most widely used probability distributions in inferential statistics.', 'start': 17620.465, 'duration': 6.864}, {'end': 17634.053, 'text': 'It is also known as hypothesis testing, and the distribution is used in hypothesis tests.', 'start': 17628.17, 'duration': 5.883}], 'summary': 'Chi-squared distribution with k1 degrees widely used in inferential statistics.', 'duration': 23.734, 'max_score': 17610.319, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E17610319.jpg'}, {'end': 17721.686, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 17691.725, 'weight': 11, 'content': [{'end': 17695.047, 'text': 'When you have a sample size of less than 30.', 'start': 17691.725, 'duration': 3.322}, {'end': 17697.808, 'text': 'When the population standard deviation is not known.', 'start': 17695.047, 'duration': 2.761}, {'end': 17700.97, 'text': 'When the population is approximately normal.', 'start': 17698.529, 'duration': 2.441}, {'end': 17709.374, 'text': 'Unlike the normal distribution, a t-distribution is lower at the mean and higher at the tails as seen in the image.', 'start': 17702.07, 'duration': 7.304}, {'end': 17713.276, 'text': 'T-distribution is used for hypothesis testing.', 'start': 17710.234, 'duration': 3.042}, {'end': 17721.686, 'text': 'Also, as seen in the image, the T distribution is symmetrical in shape, but flatter than the normal distribution.', 'start': 17714.344, 'duration': 7.342}], 'summary': 'T-distribution used for hypothesis testing with sample size < 30, unknown population sd, and approximately normal distribution.', 'duration': 29.961, 'max_score': 17691.725, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E17691725.jpg'}, {'end': 17766.293, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 17739.511, 'weight': 12, 'content': [{'end': 17744.135, 'text': 'The F distribution is a ratio of two chi-square distributions.', 'start': 17739.511, 'duration': 4.624}, {'end': 17756.365, 'text': 'A specific F distribution is denoted by the ratio of the degrees of freedom for the numerator chi-square and the degrees of freedom for the denominator chi-square.', 'start': 17744.995, 'duration': 11.37}, {'end': 17766.293, 'text': 'The F test is performed to calculate and observe if the standard deviations or variances of two processes are significantly different.', 'start': 17757.265, 'duration': 9.028}], 'summary': 'The f distribution compares variances of two processes using chi-square ratios.', 'duration': 26.782, 'max_score': 17739.511, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E17739511.jpg'}], 'start': 15344.329, 'title': 'Process stability and capability', 'summary': 'Covers process stability studies, process capability, key terms analysis, types of distributions, and continuous probability distribution, including topics such as process stability, capability studies, common and special causes of variation, process performance indices, types of distributions, and continuous probability distribution.', 'chapters': [{'end': 15421.15, 'start': 15344.329, 'title': 'Process stability studies', 'summary': 'Discusses process stability studies, including activities in the measure phase, the importance of process stability, causes of instability, and steps to plot a run chart in minitab.', 'duration': 76.821, 'highlights': ['Process stability studies involve activities such as MSA, data collection, statistical calculations, and stability testing. The activities carried out in the measure phase include MSA, collection of data, statistical calculations, and stability testing.', 'Unstable processes cannot undergo changes; instability can be caused by multiple special causes of variation. If a process is unstable, no changes can be implemented, and instability can result from multiple special causes of variation.', 'Run charts in Minitab can be utilized to check for process stability. Run charts in Minitab can be used to assess process stability.', 'Steps to plot a run chart in Minitab include entering sample data, accessing Quality Tools, and selecting subgroup size before clicking OK. To plot a run chart in Minitab, steps involve entering sample data, accessing Quality Tools, and selecting subgroup size before finalizing the chart.']}, {'end': 15917.933, 'start': 15422.315, 'title': 'Process stability and capability', 'summary': 'Explains the importance of process stability and capability studies, identifying common and special causes of variation, process capability objectives, and process performance indices including pp, ppk, and cpm.', 'duration': 495.618, 'highlights': ['Process capability studies help establish and maintain control over a manufacturing process, with outcomes including process limits falling within specification limits, process spread being centered, or process limits falling outside specification limits, requiring reduction of variability and identifying primary sources of variation. Process capability studies aim to establish and maintain control over a manufacturing process, with outcomes including process limits falling within specification limits, process spread being centered, or process limits falling outside specification limits, requiring reduction of variability and identifying primary sources of variation.', 'Process capability is crucial for meeting customer requirements, and the characteristics selected for study should be indicative of product quality, influenceable by process adjustments, and have defined and controllable operating conditions. Process capability is crucial for meeting customer requirements, and the characteristics selected for study should be indicative of product quality, influenceable by process adjustments, and have defined and controllable operating conditions.', 'Process performance indices such as PP, PPK, and CPM are utilized to measure the outcome of a process characteristic and determine the process capability, with specific formulas and calculations provided for each index. Process performance indices such as PP, PPK, and CPM are utilized to measure the outcome of a process characteristic and determine the process capability, with specific formulas and calculations provided for each index.', 'Special causes of variation can result in defects and need to be eliminated to bring the process under control, with run charts indicating their presence and root cause analysis necessary for undesirable special causes. Special causes of variation can result in defects and need to be eliminated to bring the process under control, with run charts indicating their presence and root cause analysis necessary for undesirable special causes.', 'Common causes of variation contribute to a state of statistical control where the output is predictable, while special causes are external to the process, irregular in nature, and lead to unstable process outputs, requiring process stoppage and corrective actions. Common causes of variation contribute to a state of statistical control where the output is predictable, while special causes are external to the process, irregular in nature, and lead to unstable process outputs, requiring process stoppage and corrective actions.']}, {'end': 16538.875, 'start': 15919.774, 'title': 'Process capability: key terms and analysis', 'summary': 'Explains key terms in process capability, including zst and zlt, the factors affecting process shift, the interpretation of process conditions, the comparison of cpk and cp values, and the effect of mean shift on process capability, highlighting the importance of understanding short-term and long-term variations and their impact on process capability.', 'duration': 619.101, 'highlights': ['The concept of short-term and long-term process shift is explained graphically on this screen, showing the shift in long-term performance and the importance of understanding short-term and long-term variations in process capability. The graphical explanation of short-term and long-term process shift illustrates the impact of short-term capability on long-term performance, emphasizing the importance of understanding short-term and long-term variations in process capability.', 'The table gives the process condition for different levels or types of variation with reference to common causes and special causes, providing a quick reference to understand process conditions and their implications on process capability and defects. The table outlines process conditions based on common causes and special causes, offering a quick reference to understand their implications on process capability and defects.', 'The process variation calculations for customer complaint resolution time over a period of three weeks are demonstrated, showcasing the practical application of calculating short-term and long-term standard deviations and overall variations. The demonstration of process variation calculations for customer complaint resolution time exemplifies the practical application of calculating short-term and long-term standard deviations and overall variations.', 'The effect of mean shift on process capability is discussed, emphasizing the impact of mean shifts on defects, DPMO, and the probability of a good result, highlighting the importance of maintaining a centered mean for optimal process capability. The discussion on the effect of mean shift underscores its impact on defects, DPMO, and the probability of a good result, emphasizing the importance of maintaining a centered mean for optimal process capability.']}, {'end': 17129.656, 'start': 16539.776, 'title': 'Types of distributions and their applications', 'summary': 'Explains the classes of distributions, including discrete and continuous distributions, with a focus on binomial and poisson distributions. it discusses the applications of binomial distribution in predicting sample behavior and the use of poisson distribution in predicting rare events, such as accidents and defects.', 'duration': 589.88, 'highlights': ["The mean of a binomial distribution is given by n multiplied by p, and the standard deviation is given by n multiplied by p multiplied by 1 minus p. The mean and standard deviation formulas for binomial distribution are essential for understanding the distribution's characteristics and variability.", 'Binomial distribution is most suitable when the sample size is less than 30 and less than 10% of the population. Understanding the specific conditions under which binomial distribution is appropriate provides practical guidance for its application.', 'Poisson distribution is suitable for analyzing situations where the number of trials is large and tends towards infinity, and the probability of success in each trial is very small, almost tending towards zero. The key conditions for using Poisson distribution, such as a large number of trials and small probabilities, are crucial for understanding its applicability in real-world scenarios.', 'Poisson distribution can be used for predicting the occurrence of rare events like plane crashes, car accidents, and is widely used in the insurance sector. The practical applications of Poisson distribution in predicting rare events and its relevance in the insurance industry demonstrate its real-world significance.']}, {'end': 17830.798, 'start': 17129.656, 'title': 'Continuous probability distribution', 'summary': 'Explains continuous probability distribution, focusing on normal distribution, z-table, chi-square distribution, t-distribution, and f distribution, with an emphasis on key concepts and usage in inferential statistics.', 'duration': 701.142, 'highlights': ['Normal distribution and its calculation The chapter extensively covers normal distribution, including the formula for calculating normal distribution, the usage of Z value for finding probabilities, and an example of calculating the probability of problem resolution taking more than 300 hours.', 'Usage of Z-table and its significance The usage of Z-table in standardizing comparisons of dispersion, finding Z-score, and representing values in the standard normal distribution is well explained to aid in understanding its significance.', 'T-distribution and its applicability The T-distribution method, its appropriateness for sample sizes less than 30, unknown population standard deviation, and its relationship with normal distribution is discussed with clarity.', 'F distribution and its role in hypothesis testing The F distribution, its calculation using the ratio of chi-square distributions, its significance in testing differences in variances, and the use of F distribution table to find critical values is elucidated.', 'Chi-square distribution and its role in inferential statistics Chi-square distribution, its formula, application in hypothesis tests, and its relationship with degrees of freedom and sample size is explained, laying emphasis on its frequent usage in inferential statistics.']}], 'duration': 2486.469, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E15344329.jpg', 'highlights': ['Process capability studies aim to establish and maintain control over a manufacturing process, with outcomes including process limits falling within specification limits, process spread being centered, or process limits falling outside specification limits, requiring reduction of variability and identifying primary sources of variation.', 'Process performance indices such as PP, PPK, and CPM are utilized to measure the outcome of a process characteristic and determine the process capability, with specific formulas and calculations provided for each index.', 'The graphical explanation of short-term and long-term process shift illustrates the impact of short-term capability on long-term performance, emphasizing the importance of understanding short-term and long-term variations in process capability.', 'The table outlines process conditions based on common causes and special causes, offering a quick reference to understand their implications on process capability and defects.', 'The demonstration of process variation calculations for customer complaint resolution time exemplifies the practical application of calculating short-term and long-term standard deviations and overall variations.', "The mean and standard deviation formulas for binomial distribution are essential for understanding the distribution's characteristics and variability.", 'Understanding the specific conditions under which binomial distribution is appropriate provides practical guidance for its application.', 'The key conditions for using Poisson distribution, such as a large number of trials and small probabilities, are crucial for understanding its applicability in real-world scenarios.', 'The practical applications of Poisson distribution in predicting rare events and its relevance in the insurance industry demonstrate its real-world significance.', 'The chapter extensively covers normal distribution, including the formula for calculating normal distribution, the usage of Z value for finding probabilities, and an example of calculating the probability of problem resolution taking more than 300 hours.', 'The usage of Z-table in standardizing comparisons of dispersion, finding Z-score, and representing values in the standard normal distribution is well explained to aid in understanding its significance.', 'The T-distribution method, its appropriateness for sample sizes less than 30, unknown population standard deviation, and its relationship with normal distribution is discussed with clarity.', 'The F distribution, its calculation using the ratio of chi-square distributions, its significance in testing differences in variances, and the use of F distribution table to find critical values is elucidated.', 'Chi-square distribution, its formula, application in hypothesis tests, and its relationship with degrees of freedom and sample size is explained, laying emphasis on its frequent usage in inferential statistics.']}, {'end': 19161.582, 'segs': [{'end': 17911.298, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 17886.202, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 17892.345, 'text': 'In positional variation, measurements at different locations of a piece would produce different values.', 'start': 17886.202, 'duration': 6.143}, {'end': 17900.551, 'text': 'Suppose a company is manufacturing a metal plate of thickness 1 inch and the plate thickness is different at many points.', 'start': 17893.286, 'duration': 7.265}, {'end': 17903.953, 'text': 'It is an example of positional variation.', 'start': 17901.411, 'duration': 2.542}, {'end': 17911.298, 'text': 'Some of the other examples can be pallet stacking in a truck temperature gradient in an oven,', 'start': 17904.935, 'duration': 6.363}], 'summary': 'Positional variation can lead to different measurements in manufacturing, for example a metal plate of 1 inch thickness showing variation at different points.', 'duration': 25.096, 'max_score': 17886.202, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E17886202.jpg'}, {'end': 18015.336, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 17937.753, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 17945.039, 'text': 'If the measurement at the same location in a piece varies with different pieces, it is an example of cyclical variation.', 'start': 17937.753, 'duration': 7.286}, {'end': 17954.726, 'text': 'Other examples of cyclical variations are batch to batch variation, lot to lot variation, and account activity week to week.', 'start': 17945.919, 'duration': 8.807}, {'end': 17960.13, 'text': 'Temporal variation occurs over a longer period of time.', 'start': 17956.727, 'duration': 3.403}, {'end': 17966.358, 'text': 'such as machine wear and tear and changes in efficiency of an operator before and after lunch.', 'start': 17960.737, 'duration': 5.621}, {'end': 17969.539, 'text': 'Temporal variations may also be seasonal.', 'start': 17967.319, 'duration': 2.22}, {'end': 17977.921, 'text': 'If the range of positional variation in a piece is more in winter than in summer, it is an example of temporal variation.', 'start': 17970.459, 'duration': 7.462}, {'end': 17982.543, 'text': 'The variation may occur because of unfavorable working conditions in winter.', 'start': 17978.742, 'duration': 3.801}, {'end': 17988.992, 'text': 'Process, drift Performance before and after breaks, seasonal and shift-based differences,', 'start': 17983.383, 'duration': 5.609}, {'end': 17994.316, 'text': 'month-to-month closings and quarterly returns can be examples of temporal variation.', 'start': 17988.992, 'duration': 5.324}, {'end': 17999.879, 'text': 'We will learn about creating a multivariate chart in this screen.', 'start': 17996.297, 'duration': 3.582}, {'end': 18004.381, 'text': 'The outcome of multivariate studies is the multivariate chart.', 'start': 18000.739, 'duration': 3.642}, {'end': 18010.505, 'text': 'It depicts the type of variation in the product and helps in identifying the root cause.', 'start': 18005.242, 'duration': 5.263}, {'end': 18015.336, 'text': 'There are five major steps involved in creating a multivariate chart.', 'start': 18011.493, 'duration': 3.843}], 'summary': 'Different types of variation include cyclical, temporal, and examples such as batch to batch and lot to lot variation. multivariate chart helps in identifying root causes.', 'duration': 77.583, 'max_score': 17937.753, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E17937753.jpg'}, {'end': 18206.751, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 18180.789, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 18188.534, 'text': 'The mean of the data recorded from the products of equipment number three is much below the similar mean of other equipment.', 'start': 18180.789, 'duration': 7.745}, {'end': 18194.578, 'text': 'This shows that equipment number three is producing more defects than the other equipment.', 'start': 18189.575, 'duration': 5.003}, {'end': 18199.467, 'text': 'The red line is the mean of the data recorded at a particular time.', 'start': 18195.745, 'duration': 3.722}, {'end': 18206.751, 'text': 'The red line rises toward the right, which means the data points shift up after 12 p.m..', 'start': 18200.388, 'duration': 6.363}], 'summary': 'Equipment number three produces more defects than others, with a mean below the average. data shifts up after 12 p.m.', 'duration': 25.962, 'max_score': 18180.789, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E18180789.jpg'}, {'end': 18415.583, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 18386.782, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 18397.725, 'text': 'Correlation measures the linear association between the dependent variable or output variable Y and one independent or input variable X.', 'start': 18386.782, 'duration': 10.943}, {'end': 18405.707, 'text': 'As can be deduced from the graphs, a definite pattern emerges as the absolute value of correlation coefficient R increases.', 'start': 18397.725, 'duration': 7.982}, {'end': 18415.583, 'text': 'It is easy to see a pattern in R-value of 0.9 and above than to see a pattern in R-value of 0.07.', 'start': 18406.676, 'duration': 8.907}], 'summary': 'Correlation measures linear association between variables, r-value >0.9 shows definite pattern.', 'duration': 28.801, 'max_score': 18386.782, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E18386782.jpg'}, {'end': 18511.396, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 18487.518, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 18495.482, 'text': 'Although correlation gives the direction of movement of the dependent variable Y as independent variable X changes,', 'start': 18487.518, 'duration': 7.964}, {'end': 18499.884, 'text': 'it does not provide the extent of the movement of Y as X changes.', 'start': 18495.482, 'duration': 4.402}, {'end': 18504.066, 'text': 'This degree of movement can be calculated using regression.', 'start': 18500.804, 'duration': 3.262}, {'end': 18511.396, 'text': 'If a high percentage of variability in Y is explained by changes in X,', 'start': 18505.293, 'duration': 6.103}], 'summary': 'Correlation shows direction, regression quantifies extent of y as x changes.', 'duration': 23.878, 'max_score': 18487.518, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E18487518.jpg'}, {'end': 18881.279, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 18854.38, 'weight': 8, 'content': [{'end': 18860.364, 'text': 'the remaining 62% variation is unexplained or due to residual factors.', 'start': 18854.38, 'duration': 5.984}, {'end': 18869.671, 'text': 'Other factors like rain amount and variability, sunshine, temperatures, seed type, and seed quality could be tested.', 'start': 18861.425, 'duration': 8.246}, {'end': 18877.516, 'text': 'The low value of R-square statistically validates pore relationship between Y and X.', 'start': 18870.711, 'duration': 6.805}, {'end': 18881.279, 'text': 'Thus, the equation presented cannot be used for further analysis.', 'start': 18877.516, 'duration': 3.763}], 'summary': '62% variation unexplained, other factors like rain, sunshine, temperature, seed type, and seed quality could be tested.', 'duration': 26.899, 'max_score': 18854.38, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E18854380.jpg'}, {'end': 18940.494, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 18911.087, 'weight': 7, 'content': [{'end': 18915.628, 'text': 'The value of R-square changes due to the introduction of the new variable.', 'start': 18911.087, 'duration': 4.541}, {'end': 18924.59, 'text': 'The resulting value of R-square, which can be used in cases of multiple regression, is known as R-square adjusted.', 'start': 18916.568, 'duration': 8.022}, {'end': 18931.532, 'text': 'The model can be used if R-square adjusted value is greater than 70%.', 'start': 18925.59, 'duration': 5.942}, {'end': 18934.513, 'text': 'We will look at the key concepts in the next screen.', 'start': 18931.532, 'duration': 2.981}, {'end': 18940.494, 'text': 'The key concepts in multiple linear regression are as follows.', 'start': 18936.473, 'duration': 4.021}], 'summary': 'R-square adjusted increases with new variable, must be >70% for model use.', 'duration': 29.407, 'max_score': 18911.087, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E18911087.jpg'}, {'end': 19062.965, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 19034.95, 'weight': 9, 'content': [{'end': 19046.576, 'text': 'The most important thing to remember in regression analysis is that the obtained fitted line equation cannot be used to predict Y for values of X outside the data.', 'start': 19034.95, 'duration': 11.626}, {'end': 19057.301, 'text': 'For example, it would not be possible to predict the amount spent on fertilizers for a forecasted sales of $15 or $60.', 'start': 19047.477, 'duration': 9.824}, {'end': 19062.965, 'text': 'Both data points lie outside the data set on which regression analysis is performed.', 'start': 19057.301, 'duration': 5.664}], 'summary': 'Regression analysis cannot predict y for values of x outside the data set.', 'duration': 28.015, 'max_score': 19034.95, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E19034950.jpg'}, {'end': 19116.655, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 19089.839, 'weight': 11, 'content': [{'end': 19096.061, 'text': 'In the next screen, we will learn that, despite a relationship being established between two variables,', 'start': 19089.839, 'duration': 6.222}, {'end': 19099.422, 'text': 'the change in one may not cause a change in the other.', 'start': 19096.061, 'duration': 3.361}, {'end': 19105.405, 'text': 'Let us discuss the difference between correlation and causation in the following screen.', 'start': 19100.503, 'duration': 4.902}, {'end': 19111.227, 'text': 'A regression equation denotes only a relationship between the Y and the X.', 'start': 19106.185, 'duration': 5.042}, {'end': 19116.655, 'text': 'This does not mean that a change in one variable will cause a change in the other.', 'start': 19112.133, 'duration': 4.522}], 'summary': 'Correlation does not imply causation in regression analysis.', 'duration': 26.816, 'max_score': 19089.839, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E19089839.jpg'}], 'start': 17831.538, 'title': 'Multivariate studies, process control, and regression', 'summary': 'Discusses multivariate studies, identifying types of variation and the multivariate chart, process control steps, multivariate chart usage, correlation, regression, and simple linear regression in ms excel, with a focus on interpreting r-square value and limitations of the regression model.', 'chapters': [{'end': 18015.336, 'start': 17831.538, 'title': 'Multivariate studies and variation analysis', 'summary': 'Discusses multivariate studies used to analyze variation in a process, identifying three major types of variation, such as positional, cyclical, and temporal, and the outcome of multivariate studies - the multivariate chart.', 'duration': 183.798, 'highlights': ['Multivariate studies help in breaking down the variation into components to make the required improvements. This highlights the purpose of multivariate studies, which is to identify areas for improvement by breaking down variation into components.', 'Temporal variation occurs over a longer period of time, such as machine wear and tear and changes in efficiency of an operator before and after lunch. This highlight provides examples of temporal variation, demonstrating its impact over a longer time frame on processes and efficiency.', 'Positional variation occurs within a single piece or a product, where measurements at different locations of a piece would produce different values. This describes positional variation and its impact on measurement discrepancies within a single piece or product.', 'Cyclical variation occurs when measurement differs from piece to piece or product to product over a short period of time. This explains cyclical variation and its impact on measurements over a short period, providing examples of its occurrence.', 'The outcome of multivariate studies is the multivariate chart, which depicts the type of variation in the product and helps in identifying the root cause. This highlights the outcome of multivariate studies - the multivariate chart, and its role in identifying the root cause of variation in the product.']}, {'end': 18759.738, 'start': 18016.137, 'title': 'Process control and analysis', 'summary': 'Discusses the process control steps including selecting process and characteristics, sample size determination, tabulation sheet creation, chart plotting, and linking observed values, with an example of plate thickness manufacturing process. it also covers multivariate chart for visualizing variations, correlation for association between variables, and regression for predicting the extent of movement in y as x changes, with details on correlation coefficient, scatter plots, and regression concepts.', 'duration': 743.601, 'highlights': ['The mean of the data recorded from the products of equipment number three is much below the similar mean of other equipment, indicating more defects production. The mean of the data recorded from the products of equipment number three is much below the similar mean of other equipment, suggesting a higher defect rate from equipment number three.', 'Correlation coefficient shows the strength of the relationship between Y and X, with a value of greater than plus 0.85 or lesser than minus 0.85 indicating a strong correlation. The correlation coefficient shows the strength of the relationship between Y and X, where a value greater than plus 0.85 or lesser than minus 0.85 indicates a strong correlation.', 'Regression provides the extent of the movement of Y as X changes, and simple linear regression is used as a statistical validation tool. Regression provides the extent of the movement of Y as X changes, and simple linear regression is used as a statistical validation tool.', 'The least squares method is used in simple linear regression to fit the line with the least value of error squared and added. The least squares method is used in simple linear regression to fit the line with the least value of error squared and added.']}, {'end': 19161.582, 'start': 18760.579, 'title': 'Simple linear regression in ms excel', 'summary': 'Explains the steps to perform simple linear regression in ms excel, using a dataset to predict expected revenue, and discusses the interpretation of the r-square value and the limitations of the regression model, with a focus on the importance of r-square value and the implications of using the fitted line equation.', 'duration': 401.003, 'highlights': ["The R-square value here is 0.3797, meaning 38% of variability in Y is explained by X, while the remaining 62% variation is unexplained. The R-square value is highlighted as a key metric for evaluating the model's goodness of fit and its ability to explain the variability in the dependent variable.", "The low R-square value statistically validates poor relationship between Y and X, rendering the equation unusable for further analysis. Emphasizes the importance of the R-square value in assessing the model's reliability and suitability for predictive analysis.", "The chapter discusses the limitations of using the obtained fitted line equation to predict Y for values of X outside the dataset, highlighting the importance of understanding the model's scope and applicability. Underlines the critical limitation of the regression model in predicting values beyond the range of the collected data, emphasizing the need for caution in extrapolating predictions.", 'The importance of R-square adjusted value in multiple linear regression is emphasized, with the criteria that the model can be used if R-square adjusted value is greater than 70%. Stresses the significance of R-square adjusted value as a criterion for determining the usability of the model in multiple linear regression analysis.', 'The discussion on the difference between correlation and causation emphasizes the need to discern between mere relationships and actual causative effects, using examples to illustrate the concept. Illustrates the distinction between correlation and causation using real-world examples, highlighting the importance of understanding the underlying causal factors in relationships between variables.']}], 'duration': 1330.044, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E17831538.jpg', 'highlights': ['The multivariate chart depicts the type of variation in the product and helps in identifying the root cause.', 'Temporal variation occurs over a longer period of time, impacting processes and efficiency.', 'Positional variation impacts measurement discrepancies within a single piece or product.', 'Cyclical variation affects measurements over a short period, providing examples of its occurrence.', 'The mean of the data from equipment number three suggests a higher defect rate.', 'Correlation coefficient indicates the strength of the relationship between Y and X.', 'Regression provides the extent of the movement of Y as X changes, used as a statistical validation tool.', "The R-square value is a key metric for evaluating the model's goodness of fit and its ability to explain the variability in the dependent variable.", 'The low R-square value statistically validates poor relationship between Y and X, rendering the equation unusable for further analysis.', 'The limitations of using the obtained fitted line equation to predict Y for values of X outside the dataset are discussed.', 'The importance of R-square adjusted value in multiple linear regression is emphasized, with the criteria that the model can be used if R-square adjusted value is greater than 70%.', 'The discussion on the difference between correlation and causation emphasizes the need to discern between mere relationships and actual causative effects, using examples to illustrate the concept.']}, {'end': 20734.425, 'segs': [{'end': 19256.182, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 19231.415, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 19239.8, 'text': 'The returns may not be economically significant after accounting for taxes, transaction costs, and risks inherent in the strategy.', 'start': 19231.415, 'duration': 8.385}, {'end': 19247.926, 'text': 'Thus, there should be a practical or economic significant study before implementing any statistically significant data.', 'start': 19240.721, 'duration': 7.205}, {'end': 19256.182, 'text': 'The next screen will briefly focus on the conceptual differences between a null and an alternate hypothesis.', 'start': 19248.837, 'duration': 7.345}], 'summary': 'Returns may not be economically significant after accounting for taxes, transaction costs, and risks, requiring a practical or economic significant study before implementing statistically significant data.', 'duration': 24.767, 'max_score': 19231.415, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E19231415.jpg'}, {'end': 19312.35, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 19285.681, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 19292.463, 'text': 'It is important to note that if null hypothesis is rejected, alternative hypothesis must be right.', 'start': 19285.681, 'duration': 6.782}, {'end': 19297.264, 'text': 'For example, assuming that a movie is good, one plans to watch it.', 'start': 19293.403, 'duration': 3.861}, {'end': 19302.906, 'text': 'Therefore, the null hypothesis in this scenario will be movie is good.', 'start': 19298.045, 'duration': 4.861}, {'end': 19312.35, 'text': 'Alternative hypothesis or HA challenges the null hypothesis or is the converse of the null hypothesis.', 'start': 19304.249, 'duration': 8.101}], 'summary': 'Rejecting null hypothesis implies acceptance of alternative hypothesis.', 'duration': 26.669, 'max_score': 19285.681, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E19285681.jpg'}, {'end': 19426.184, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 19399.844, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 19404.989, 'text': 'In this case, the alternate hypothesis is rejected when it was actually true.', 'start': 19399.844, 'duration': 5.145}, {'end': 19411.534, 'text': 'The two important points to be noted are Beta is the chance of committing a type 2 error.', 'start': 19406.03, 'duration': 5.504}, {'end': 19416.759, 'text': 'The value of beta is 0.2 or 20%.', 'start': 19412.235, 'duration': 4.524}, {'end': 19420.122, 'text': 'Any experiment should have as less beta value as possible.', 'start': 19416.759, 'duration': 3.363}, {'end': 19426.184, 'text': 'The next screen will cover the key points to remember about Type 1 and Type 2 error.', 'start': 19421.038, 'duration': 5.146}], 'summary': 'Rejecting alternate hypothesis with beta at 20% is crucial.', 'duration': 26.34, 'max_score': 19399.844, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E19399844.jpg'}, {'end': 19538.783, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 19510.334, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 19519.938, 'text': 'The power of a hypothesis test, or the power of test, is the probability of correctly rejecting the null hypothesis when it is false.', 'start': 19510.334, 'duration': 9.604}, {'end': 19526.621, 'text': 'Power of a test is represented by 1 minus beta, which is also the type 2 error.', 'start': 19520.878, 'duration': 5.743}, {'end': 19532.98, 'text': 'The probability of not committing a Type II error is called the power of a hypothesis test.', 'start': 19527.657, 'duration': 5.323}, {'end': 19538.783, 'text': 'The power of a test helps in improving the advantage of hypothesis testing.', 'start': 19534.001, 'duration': 4.782}], 'summary': 'Power of a hypothesis test is crucial for correctly rejecting null hypothesis when false, represented by 1 minus beta.', 'duration': 28.449, 'max_score': 19510.334, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E19510334.jpg'}, {'end': 19593.834, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 19564.062, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 19570.168, 'text': 'It is important to note that quality inspection is done on sample pieces and not on all the products.', 'start': 19564.062, 'duration': 6.106}, {'end': 19574.031, 'text': 'So, beta error is a function of the sample size.', 'start': 19571.028, 'duration': 3.003}, {'end': 19581.731, 'text': 'If the sample size is not appropriate, The defects in a product line could easily be missed out,', 'start': 19574.892, 'duration': 6.839}, {'end': 19584.692, 'text': 'giving a wrong perception of the quality of the product.', 'start': 19581.731, 'duration': 2.961}, {'end': 19587.793, 'text': 'This will increase the type II error.', 'start': 19585.532, 'duration': 2.261}, {'end': 19593.834, 'text': 'To decrease this error, the quality assurance team has to increase the sample size.', 'start': 19588.653, 'duration': 5.181}], 'summary': 'Quality inspection on sample pieces affects beta error, increasing sample size reduces type ii error.', 'duration': 29.772, 'max_score': 19564.062, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E19564062.jpg'}, {'end': 19643.706, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 19616.071, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 19618.772, 'text': 'How much variation is present in the population?', 'start': 19616.071, 'duration': 2.701}, {'end': 19627.694, 'text': 'At what interval does the true population mean need to be estimated? And how much representation error is allowed in the sample?', 'start': 19619.712, 'duration': 7.982}, {'end': 19631.355, 'text': 'Continuous data is data which can be measured.', 'start': 19628.814, 'duration': 2.541}, {'end': 19637.322, 'text': 'The sample size for continuous data can be determined by the formula shown on the screen.', 'start': 19632.199, 'duration': 5.123}, {'end': 19643.706, 'text': 'We will learn about the standard sample size formula for continuous data in the next screen.', 'start': 19638.323, 'duration': 5.383}], 'summary': 'Estimate true population mean interval with minimal representation error for continuous data.', 'duration': 27.635, 'max_score': 19616.071, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E19616071.jpg'}, {'end': 19881.669, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 19852.085, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 19856.429, 'text': 'Substituting the values, it is found the sample size should be 246.', 'start': 19852.085, 'duration': 4.344}, {'end': 19858.25, 'text': 'In this example,', 'start': 19856.429, 'duration': 1.821}, {'end': 19870.54, 'text': 'to know if the population proportion for good pens is still within 75 to 85% and to have 95% confidence that the sample will allow a good conclusion,', 'start': 19858.25, 'duration': 12.29}, {'end': 19875.584, 'text': 'one needs to inspect 245.86 pens.', 'start': 19870.54, 'duration': 5.044}, {'end': 19881.669, 'text': '0.86 of a pen cannot be inspected, so the value is rounded up to maintain the confidence level.', 'start': 19876.144, 'duration': 5.525}], 'summary': 'To ensure 95% confidence, 246 pens should be inspected to verify population proportion of good pens within 75-85%.', 'duration': 29.584, 'max_score': 19852.085, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E19852085.jpg'}, {'end': 19995.292, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 19933.301, 'weight': 7, 'content': [{'end': 19940.845, 'text': 'From the figure shown on the screen, you can conclude the type of test to be performed based on the kind of data and values available.', 'start': 19933.301, 'duration': 7.544}, {'end': 19947.409, 'text': 'For discrete data, if mean and standard deviation are both known, the Z test is used.', 'start': 19941.745, 'duration': 5.664}, {'end': 19953.172, 'text': 'And if mean is known but standard deviation is unknown, the T test is used.', 'start': 19948.109, 'duration': 5.063}, {'end': 19961.64, 'text': 'If the standard deviation is unknown and if the sample size is less than 30, it is preferable to use the t-test.', 'start': 19954.136, 'duration': 7.504}, {'end': 19965.982, 'text': 'If variance is known, one should go for chi-squared test.', 'start': 19962.26, 'duration': 3.722}, {'end': 19973.405, 'text': 'If mean and standard deviation are known for a set of continuous data, it is recommended to go for the z-test.', 'start': 19966.742, 'duration': 6.663}, {'end': 19984.428, 'text': 'For mean comparison of two with standard deviation unknown go for t-test and for mean comparison of many with standard deviation unknown go for F test.', 'start': 19974.286, 'duration': 10.142}, {'end': 19989.63, 'text': 'Also, if the variance is known for continuous data, go for F test.', 'start': 19985.249, 'duration': 4.381}, {'end': 19995.292, 'text': 'The next few screens will discuss in detail the tests for mean, variance, and proportions.', 'start': 19990.11, 'duration': 5.182}], 'summary': 'Choose z test for discrete data, t test if sd is unknown, t-test for small sample, chi-squared if variance is known, z-test for continuous data, f test for comparing means and variance.', 'duration': 61.991, 'max_score': 19933.301, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E19933301.jpg'}, {'end': 20118.575, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 20087.798, 'weight': 10, 'content': [{'end': 20090.119, 'text': 'Hence, the Z-calc is 1.04, which is less than 1.96, or T-critical.', 'start': 20087.798, 'duration': 2.321}, {'end': 20098.867, 'text': 'Therefore, the null hypothesis cannot be rejected.', 'start': 20095.646, 'duration': 3.221}, {'end': 20108.471, 'text': 'Since Z0.05 equals 1.96, the null hypothesis is not rejected at 5% level of significance.', 'start': 20099.468, 'duration': 9.003}, {'end': 20111.953, 'text': 'The statistical notation is shown on the screen.', 'start': 20109.372, 'duration': 2.581}, {'end': 20118.575, 'text': 'Thus, a conclusion based on the sample collected is that the average height of North American males is 165 centimeters.', 'start': 20112.733, 'duration': 5.842}], 'summary': 'Z-calc is 1.04, < 1.96, null hypothesis not rejected, average height of north american males is 165cm.', 'duration': 30.777, 'max_score': 20087.798, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E20087798.jpg'}, {'end': 20172.299, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 20151.001, 'weight': 13, 'content': [{'end': 20160.429, 'text': 'The T critical value is 2.064, and we know the T calc value is 0.5, which is less than 2.064.', 'start': 20151.001, 'duration': 9.428}, {'end': 20165.353, 'text': 'Therefore, the null hypothesis cannot be rejected at 5% level of significance.', 'start': 20160.429, 'duration': 4.924}, {'end': 20172.299, 'text': 'Thus, a conclusion based on the sample collected is that the average height of North American males is 165 cm.', 'start': 20166.214, 'duration': 6.085}], 'summary': 'Null hypothesis not rejected at 5% level, average height of north american males is 165 cm.', 'duration': 21.298, 'max_score': 20151.001, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E20151001.jpg'}, {'end': 20233.551, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 20203.593, 'weight': 11, 'content': [{'end': 20207.615, 'text': 'In hypothesis test for variance, chi-square test is used.', 'start': 20203.593, 'duration': 4.022}, {'end': 20218.62, 'text': 'In the case of a chi-square test, the null and alternate hypotheses are defined, and the values of chi-square critical and chi-square are calculated.', 'start': 20208.315, 'duration': 10.305}, {'end': 20224.082, 'text': 'To understand this concept with an example, click the button given on the screen.', 'start': 20219.38, 'duration': 4.702}, {'end': 20233.551, 'text': 'The null hypothesis is that the proportion of winds in Australia or abroad is independent of the country played against.', 'start': 20225.803, 'duration': 7.748}], 'summary': 'Chi-square test used in hypothesis test for variance with null hypothesis on wind proportion independence.', 'duration': 29.958, 'max_score': 20203.593, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E20203593.jpg'}, {'end': 20318.272, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 20283.496, 'weight': 12, 'content': [{'end': 20293.368, 'text': 'The null hypothesis is that the proportion of smokers among males in a place named R is 0.10, represented as P0.', 'start': 20283.496, 'duration': 9.872}, {'end': 20300.143, 'text': 'The alternative hypothesis is the proportion is different than 0.10.', 'start': 20294.169, 'duration': 5.974}, {'end': 20310.788, 'text': 'In notation, it is represented as null hypothesis is P equals P0 against alternative hypothesis is P different than P0.', 'start': 20300.143, 'duration': 10.645}, {'end': 20318.272, 'text': 'A sample of 150 adult males are interviewed, and it is found that 23 of them are smokers.', 'start': 20311.769, 'duration': 6.503}], 'summary': 'In a sample of 150 adult males in place r, 23 are smokers, testing if the proportion differs from 0.10.', 'duration': 34.776, 'max_score': 20283.496, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E20283496.jpg'}, {'end': 20710.405, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 20658.387, 'weight': 14, 'content': [{'end': 20663.691, 'text': 'The degrees of freedom for company A and company B are 30 and 40 respectively.', 'start': 20658.387, 'duration': 5.304}, {'end': 20669.118, 'text': 'The critical value from F table equals 1.74.', 'start': 20664.537, 'duration': 4.581}, {'end': 20674.639, 'text': 'The null hypothesis is rejected if the F test statistic is greater than 1.74.', 'start': 20669.118, 'duration': 5.521}, {'end': 20681.481, 'text': 'The calculated value of F test statistic is 1.273.', 'start': 20674.639, 'duration': 6.842}, {'end': 20687.463, 'text': 'And therefore, at the 5% significance level, the null hypothesis cannot be rejected.', 'start': 20681.481, 'duration': 5.982}, {'end': 20693.224, 'text': 'The next screen will focus on hypothesis tests F tests for independent groups.', 'start': 20688.523, 'duration': 4.701}, {'end': 20700.622, 'text': 'A restaurant which wants to explore the recent overuse of avocados suspects.', 'start': 20695.6, 'duration': 5.022}, {'end': 20706.083, 'text': 'there is a difference between two chefs and the number of avocados used to prepare the salads.', 'start': 20700.622, 'duration': 5.461}, {'end': 20710.405, 'text': 'The data shown in the table is the measure of avocados in ounces.', 'start': 20706.884, 'duration': 3.521}], 'summary': 'F test statistic is 1.273, null hypothesis not rejected at 5% significance level.', 'duration': 52.018, 'max_score': 20658.387, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E20658387.jpg'}], 'start': 19161.582, 'title': 'Hypothesis testing and errors in practical significance', 'summary': 'Discusses the practical significance of hypothesis testing, trade-off between type 1 and type 2 errors, sample size calculation for discrete data, and hypothesis testing for means, variances, and proportions, emphasizing the importance of minimizing errors and optimizing hypothesis testing.', 'chapters': [{'end': 19426.184, 'start': 19161.582, 'title': 'Hypothesis testing and practical significance', 'summary': 'Discusses the practical significance of hypothesis testing, using the example of a trading strategy, and explains the conceptual differences between null and alternate hypotheses, as well as type one and type two errors, emphasizing the importance of minimizing beta value.', 'duration': 264.602, 'highlights': ['The returns may not be economically significant after accounting for taxes, transaction costs, and risks inherent in the strategy. Thus, there should be a practical or economic significant study before implementing any statistically significant data. Emphasizes the importance of conducting a practical or economic study before implementing statistically significant data, highlighting the impact of taxes, transaction costs, and inherent risks.', 'It is important to note that if null hypothesis is rejected, alternative hypothesis must be right. Emphasizes the relationship between rejecting the null hypothesis and the correctness of the alternative hypothesis.', "The value of alpha is 0.05 or 5%. Accepting a null hypothesis when it is false is called Type II error. It is also known as consumer's risk. Explains the significance level alpha and defines Type II error as accepting a false null hypothesis, also known as consumer's risk.", 'The value of beta is 0.2 or 20%. Any experiment should have as less beta value as possible. Defines the value of beta and emphasizes the importance of minimizing beta value in any experiment.']}, {'end': 19733.423, 'start': 19428.266, 'title': 'Types of errors in quality assurance', 'summary': 'Discusses the trade-off between type 1 and type 2 errors in quality assurance, emphasizing the importance of power of test and sample size for minimizing errors and optimizing hypothesis testing.', 'duration': 305.157, 'highlights': ['The power of a test, or the probability of correctly rejecting the null hypothesis when it is false, is represented by 1 minus beta, with a higher power being preferable for hypothesis testing.', 'The significance level alpha is typically set at 0.05, indicating a 1 out of 20 risk of committing a type 1 error, and its complement (1-alpha) is the confidence level of the test.', 'The sample size for continuous data can be determined by considering the population variation, required estimation interval for the population mean, and permissible representation error, with specific formulas and Z-table values aiding in the calculation.', 'Increasing the sample size helps decrease the probability of a type II error in quality inspection, ensuring that defects in a product line are not missed, thereby improving the perception of product quality.']}, {'end': 19932.841, 'start': 19733.443, 'title': 'Sample size calculation for discrete data', 'summary': 'Explores the sample size calculation for discrete data, demonstrating the significance of rounding up sample sizes and the impact on confidence levels, as well as providing an example of calculating the sample size for discrete data with a specific tolerance level and confidence level.', 'duration': 199.398, 'highlights': ['One cannot have 0.70 of a sample, so rounding up to 239 samples increases the confidence level by reducing alpha.', 'The sample size calculation for discrete data with a population proportion of 80% and a tolerance of plus or minus 5% results in a sample size of 246, maintaining a 95% confidence level.', 'When inspecting 245 or fewer pens, the confidence level reduces, leading to a lower Z value and a greater alpha.', 'A change in the tolerance to 20% results in a required sample size of 16, impacting the hypothesis testing roadmap.']}, {'end': 20397.126, 'start': 19933.301, 'title': 'Hypothesis testing for mean, variance, and proportions', 'summary': 'Discusses hypothesis testing for means, variances, and proportions, including the use of z-test, t-test, f-test, and chi-squared test, with examples of hypothesis testing based on different types of data and values, resulting in conclusions about population parameters.', 'duration': 463.825, 'highlights': ['The Z test is used for discrete data when both mean and standard deviation are known, and the T test is used when mean is known but standard deviation is unknown. Defines the use of Z test and T test for discrete data based on known mean and standard deviation.', 'If standard deviation is unknown and sample size is less than 30, the t-test is preferable, while the chi-squared test is used when variance is known. Explains the preference for t-test for unknown standard deviation and small sample size, and the use of chi-squared test for known variance.', 'The F test is recommended for mean comparison of many with unknown standard deviation, and for known variance for continuous data. Recommends the use of F test for mean comparison and known variance for continuous data.', 'An example is presented to illustrate hypothesis testing for means, with calculations for Z-calc and T-calc values, leading to the conclusion of not rejecting the null hypothesis for the average height of North American males being 165 centimeters. Provides an example of hypothesis testing for means, including calculations and the conclusion based on not rejecting the null hypothesis.', 'Hypothesis testing for variance is discussed, with an example showing the use of chi-square test and the conclusion regarding the independence of the proportion of wins in Australia or abroad. Presents an example of hypothesis testing for variance, demonstrating the use of chi-square test and the conclusion about the independence of the proportion of wins.', 'The chapter also covers hypothesis testing for proportions, showcasing an example where the null hypothesis is rejected based on the sample proportion of smokers among males in a specified place. Highlights the discussion of hypothesis testing for proportions and the rejection of the null hypothesis based on the sample proportion of smokers.']}, {'end': 20734.425, 'start': 20398.146, 'title': 'Hypothesis testing for means and variances', 'summary': 'Discusses the paired comparison hypothesis test for means with an example of a two mean t-test, the paired t-test, and the f-test for equality of variance, illustrating the calculation of t value, rejection of null hypothesis, comparison of variances, and the f test statistic.', 'duration': 336.279, 'highlights': ['The calculated value of T for the two mean t-test is 2.47, leading to the rejection of the null hypothesis at a 5% significance level. The calculated T value of 2.47 exceeds the critical value of 1.96, leading to the rejection of the null hypothesis at a 5% significance level.', 'The example of comparing the standard deviation of two companies involves calculating the F test statistic, resulting in the inability to reject the null hypothesis at a 5% significance level. The calculated F test statistic of 1.273 is less than the critical value of 1.74, resulting in the inability to reject the null hypothesis at a 5% significance level.', 'The chapter also introduces the hypothesis test F-tests for independent groups, focusing on the comparison of avocado usage by two chefs using the measure of avocados in ounces. The chapter introduces hypothesis tests F-tests for independent groups, specifically focusing on the comparison of avocado usage by two chefs using the measure of avocados in ounces.']}], 'duration': 1572.843, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E19161582.jpg', 'highlights': ['Emphasizes the importance of conducting a practical or economic study before implementing statistically significant data, highlighting the impact of taxes, transaction costs, and inherent risks.', 'Emphasizes the relationship between rejecting the null hypothesis and the correctness of the alternative hypothesis.', 'Defines the value of beta and emphasizes the importance of minimizing beta value in any experiment.', 'The power of a test, or the probability of correctly rejecting the null hypothesis when it is false, is represented by 1 minus beta, with a higher power being preferable for hypothesis testing.', 'The sample size for continuous data can be determined by considering the population variation, required estimation interval for the population mean, and permissible representation error, with specific formulas and Z-table values aiding in the calculation.', 'Increasing the sample size helps decrease the probability of a type II error in quality inspection, ensuring that defects in a product line are not missed, thereby improving the perception of product quality.', 'The sample size calculation for discrete data with a population proportion of 80% and a tolerance of plus or minus 5% results in a sample size of 246, maintaining a 95% confidence level.', 'The Z test is used for discrete data when both mean and standard deviation are known, and the T test is used when mean is known but standard deviation is unknown.', 'If standard deviation is unknown and sample size is less than 30, the t-test is preferable, while the chi-squared test is used when variance is known.', 'The F test is recommended for mean comparison of many with unknown standard deviation, and for known variance for continuous data.', 'An example is presented to illustrate hypothesis testing for means, with calculations for Z-calc and T-calc values, leading to the conclusion of not rejecting the null hypothesis for the average height of North American males being 165 centimeters.', 'Hypothesis testing for variance is discussed, with an example showing the use of chi-square test and the conclusion regarding the independence of the proportion of wins in Australia or abroad.', 'The chapter also covers hypothesis testing for proportions, showcasing an example where the null hypothesis is rejected based on the sample proportion of smokers among males in a specified place.', 'The calculated T value of 2.47 exceeds the critical value of 1.96, leading to the rejection of the null hypothesis at a 5% significance level.', 'The calculated F test statistic of 1.273 is less than the critical value of 1.74, resulting in the inability to reject the null hypothesis at a 5% significance level.', 'The chapter introduces hypothesis tests F-tests for independent groups, specifically focusing on the comparison of avocado usage by two chefs using the measure of avocados in ounces.']}, {'end': 22428.976, 'segs': [{'end': 20769.378, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 20735.405, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 20739.108, 'text': 'Click the tab to learn to conduct an F-test in MS Excel.', 'start': 20735.405, 'duration': 3.703}, {'end': 20745.653, 'text': 'The F-test is conducted in MS Excel through the following steps.', 'start': 20741.35, 'duration': 4.303}, {'end': 20747.955, 'text': 'Open MS Excel.', 'start': 20746.594, 'duration': 1.361}, {'end': 20749.376, 'text': 'Click Data.', 'start': 20748.696, 'duration': 0.68}, {'end': 20751.478, 'text': 'Click Data Analysis.', 'start': 20750.177, 'duration': 1.301}, {'end': 20755.852, 'text': 'Please follow the facilitator instruction on how to install add-ins.', 'start': 20752.21, 'duration': 3.642}, {'end': 20759.493, 'text': 'Select F-Test 2 sample for variances.', 'start': 20756.892, 'duration': 2.601}, {'end': 20767.657, 'text': 'In variable 1 range, select the data set for group A and select data set for group B in variable 2 range.', 'start': 20760.334, 'duration': 7.323}, {'end': 20769.378, 'text': 'Click OK.', 'start': 20768.477, 'duration': 0.901}], 'summary': 'Learn to conduct an f-test in ms excel by following specific steps.', 'duration': 33.973, 'max_score': 20735.405, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E20735405.jpg'}, {'end': 20859.892, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 20829.648, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 20835.133, 'text': 'If p-value is low or below 0.05, the null must be rejected.', 'start': 20829.648, 'duration': 5.485}, {'end': 20840.618, 'text': 'Thus, null hypothesis with 97% confidence is rejected.', 'start': 20835.954, 'duration': 4.664}, {'end': 20847.284, 'text': 'Also, the fact that variation could only be due to common cause of variation is rejected.', 'start': 20841.679, 'duration': 5.605}, {'end': 20855.612, 'text': 'It is inferred from the test that there could be assignable causes of variation or special causes of variation.', 'start': 20848.265, 'duration': 7.347}, {'end': 20859.892, 'text': 'Excel provides the descriptive statistics for each variable.', 'start': 20856.75, 'duration': 3.142}], 'summary': 'Null hypothesis rejected with 97% confidence, indicating assignable causes of variation inferred from the test results.', 'duration': 30.244, 'max_score': 20829.648, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E20829648.jpg'}, {'end': 20919.541, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 20889.457, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 20895.586, 'text': 'Alongside conducting a hypothesis test, a meaningful conclusion from the test has been drawn.', 'start': 20889.457, 'duration': 6.129}, {'end': 20901.575, 'text': 'The following screen will focus on hypothesis test t-tests for independent groups.', 'start': 20896.507, 'duration': 5.068}, {'end': 20911.458, 'text': 'As discussed earlier, the table shows the measure of avocados in ounces and the significant difference in their means needs to be inspected.', 'start': 20903.374, 'duration': 8.084}, {'end': 20919.541, 'text': 'If a significant amount of difference is found, it can be concluded that there is a possibility of special cause of variation.', 'start': 20912.358, 'duration': 7.183}], 'summary': 'Hypothesis test conducted on avocado ounces for significant difference in means.', 'duration': 30.084, 'max_score': 20889.457, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E20889457.jpg'}, {'end': 21156.851, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 21125.799, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 21130.962, 'text': 'Similar to the F-test, Excel provides the descriptive statistics for each group or variable.', 'start': 21125.799, 'duration': 5.163}, {'end': 21132.923, 'text': 'The T-stat is shown.', 'start': 21131.722, 'duration': 1.201}, {'end': 21136.765, 'text': 'Excel also shows one-tailed or two-tailed data.', 'start': 21133.663, 'duration': 3.102}, {'end': 21141.607, 'text': 'For the one-tailed test, the alpha is 0.05.', 'start': 21137.585, 'duration': 4.022}, {'end': 21144.069, 'text': 'The error is expected to be in one direction.', 'start': 21141.607, 'duration': 2.462}, {'end': 21152.228, 'text': 'For the two-tailed test, the error is alpha slash 2 or 0.025.', 'start': 21144.923, 'duration': 7.305}, {'end': 21156.851, 'text': 'In this example, t-stat or t-calculated is less than either t-criticals.', 'start': 21152.228, 'duration': 4.623}], 'summary': 'Excel provides descriptive statistics, t-stat, one-tailed/two-tailed data, with alpha values of 0.05 and 0.025.', 'duration': 31.052, 'max_score': 21125.799, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E21125799.jpg'}, {'end': 21251.749, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 21206.437, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 21211.401, 'text': 'if there is a significant difference, the inference could be that the training was effective.', 'start': 21206.437, 'duration': 4.964}, {'end': 21218.293, 'text': 'It is important to note that the paired t-test interpretation shows the effectiveness of the improvement measures.', 'start': 21212.389, 'duration': 5.904}, {'end': 21224.257, 'text': 'This is the main reason why paired t-tests are often used in the improve stage.', 'start': 21219.174, 'duration': 5.083}, {'end': 21228.22, 'text': 'Let us learn about sample variance in the following screen.', 'start': 21224.797, 'duration': 3.423}, {'end': 21233.663, 'text': 'Sample variance is defined as the average of the squared differences from the mean.', 'start': 21228.96, 'duration': 4.703}, {'end': 21241.689, 'text': 'The sample variance, that is s-square, can be used to calculate and understand the degree of variation of a sample.', 'start': 21234.364, 'duration': 7.325}, {'end': 21244.704, 'text': 'It can also be used in statistics.', 'start': 21242.682, 'duration': 2.022}, {'end': 21251.749, 'text': 'However, it cannot be used or explained directly because its value does not provide any information.', 'start': 21245.404, 'duration': 6.345}], 'summary': 'Paired t-tests assess training effectiveness, sample variance measures variation.', 'duration': 45.312, 'max_score': 21206.437, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E21206437.jpg'}, {'end': 21403.325, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 21375.652, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 21381.176, 'text': 'ANOVA does not tell the better mean, it helps in understanding that all the sample means are not equal.', 'start': 21375.652, 'duration': 5.524}, {'end': 21385.979, 'text': 'The shortlisted samples based on ANOVA output can further be tested.', 'start': 21382.116, 'duration': 3.863}, {'end': 21392.623, 'text': 'One important aspect of ANOVA is it generalizes the t-test to include more than two samples.', 'start': 21387, 'duration': 5.623}, {'end': 21398.848, 'text': 'Performing multiple two-sample t-tests would increase the chance of committing a Type I error.', 'start': 21393.464, 'duration': 5.384}, {'end': 21403.325, 'text': "Hence, ANOVA's is useful in comparing two or more means.", 'start': 21399.482, 'duration': 3.843}], 'summary': 'Anova compares means to avoid type i error, generalizes t-test for multiple samples', 'duration': 27.673, 'max_score': 21375.652, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E21375652.jpg'}, {'end': 21715.982, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 21681.281, 'weight': 7, 'content': [{'end': 21684.698, 'text': 'The formula for chi-square distribution is shown on the screen.', 'start': 21681.281, 'duration': 3.417}, {'end': 21693.866, 'text': 'It is important to note that F of O stands for an observed frequency and F of E stands for an expected frequency.', 'start': 21685.799, 'duration': 8.067}, {'end': 21698.491, 'text': 'The next screen will explain chi-square test through an example.', 'start': 21694.887, 'duration': 3.604}, {'end': 21706.358, 'text': 'Suppose the Australian hockey team wishes to analyze its wins at home and abroad against four different countries.', 'start': 21699.672, 'duration': 6.686}, {'end': 21715.982, 'text': 'The data has two classifications, and the table is also known as a 2x4 contingency table with two rows and four columns.', 'start': 21707.315, 'duration': 8.667}], 'summary': 'Chi-square distribution formula shown. example: australian hockey team analyzes wins at home and abroad against four countries. data presented in a 2x4 contingency table.', 'duration': 34.701, 'max_score': 21681.281, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E21681281.jpg'}, {'end': 21887.877, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 21852.794, 'weight': 8, 'content': [{'end': 21856.835, 'text': 'Let us proceed to the next topic of this lesson in the next screen.', 'start': 21852.794, 'duration': 4.041}, {'end': 21862.517, 'text': 'In this topic, we will learn in detail about hypothesis testing with non-normal data.', 'start': 21857.255, 'duration': 5.262}, {'end': 21866.438, 'text': 'Let us begin with the Mon Whitney test in the next screen.', 'start': 21863.217, 'duration': 3.221}, {'end': 21876.984, 'text': 'The Mon-Whitney test, also known as the Wilcoxon Rank Sum test, is a non-parametric test which is used to compare two unpaired groups.', 'start': 21867.714, 'duration': 9.27}, {'end': 21887.877, 'text': 'In this test, the value of alpha is by default set at 0.05, and the rejection and acceptance condition remains the same for different cases.', 'start': 21877.906, 'duration': 9.971}], 'summary': 'Learning about mon-whitney test for non-normal data with default alpha of 0.05', 'duration': 35.083, 'max_score': 21852.794, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E21852794.jpg'}, {'end': 22068.109, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 22036.946, 'weight': 9, 'content': [{'end': 22050.852, 'text': 'The formula for the Mon-Whitney u-test for n1 and n2 values is u1 equals n1 multiplied by n2 plus n1 multiplied by n1 plus 1 whole divided by 2 minus r1..', 'start': 22036.946, 'duration': 13.906}, {'end': 22060.476, 'text': 'Similarly, u2 equals n1 multiplied by n2 plus n2 multiplied by n2 plus 1 whole divided by 2 minus r2.', 'start': 22051.812, 'duration': 8.664}, {'end': 22068.109, 'text': 'In this example, the value of U1 is 12 and U2 is 13.', 'start': 22062.208, 'duration': 5.901}], 'summary': 'The mon-whitney u-test resulted in u1=12 and u2=13.', 'duration': 31.163, 'max_score': 22036.946, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E22036946.jpg'}, {'end': 22195.041, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 22170.454, 'weight': 10, 'content': [{'end': 22178.237, 'text': 'The Moods median is also a nonparametric test that is used to test the equality of medians from two or more different populations.', 'start': 22170.454, 'duration': 7.783}, {'end': 22186.352, 'text': 'This test works when the output Y variable is continuous and discrete, ordinal or discrete count,', 'start': 22179.164, 'duration': 7.188}, {'end': 22190.696, 'text': 'while the input X variable is discrete with two or more attributes.', 'start': 22186.352, 'duration': 4.344}, {'end': 22195.041, 'text': 'Click the button to view the steps involved in the Moods median test.', 'start': 22191.497, 'duration': 3.544}], 'summary': 'Moods median test compares medians of different populations with nonparametric method.', 'duration': 24.587, 'max_score': 22170.454, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E22170454.jpg'}], 'start': 20735.405, 'title': 'Statistical hypothesis testing', 'summary': 'Covers conducting f-test, paired t-test, anova, chi-square analysis, and non-normal data hypothesis testing in ms excel, with emphasis on interpretation of results and practical examples, such as a 97% confidence rejection of null hypothesis due to p-value of 0.03 and analysis of wins of the australian hockey team against different countries.', 'chapters': [{'end': 20888.816, 'start': 20735.405, 'title': 'Conducting f-test in ms excel', 'summary': 'Explains how to conduct an f-test in ms excel, including the steps to perform the test and the interpretation of the results, with a key point being the rejection of the null hypothesis with 97% confidence due to a p-value of 0.03.', 'duration': 153.411, 'highlights': ['The null hypothesis with 97% confidence is rejected due to a p-value of 0.03, indicating a significant statistical difference between the variances of the two groups. The p-value of 0.03 leads to the rejection of the null hypothesis with 97% confidence, suggesting a significant statistical difference between the variances of the two groups.', 'The F-Test is conducted in MS Excel through specific steps: Open MS Excel, click Data, click Data Analysis, and select F-Test 2 sample for variances. The F-Test process in MS Excel involves specific steps, including opening MS Excel, accessing Data Analysis, and selecting F-Test 2 sample for variances.', 'Excel provides descriptive statistics for each variable and gives the degrees of freedom for each, along with F and F critical statistics. Excel presents descriptive statistics and degrees of freedom for each variable, as well as F and F critical statistics.']}, {'end': 21341.909, 'start': 20889.457, 'title': 'Hypothesis testing and paired t-test', 'summary': 'Explains hypothesis testing using two-sample t-tests for independent groups and the interpretation of results, along with the significance of paired t-tests in measuring effectiveness, with an emphasis on sample variance calculation and its application.', 'duration': 452.452, 'highlights': ['The chapter explains hypothesis testing using two-sample t-tests for independent groups and the interpretation of results The chapter provides a detailed explanation of hypothesis testing using two-sample t-tests for independent groups, focusing on the inspection of significant differences in means and the steps for conducting the test in MS Excel.', 'Significance of paired t-tests in measuring effectiveness The paired t-test is highlighted as a powerful test for measuring the statistical difference before and after a process, and its effectiveness in demonstrating improvement measures.', 'Emphasis on sample variance calculation and its application The importance of sample variance is emphasized, with a step-by-step explanation provided for calculating sample variance and the significance of using standard deviation in combination with the mean to understand the variation in a sample.']}, {'end': 21851.894, 'start': 21341.909, 'title': 'Anova and chi-square analysis', 'summary': 'Introduces the concept of anova for comparing means of more than two samples and explains the interpretation of anova results, followed by a detailed explanation of chi-square distribution and its application in hypothesis testing, with a practical example on analyzing wins of the australian hockey team against different countries.', 'duration': 509.985, 'highlights': ['The chapter introduces the concept of ANOVA for comparing means of more than two samples and explains the interpretation of ANOVA results. ANOVA is used to compare means of more than two samples, and its interpretation involves understanding the significance of the p-value in accepting or rejecting the null hypothesis.', 'Detailed explanation of chi-square distribution and its application in hypothesis testing, with a practical example on analyzing wins of the Australian hockey team against different countries. Chi-square distribution is widely used in hypothesis testing and is applied to analyze the wins of the Australian hockey team against different countries using a 2x4 contingency table, along with the calculation of expected frequencies and the chi-square index.']}, {'end': 22428.976, 'start': 21852.794, 'title': 'Non-normal data hypothesis testing', 'summary': 'Covers non-normal data hypothesis testing, including the mon-whitney test and other non-parametric tests, with detailed steps and examples, aiming to compare and analyze different groups and populations.', 'duration': 576.182, 'highlights': ['The Mon-Whitney test, also known as the Wilcoxon Rank Sum test, is a non-parametric test which is used to compare two unpaired groups. Introduces the Mon-Whitney test as a non-parametric test for comparing unpaired groups.', 'The formula for the Mon-Whitney u-test for n1 and n2 values is u1 equals n1 multiplied by n2 plus n1 multiplied by n1 plus 1 whole divided by 2 minus r1.. Similarly, u2 equals n1 multiplied by n2 plus n2 multiplied by n2 plus 1 whole divided by 2 minus r2. Explains the formula for calculating the u-test for Mon-Whitney test, providing a mathematical insight into the test.', 'The Moods median test is used to test the equality of medians from two or more different populations. Describes the Moods median test as a method for testing equality of medians from different populations.']}], 'duration': 1693.571, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E20735405.jpg', 'highlights': ['The null hypothesis with 97% confidence is rejected due to a p-value of 0.03, indicating a significant statistical difference between the variances of the two groups.', 'The F-Test is conducted in MS Excel through specific steps: Open MS Excel, click Data, click Data Analysis, and select F-Test 2 sample for variances.', 'Excel provides descriptive statistics for each variable and gives the degrees of freedom for each, along with F and F critical statistics.', 'The chapter explains hypothesis testing using two-sample t-tests for independent groups and the interpretation of results.', 'Significance of paired t-tests in measuring effectiveness and demonstrating improvement measures.', 'Emphasis on sample variance calculation and its application in understanding variation in a sample.', 'The chapter introduces the concept of ANOVA for comparing means of more than two samples and explains the interpretation of ANOVA results.', 'Detailed explanation of chi-square distribution and its application in hypothesis testing, with a practical example on analyzing wins of the Australian hockey team against different countries.', 'The Mon-Whitney test, also known as the Wilcoxon Rank Sum test, is a non-parametric test which is used to compare two unpaired groups.', 'The formula for the Mon-Whitney u-test for n1 and n2 values is provided, explaining the mathematical insight into the test.', 'The Moods median test is used to test the equality of medians from two or more different populations.']}, {'end': 24512.179, 'segs': [{'end': 22472.763, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 22447.911, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 22456.795, 'text': 'consists of a series of planned and scientific experiments that test various input variables and their eventual impact on the output variable.', 'start': 22447.911, 'duration': 8.884}, {'end': 22465.481, 'text': 'Design of experiments can be used as a one-stop alternative for analyzing all influencing factors to arrive at a successful model.', 'start': 22457.659, 'duration': 7.822}, {'end': 22472.763, 'text': 'DOE is applicable where multiple input variables known as factors affect a single response variable.', 'start': 22466.361, 'duration': 6.402}], 'summary': "Design of experiments tests input variables' impact on output, applicable for multiple factors affecting a single response.", 'duration': 24.852, 'max_score': 22447.911, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E22447911.jpg'}, {'end': 22669.436, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 22639.688, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 22645.731, 'text': 'Full factorial experimental design contains all combinations of all levels of all factors.', 'start': 22639.688, 'duration': 6.043}, {'end': 22651.434, 'text': 'This experimental design ensures no possible treatment combinations get omitted.', 'start': 22646.651, 'duration': 4.783}, {'end': 22656.592, 'text': 'Hence, full factorial designs are often preferred over other designs.', 'start': 22652.23, 'duration': 4.362}, {'end': 22661.033, 'text': 'The table shown here is for a two-way heat treatment experiment.', 'start': 22657.372, 'duration': 3.661}, {'end': 22669.436, 'text': 'There are two factors, oven time, X2, and the temperature, X1, at which the material is drawn out of the oven.', 'start': 22661.753, 'duration': 7.683}], 'summary': 'Full factorial design ensures no treatment combinations are omitted, preferred over other designs. two-way heat treatment experiment with two factors, oven time and temperature.', 'duration': 29.748, 'max_score': 22639.688, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E22639688.jpg'}, {'end': 23115.124, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 23089.691, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 23094.414, 'text': 'In the next screen, we will learn about data transformation using the Box-Cox method.', 'start': 23089.691, 'duration': 4.723}, {'end': 23099.579, 'text': 'The available data must be transformed when it does not exhibit the normal distribution.', 'start': 23094.875, 'duration': 4.704}, {'end': 23109.721, 'text': 'Box and Cox in the year 1964 developed a procedure for estimating the best transformation to normality within the family of power transformation.', 'start': 23100.376, 'duration': 9.345}, {'end': 23115.124, 'text': 'It works by taking the current y data and raising it to the power known as lambda.', 'start': 23110.542, 'duration': 4.582}], 'summary': 'Data transformation using box-cox method for normal distribution.', 'duration': 25.433, 'max_score': 23089.691, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E23089691.jpg'}, {'end': 23461.557, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 23431.004, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 23435.946, 'text': 'Another method to establish the cause-effect relation is the cause-and-effect diagram.', 'start': 23431.004, 'duration': 4.942}, {'end': 23439.426, 'text': 'This is explained in detail in the following screen.', 'start': 23436.706, 'duration': 2.72}, {'end': 23446.188, 'text': 'The cause-and-effect diagram is used to find the root cause and the potential solutions to a problem.', 'start': 23440.127, 'duration': 6.061}, {'end': 23455.235, 'text': 'A cause and effect diagram breaks down a problem into bite-sized pieces and also displays the possible causes in a graphic manner.', 'start': 23447.051, 'duration': 8.184}, {'end': 23461.557, 'text': 'It is also known as the fishbone, the 4M, or the Ishikawa diagram.', 'start': 23456.095, 'duration': 5.462}], 'summary': 'Cause-and-effect diagram breaks down problems into bite-sized pieces for finding root cause and potential solutions.', 'duration': 30.553, 'max_score': 23431.004, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E23431004.jpg'}, {'end': 23997.665, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 23964.93, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 23969.972, 'text': 'Lean techniques release resources early, achieving more production with the same machinery.', 'start': 23964.93, 'duration': 5.042}, {'end': 23978.496, 'text': 'Internal and external waste is reduced and the operational process is simplified with a decrease in product damage.', 'start': 23970.893, 'duration': 7.603}, {'end': 23983.998, 'text': 'All these factors help in satisfying the customer and staying ahead in competition.', 'start': 23979.396, 'duration': 4.602}, {'end': 23989.621, 'text': 'The following screen describes the concept of cycle time reduction through an example.', 'start': 23984.959, 'duration': 4.662}, {'end': 23997.665, 'text': 'The changes brought by implementing lean techniques on an existing process are illustrated in the given diagram.', 'start': 23990.919, 'duration': 6.746}], 'summary': 'Lean techniques reduce waste, increase production, and satisfy customers, illustrated in a diagram.', 'duration': 32.735, 'max_score': 23964.93, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E23964930.jpg'}, {'end': 24417.01, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 24394.423, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 24402.566, 'text': 'Lean. Six Sigma takes the power and rigor of Six Sigma methodology and combines it with Lean concepts, leading to faster results,', 'start': 24394.423, 'duration': 8.143}, {'end': 24405.527, 'text': 'better quality and improved customer satisfaction.', 'start': 24402.566, 'duration': 2.961}, {'end': 24409.828, 'text': "Let's look at the differences between Lean and Six Sigma.", 'start': 24407.247, 'duration': 2.581}, {'end': 24417.01, 'text': "Lean focuses on efficiency by identifying value from the customer's point of view,", 'start': 24410.668, 'duration': 6.342}], 'summary': 'Lean six sigma merges six sigma with lean for faster results, better quality, and improved customer satisfaction.', 'duration': 22.587, 'max_score': 24394.423, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E24394423.jpg'}], 'start': 22429.696, 'title': 'Lean and six sigma principles', 'summary': 'Covers the improve phase of the dmacc process, utilizing design of experiments, discusses design experiments, data analysis, process input and output variables, lean techniques, and the principles of lean and six sigma, emphasizing their impact on productivity, cycle time reduction, and business transformation.', 'chapters': [{'end': 22511.826, 'start': 22429.696, 'title': 'Improving phase of dmacc process', 'summary': 'Focuses on the improve phase of the dmacc process, emphasizing the importance of design of experiments (doe) in analyzing and testing various input variables to identify where the problem lies, with doe being applicable when multiple input variables affect a single response variable, and techniques like blocking and replication being used to ensure a robust model.', 'duration': 82.13, 'highlights': ['Design of Experiments (DOE) is applicable where multiple input variables known as factors affect a single response variable, providing a one-stop alternative for analyzing all influencing factors to arrive at a successful model.', 'Techniques like blocking and replication are used to ensure a robust model, with blocking being highlighted in the table given on the screen as an example.', "The importance of randomizing trials to avoid influencing the response's result and the elimination of experimental error through techniques like blocking are emphasized.", 'The improve phase comes after the analyze phase, where data is analyzed and patterns are found to identify where the problem lies, with DOE preferred over one factor at a time experiments due to its ability to capture interactions and avoid missing influential factors.']}, {'end': 23248.591, 'start': 22512.779, 'title': 'Design experiments and data analysis', 'summary': 'Discusses the concepts of design experiments and data analysis, including main effects, interaction effects, factorial experimental design, runs in design of experiments, residuals analysis, and data transformation using the box-cox method.', 'duration': 735.812, 'highlights': ['Full factorial experimental design contains all combinations of all levels of all factors. This experimental design ensures no possible treatment combinations get omitted.', 'A full factorial experiment without replication on 5 factors and 2 levels is 2 raised to the power of 5, which equals 32 runs. Understanding the calculation of runs in a full factorial experiment without replication.', 'The difference between full factorial and half fractional factorial experiments can be seen from the number of runs. Highlighting the distinction between full factorial and half fractional factorial experiments based on the number of runs.', 'The formula for transformation of y is represented as y asterisk equals y to the power lambda minus one, the whole divided by lambda. Explaining the Box-Cox method for data transformation using the formula and the concept of lambda.', 'Figure 2 shows the Vox and Cox procedure applied on the original data and transformed, indicating that the data in the second figure is more normal than Figure 1. Demonstrating the effectiveness of the Box-Cox transformation in making the data more normal.']}, {'end': 23706.301, 'start': 23248.591, 'title': 'Process input and output variables', 'summary': 'Discusses the importance of measuring process input and output variables, using tools like sipoc map, cause and effect matrix, and 5y analysis to establish the relationship between variables and find root causes, with an emphasis on process improvement and problem-solving techniques.', 'duration': 457.71, 'highlights': ['The process input priority is multiplied with the input variables to arrive at the results for each input variable, and for process input variable 1, the output variables are 3, 4, and 7, with a prioritization value of 4, 7, and 11, respectively. Demonstrates the process of determining the results for input variables and the prioritization values associated with output variables.', 'The cause-and-effect diagram, also known as the fishbone or Ishikawa diagram, is used to find the root cause and potential solutions to a problem by breaking down the problem into bite-sized pieces and displaying possible causes graphically. Explains the purpose and methodology of the cause-and-effect diagram, providing insight into problem-solving techniques.', "The 5Y analysis team, using the 5 why technique, poses the 'why' question to every problem till the root cause is obtained, emphasizing the importance of identifying the root cause for effective problem-solving. Illustrates the iterative nature of the 5 why technique and its role in identifying the root cause of a problem."]}, {'end': 24264.402, 'start': 23707.162, 'title': 'Lean techniques and cycle time reduction', 'summary': 'Explains the 8 lean techniques including kaizen, 5s, jit, and kanban, emphasizing their impact on cycle time reduction and productivity increase, followed by the differences between kaizen and kaizen blitz, and examples of their implementation.', 'duration': 557.24, 'highlights': ['Lean techniques include Kaizen, 5S, JIT, and Kanban, emphasizing their impact on cycle time reduction and productivity increase. Kaizen is the building block of all lean production methods, 5S is a powerful tool for workplace organization, JIT focuses on producing necessary units with required quality, and Kanban utilizes visual display cards for material movement signaling.', 'The differences between Kaizen and Kaizen Blitz are explained, including their application and decision-making processes. Kaizen involves continuous incremental changes in the organization, while Kaizen Blitz is applied for rapid solutions. Kaizen follows a step-by-step process and involves all employees, whereas Kaizen Blitz is led by top management with faster decision-making.', 'Examples of Kaizen and Kaizen Blitz implementation are provided, showcasing their effectiveness in organizations such as Toyota and a wood window company in the US. Toyota practices Kaizen in their production system, involving line personnel in resolving production issues. A wood window company in the US used Kaizen Blitz to redesign their shop floor and implement quick improvements.']}, {'end': 24512.179, 'start': 24265.697, 'title': 'Understanding lean and six sigma', 'summary': 'Describes the principles of lean and six sigma, highlighting the benefits of lean including reduced cost, reduced cycle time, more throughput, and increased productivity, and explains how combining lean and six sigma can lead to business transformation.', 'duration': 246.482, 'highlights': ['Lean focuses on efficiency by reducing unnecessary steps and improving process speed, leading to benefits such as reduced cost and increased productivity. Lean principles aim to provide perfect value to the customer by optimizing the process, eliminating non-value-adding activities, and increasing flow to ensure quicker delivery to customers.', 'Combining lean and six sigma leads to faster results, better quality, and improved customer satisfaction, resulting in business transformation. The combination of lean and six sigma methodologies ensures the best of both worlds, with lean focusing on efficiency and speed, and six sigma on quality and effectiveness, leading to business transformation.', 'Lean and Six Sigma are two different principles that combine to form a powerful continuous improvement methodology, with lean focusing on efficiency and speed, and six sigma on quality and effectiveness. The two methodologies complement each other, with lean focusing on efficiency and speed, and six sigma on quality and effectiveness, leading to a powerful continuous improvement methodology.']}], 'duration': 2082.483, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/KfFez57ay6E/pics/KfFez57ay6E22429696.jpg', 'highlights': ['Design of Experiments (DOE) captures interactions and avoids missing influential factors.', 'Full factorial experimental design ensures no possible treatment combinations get omitted.', 'Box-Cox method transforms data to make it more normal, as demonstrated in Figure 2.', 'Cause-and-effect diagram breaks down problems into bite-sized pieces and displays possible causes graphically.', 'Lean techniques like Kaizen, 5S, JIT, and Kanban impact cycle time reduction and productivity increase.', 'Combining lean and six sigma leads to faster results, better quality, and improved customer satisfaction.']}], 'highlights': ['The video covers comprehensive topics including lean six sigma methodologies, statistical analysis, process improvement tools, and practical examples, aimed at project professionals, with a focus on luxury car production industry challenges and solutions.', 'Six Sigma allows for a defect-free product 99.9996% of the time, with only 3.4 errors per 1 million opportunities, leading to increased customer loyalty and improved employee morale.', 'DMAIC methodology resulted in doubling the car production from 1000 to 2000 cars per day, along with higher quality output.', 'Lean Six Sigma methodology combines Lean and Six Sigma to eliminate waste, improve processes, and satisfy customer needs, leading to benefits like increased profits, reduced errors, and value to customers.', 'The Six Sigma methodology ensures to find and eliminate any defect or variation affecting products, services, or processes, with continuous improvement as its focus.', "Six Sigma's advantages include reducing organizational risk and operational costs, improving process efficiency, and enhancing customer and vendor satisfaction.", 'The chapter outlines a top-down approach to determine strategic objectives, measures, targets, and initiatives for each perspective of the balanced scorecard.', 'The chapter details the steps of the lean process, such as identifying value, value stream mapping, and the differences between push and pull processes, providing practical examples and comparisons.', 'DFSS ensures new product or service quality and Six Sigma level process.', 'The chapter covers the basics of project management, including defining problem statements, using the is or is not template, setting SMARTS criteria for project objectives, understanding project documentation, project charter, project plan, and interpreting project scope using tools like Pareto chart and SIPOC map.', 'Risk is an uncertain event affecting at least one of the four project objectives: time, cost, quality, and scope.', 'The PDPC method emphasizes identifying failure of important issues on activity plans and creating contingency plans.', 'The critical path for a project is the longest sequence of tasks on the network diagram, requiring close monitoring.', 'The activity network diagram is used to show the time required for solving a problem and to identify items that can be done in parallel.', 'The roles within a Six Sigma team include executive sponsor, process owners, champions, master black belts, black belts, greenbelts, executive, coach, facilitator, sponsor, and team member.', 'Inferential statistics focuses on drawing conclusions about population characteristics based on sample data collected.', 'Stratified sampling gives an accurate estimate of the population parameter by taking samples from subgroups of a population.', 'Measurement System Analysis (MSA) evaluates the measurement system using gauge repeatability and reproducibility to determine measurement correlation, bias, linearity, percent agreement, and precision or tolerance.', 'Process capability studies aim to establish and maintain control over a manufacturing process, with outcomes including process limits falling within specification limits, process spread being centered, or process limits falling outside specification limits, requiring reduction of variability and identifying primary sources of variation.', 'The null hypothesis with 97% confidence is rejected due to a p-value of 0.03, indicating a significant statistical difference between the variances of the two groups.', 'Design of Experiments (DOE) captures interactions and avoids missing influential factors.', 'Combining lean and six sigma leads to faster results, better quality, and improved customer satisfaction.']}