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Cryptography Full Course | Cryptography And Network Security | Cryptography | Simplilearn

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This video on Cryptography full course will acquaint you with cryptography in detail. Here, you will look into an introduction to cryptography, the importance of cryptography, applications of cryptography, and various methods to employ cryptography in the real world.
00:00 Why Is Cryptography Essential
03:47 What is Cryptography
05:54 Applications
08:01 Symmetric Key Cryptography
17:14 Asymmetric Key Cryptography
24:43Hashing
32:59 DES Algorithm
43:40 AES Algorithm
57:12 Digital Signature Algorithm
01:07:08 Rivet-Shamir-Adleman Encryption
01:12:55 MD5 Algorithm
01:21:40 Secure Hash Algorithm
01:32:46 SSL Handshake
01:55:41 Interview Questions
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#Cryptography #CryptographyCourse #WhatIsCryptography #CryptographyExplained #IntroductionToCryptography #CryptographyTutorial #CyberSecurity #Simplilearn
What Is Cryptography?
Cryptography is both art and science referred almost exclusively to encryption, which is the process of converting ordinary information (called plaintext) into unintelligible gibberish (called ciphertext). We can also say that Cryptography is about communication in the presence of an adversary.
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19.787, 'text': 'In this course,', 'start': 19.147, 'duration': 0.64}, {'end': 26.972, 'text': 'we will learn everything there is to know about cryptography and how it helps keep our data secure on the internet and in local storage.', 'start': 19.787, 'duration': 7.185}, {'end': 34.498, 'text': 'With encryption and decryption forming the heart of this lesson, cryptography has become the backbone of modern internet security.', 'start': 27.793, 'duration': 6.705}, {'end': 39.224, 'text': 'From secure website browsing to exchanging messages on WhatsApp.', 'start': 35.322, 'duration': 3.902}, {'end': 44.928, 'text': 'cryptography has its roots planted firmly among multiple avenues, all of which will be covered in this video.', 'start': 39.224, 'duration': 5.704}], 'summary': 'Video covers full course on cryptography, emphasizing importance in internet security and encryption/decryption.', 'duration': 30.565, 'max_score': 14.363, 'thumbnail': 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algorithms used in cryptography.', 'start': 88.396, 'duration': 4.103}, {'end': 97.52, 'text': 'The first one being the Data Encryption Standard or the DES algorithm.', 'start': 93.399, 'duration': 4.121}, {'end': 106.623, 'text': 'Next we learn about the Advanced Encryption Standard, that is, the AES algorithm, Digital Signature or the DSA algorithm,', 'start': 98.44, 'duration': 8.183}], 'summary': 'Lesson covers need for cryptography, its applications, and encryption algorithms like des and aes.', 'duration': 49.828, 'max_score': 56.795, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM56795.jpg'}, {'end': 166.529, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 131.112, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 137.977, 'text': 'like the secure socket layer handshake or the SSL handshake, which helps keep our web browsers safe against malicious attacks.', 'start': 131.112, 'duration': 6.865}, {'end': 142.28, 'text': 'Similarly, we learn about the Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange,', 'start': 139.096, 'duration': 3.184}, {'end': 147.966, 'text': 'which was a revolutionary protocol that enabled the exchange of cryptographic keys over an insecure channel.', 'start': 142.28, 'duration': 5.686}, {'end': 157.957, 'text': 'Finally, we go through some popular interview questions that candidates go through when applying for a position that deals with cryptography or just cybersecurity in general.', 'start': 148.587, 'duration': 9.37}, {'end': 164.847, 'text': 'But before we start our lesson, make sure you are subscribed to the Simply Learn YouTube channel and the bell icon is enabled,', 'start': 158.658, 'duration': 6.189}, {'end': 166.529, 'text': 'so that you never miss an update from us.', 'start': 164.847, 'duration': 1.682}], 'summary': 'Learn about ssl handshake, diffie-hellman key exchange, and popular interview questions in cybersecurity.', 'duration': 35.417, 'max_score': 131.112, 'thumbnail': 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14.363, 'title': 'Cryptography', 'summary': "Covers a comprehensive course on cryptography, including its importance, worldwide applications, encryption algorithms like des, aes, dsa, rsa, hashing algorithms like md5, sha, and unique applications like ssl handshake and diffie-hellman key exchange, which can be completed in just under 3 hours. it also covers popular interview questions for cryptography and cybersecurity positions, including a cautionary tale about the importance of using encrypted transactions to protect sensitive information, illustrated by ann's experience of falling victim to a non-secure website.", 'chapters': [{'end': 147.966, 'start': 14.363, 'title': 'Cryptography full course', 'summary': 'Covers a comprehensive course on cryptography, including its importance, worldwide applications, encryption algorithms like des, aes, dsa, rsa, hashing algorithms like md5, sha, and unique applications like ssl handshake and diffie-hellman key exchange, which can be completed 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security, using cryptography allows the secure storage and transmission of data between willing parties.', 'start': 244.374, 'duration': 7.965}, {'end': 259.242, 'text': 'Encryption is the primary route for employing cryptography by adding certain algorithms to jumble up the data.', 'start': 253.4, 'duration': 5.842}, {'end': 266.184, 'text': 'Decryption is the process of reversing the work done by encrypting information so that the data becomes readable again.', 'start': 260.002, 'duration': 6.182}, {'end': 269.885, 'text': 'Both of these methods form the basis of cryptography.', 'start': 266.904, 'duration': 2.981}, {'end': 280.023, 'text': 'For example, when simply learn is jumbled up or changed in any format, not many people can guess the original word by looking at the encrypted text.', 'start': 271.018, 'duration': 9.005}, {'end': 287.388, 'text': 'The only ones who can are the people who know how to decrypt the coded word, thereby reversing the process of encryption.', 'start': 280.684, 'duration': 6.704}, {'end': 294.042, 'text': 'Any data pre-encryption is called plain text or clear text.', 'start': 289.699, 'duration': 4.343}, {'end': 296.003, 'text': 'To encrypt the message.', 'start': 294.662, 'duration': 1.341}, {'end': 303.188, 'text': 'we use certain algorithms that serve a single purpose of scrambling the data to make them unreadable without the necessary tools.', 'start': 296.003, 'duration': 7.185}, {'end': 305.55, 'text': 'These algorithms are called ciphers.', 'start': 303.768, 'duration': 1.782}, {'end': 309.952, 'text': 'They are a set of detailed steps to be carried out, one after the other,', 'start': 306.33, 'duration': 3.622}, {'end': 314.676, 'text': 'to make sure the data becomes as unreadable as possible until it reaches the receiver.', 'start': 309.952, 'duration': 4.724}, {'end': 320.142, 'text': 'we take the plain text, pass it to the cipher algorithm and get the encrypted data.', 'start': 315.396, 'duration': 4.746}, {'end': 326.629, 'text': 'This encrypted text is called the ciphertext and this is the message that is transferred between the two parties.', 'start': 320.702, 'duration': 5.927}, {'end': 331.094, 'text': 'The key that is being used to scramble the data is known as the encryption key.', 'start': 327.39, 'duration': 3.704}, {'end': 339.978, 'text': 'These steps, that is the cipher and the encryption key are made known to the receiver who can then reverse the encryption on receiving the message.', 'start': 331.915, 'duration': 8.063}, {'end': 348.742, 'text': 'Unless any third party manages to find out both the algorithm and the secret key that is being used, they cannot decrypt the messages,', 'start': 340.839, 'duration': 7.903}, {'end': 352.083, 'text': 'since both of them are necessary to unlock the hidden content.', 'start': 348.742, 'duration': 3.341}, {'end': 361.177, 'text': 'Wonder what else we would lose if not for cryptography? Any website where you have an account can read your passwords.', 'start': 353.264, 'duration': 7.913}, {'end': 367, 'text': 'Important emails can be intercepted and their contents can be read without encryption during the transit.', 'start': 361.737, 'duration': 5.263}, {'end': 374.604, 'text': 'More than 65 billion messages are sent on WhatsApp every day, all of which are secured thanks to end-to-end encryption.', 'start': 367.66, 'duration': 6.944}, {'end': 378.846, 'text': 'There is a huge market opening up for cryptocurrency,', 'start': 375.504, 'duration': 3.342}, {'end': 386.39, 'text': 'which is possible due to blockchain technology that uses encryption algorithms and hashing functions to ensure that the data is secure.', 'start': 378.846, 'duration': 7.544}, {'end': 389.645, 'text': 'Cryptography has been in practice for centuries.', 'start': 387.284, 'duration': 2.361}, {'end': 397.749, 'text': 'Julius Caesar used a substitution shift to move alphabets a certain number of spaces beyond their place in the alphabet table.', 'start': 390.686, 'duration': 7.063}, {'end': 401.851, 'text': "A spy can't decipher the original message at first glance.", 'start': 397.769, 'duration': 4.082}, {'end': 411.775, 'text': 'For example, if he wanted to pass confidential information to his armies and decides to use the substitution shift of plus two A becomes C,', 'start': 402.371, 'duration': 9.404}], 'summary': 'Cryptography ensures secure data transmission, with over 65 billion messages sent on whatsapp daily being end-to-end encrypted.', 'duration': 173.705, 'max_score': 238.07, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM238070.jpg'}, {'end': 397.749, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 367.66, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 374.604, 'text': 'More than 65 billion messages are sent on WhatsApp every day, all of which are secured thanks to end-to-end encryption.', 'start': 367.66, 'duration': 6.944}, {'end': 378.846, 'text': 'There is a huge market opening up for cryptocurrency,', 'start': 375.504, 'duration': 3.342}, {'end': 386.39, 'text': 'which is possible due to blockchain technology that uses encryption algorithms and hashing functions to ensure that the data is secure.', 'start': 378.846, 'duration': 7.544}, {'end': 389.645, 'text': 'Cryptography has been in practice for centuries.', 'start': 387.284, 'duration': 2.361}, {'end': 397.749, 'text': 'Julius Caesar used a substitution shift to move alphabets a certain number of spaces beyond their place in the alphabet table.', 'start': 390.686, 'duration': 7.063}], 'summary': 'Over 65 billion daily messages on whatsapp are secured through end-to-end encryption, while blockchain technology is enabling the growing cryptocurrency market. cryptography, with its historical roots, plays a crucial role in ensuring data security.', 'duration': 30.089, 'max_score': 367.66, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM367660.jpg'}, {'end': 512.912, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 485.379, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 492.681, 'text': 'This variant of cryptography is primarily used in banking applications where personally identifiable information needs to be encrypted.', 'start': 485.379, 'duration': 7.302}, {'end': 498.743, 'text': 'With so many aspects of banking moving on to the internet, having a reliable safety net is crucial.', 'start': 493.361, 'duration': 5.382}, {'end': 505.525, 'text': 'Symmetric cryptography helps in detecting bank fraud and boosts the security index of these payment gateways in general.', 'start': 499.443, 'duration': 6.082}, {'end': 512.912, 'text': 'They are also helpful in protecting data that is not in transit and rests on servers and data centers.', 'start': 507.366, 'duration': 5.546}], 'summary': 'Symmetric cryptography enhances banking security, detecting fraud and protecting data at rest.', 'duration': 27.533, 'max_score': 485.379, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM485379.jpg'}, {'end': 917.226, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 649.5, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 654.501, 'text': 'With the entire architecture of symmetric cryptography, depending on the single key being used,', 'start': 649.5, 'duration': 5.001}, {'end': 658.942, 'text': "you can understand why it's of paramount importance to keep it secret on all occasions.", 'start': 654.501, 'duration': 4.441}, {'end': 665.803, 'text': 'The side effect of having a single key for the encryption and decryption is it becomes a single point of failure.', 'start': 660.502, 'duration': 5.301}, {'end': 673.545, 'text': 'Anyone who gets their hand on it can read all the encrypted messages and do so mainly without the knowledge of the sender and the receiver.', 'start': 666.463, 'duration': 7.082}, {'end': 678.526, 'text': 'So it is the priority to keep the encryption and decryption key private at all times.', 'start': 674.385, 'duration': 4.141}, {'end': 686.413, 'text': 'Should it fall into the wrong hands, the third party can send messages to either the sender or the receiver using the same key to encrypt the message.', 'start': 679.446, 'duration': 6.967}, {'end': 691.978, 'text': 'Upon receiving the message and decrypting it with the key, it is impossible to guess its origin.', 'start': 687.133, 'duration': 4.845}, {'end': 699.374, 'text': 'If the sender somehow transmits the secret key along with the ciphertext, anyone can intercept the package and access the information.', 'start': 692.99, 'duration': 6.384}, {'end': 704.097, 'text': 'Consequently, this encryption category is termed private key cryptography,', 'start': 700.074, 'duration': 4.023}, {'end': 709.66, 'text': "since a big part of the data's integrity is riding on the promise that the users can keep the keys secret.", 'start': 704.097, 'duration': 5.563}, {'end': 717.485, 'text': 'This terminology contrasts with asymmetric key cryptography, which is called public key cryptography, because it has two different keys at play,', 'start': 710.281, 'duration': 7.204}, {'end': 718.506, 'text': 'one of which is public.', 'start': 717.485, 'duration': 1.021}, {'end': 727.672, 'text': 'Provided we manage to keep the keys secret, we still have to choose what kind of ciphers we want to use to encrypt this information.', 'start': 721.104, 'duration': 6.568}, {'end': 732.458, 'text': 'In symmetric key cryptography, there are broadly two categories of ciphers that we can employ.', 'start': 728.333, 'duration': 4.125}, {'end': 733.699, 'text': 'Let us have a look.', 'start': 733.059, 'duration': 0.64}, {'end': 740.568, 'text': 'Stream ciphers are the algorithms that encrypt basic information one bit at a time.', 'start': 735.982, 'duration': 4.586}, {'end': 748.162, 'text': 'It can change depending on the algorithm being used, but usually it relies on a single bit or byte to do the encryption.', 'start': 741.559, 'duration': 6.603}, {'end': 754.906, 'text': "This is a relatively quicker alternative considering the algorithm doesn't have to deal with blocks of data at a single time.", 'start': 749.003, 'duration': 5.903}, {'end': 760.969, 'text': 'Every piece of data that goes into the encryption can and needs to be converted into binary format.', 'start': 755.786, 'duration': 5.183}, {'end': 765.471, 'text': 'In stream ciphers, each binary digit is encrypted one after the other.', 'start': 761.649, 'duration': 3.822}, {'end': 770.154, 'text': 'The most popular ones are the RC4, Salsa, and Panama.', 'start': 766.152, 'duration': 4.002}, {'end': 775.473, 'text': 'The binary data is passed through an encryption key, which is a randomly generated bitstream.', 'start': 771.092, 'duration': 4.381}, {'end': 782.255, 'text': 'Upon passing it through, we receive the ciphertext that can be transferred to the receiver without fear of man-in-the-middle attacks.', 'start': 776.274, 'duration': 5.981}, {'end': 785.796, 'text': 'The binary data can be passed through an algorithmic function.', 'start': 783.196, 'duration': 2.6}, {'end': 789.638, 'text': 'It can have either XOR operations, as it is most of the time,', 'start': 786.497, 'duration': 3.141}, {'end': 793.579, 'text': 'or any other mathematical calculations that have the singular purpose of scrambling the data.', 'start': 789.638, 'duration': 3.941}, {'end': 800.61, 'text': 'The encryption key is generated using the random bitstream generator and it acts as a supplement in the algorithmic function.', 'start': 794.426, 'duration': 6.184}, {'end': 807.514, 'text': 'The output is in binary form which is then converted into the decimal or hexadecimal format to give our final ciphertext.', 'start': 801.23, 'duration': 6.284}, {'end': 815.824, 'text': 'On the other hand, block ciphers dissect the raw information into chunks of data of fixed size.', 'start': 810.72, 'duration': 5.104}, {'end': 819.467, 'text': 'The size of these blocks depend on the exact cipher being used.', 'start': 816.464, 'duration': 3.003}, {'end': 827.333, 'text': 'A 128-bit block cipher will break the plaintext into blocks of 128-bit each and encrypt those blocks instead of a single digit.', 'start': 819.907, 'duration': 7.426}, {'end': 832.877, 'text': 'Once these blocks are encrypted individually, they are chained together to form our final ciphertext.', 'start': 828.173, 'duration': 4.704}, {'end': 841.673, 'text': 'Block ciphers are much slower, but they are more tamper-proof and are used in some of the most widely used algorithms employed today.', 'start': 834.83, 'duration': 6.843}, {'end': 849.075, 'text': 'Just like stream ciphers, the original ciphertext is converted into binary format before beginning the process.', 'start': 843.873, 'duration': 5.202}, {'end': 855.578, 'text': 'Once the conversion is complete, the blocks are passed through the encryption algorithm along with the encryption key.', 'start': 849.796, 'duration': 5.782}, {'end': 861.16, 'text': 'This would provide us with the encrypted blocks of binary data.', 'start': 856.678, 'duration': 4.482}, {'end': 866.804, 'text': 'Once these blocks are combined, we get a final binary string.', 'start': 863.263, 'duration': 3.541}, {'end': 873.567, 'text': 'This string is then converted into hexadecimal format to get a ciphertext.', 'start': 869.986, 'duration': 3.581}, {'end': 881.93, 'text': 'Today, the most popular symmetric key algorithms like AES, DES, and 3DES are all block cipher methodology subsets.', 'start': 874.367, 'duration': 7.563}, {'end': 890.814, 'text': 'With so many factors coming into play, there are quite a few things symmetric key cryptography excels at while falling short in some other.', 'start': 884.131, 'duration': 6.683}, {'end': 898.934, 'text': 'Symmetric key cryptography is much faster variant when compared to asymmetric key cryptography.', 'start': 893.59, 'duration': 5.344}, {'end': 906.839, 'text': 'There is only one key in play unlike asymmetric encryption and this drastically improves calculation speed in the encryption and decryption.', 'start': 899.534, 'duration': 7.305}, {'end': 913.483, 'text': 'Similarly, the performance of symmetric encryption is much more efficient under similar computational limitations.', 'start': 907.679, 'duration': 5.804}, {'end': 917.226, 'text': 'Fewer calculations help in better memory management for the whole system.', 'start': 914.084, 'duration': 3.142}], 'summary': 'Symmetric key cryptography relies on a single secret key for encryption and decryption, offering faster performance and efficiency in memory management compared to asymmetric key cryptography.', 'duration': 267.726, 'max_score': 649.5, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM649500.jpg'}, {'end': 1053.636, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1020.356, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 1023.099, 'text': 'since the third party can now decode all the information easily.', 'start': 1020.356, 'duration': 2.743}, {'end': 1028.223, 'text': 'Key sharing is a risk that will always exist when symmetric key cryptography is being used.', 'start': 1023.88, 'duration': 4.343}, {'end': 1032.568, 'text': 'Thankfully, asymmetric key encryption has managed to fix this problem.', 'start': 1028.944, 'duration': 3.624}, {'end': 1036.111, 'text': "Let's understand what asymmetric key cryptography is.", 'start': 1033.689, 'duration': 2.422}, {'end': 1041.965, 'text': 'Asymmetric encryption uses a double layer of protection.', 'start': 1038.863, 'duration': 3.102}, {'end': 1046.31, 'text': 'There are two different keys at play here, a private key and a public key.', 'start': 1042.746, 'duration': 3.564}, {'end': 1053.636, 'text': 'A public key is used to encrypt the information pre-transit and a private key is used to decrypt the data post-transit.', 'start': 1047.069, 'duration': 6.567}], 'summary': 'Asymmetric key encryption resolves key sharing risk in cryptography.', 'duration': 33.28, 'max_score': 1020.356, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM1020356.jpg'}, {'end': 1138.536, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 1047.069, 'weight': 0.812, 'content': [{'end': 1053.636, 'text': 'A public key is used to encrypt the information pre-transit and a private key is used to decrypt the data post-transit.', 'start': 1047.069, 'duration': 6.567}, {'end': 1057.439, 'text': 'These pair of keys must belong to the receiver of the message.', 'start': 1054.497, 'duration': 2.942}, {'end': 1063.324, 'text': 'The public keys can be shared via messaging, blog posts or key servers and there are no restrictions.', 'start': 1058.12, 'duration': 5.204}, {'end': 1067.267, 'text': 'As you can see in the image, the two keys are working in the system.', 'start': 1064.245, 'duration': 3.022}, {'end': 1073.271, 'text': "The sender first encrypts the message using the receiver's private key, after which we receive the ciphertext.", 'start': 1067.908, 'duration': 5.363}, {'end': 1076.993, 'text': 'The ciphertext is then transmitted to the receiver without any other key.', 'start': 1073.931, 'duration': 3.062}, {'end': 1082.877, 'text': 'On getting the ciphertext, the receiver uses his private key to decrypt it and get the plaintext back.', 'start': 1077.654, 'duration': 5.223}, {'end': 1087.34, 'text': 'There has been no requirement of any key exchange throughout this process,', 'start': 1083.578, 'duration': 3.762}, {'end': 1091.463, 'text': 'therefore solving the most glaring flaw faced in symmetric key cryptography.', 'start': 1087.34, 'duration': 4.123}, {'end': 1096.04, 'text': 'The public key known to everyone cannot be used to decrypt the message,', 'start': 1092.537, 'duration': 3.503}, {'end': 1099.683, 'text': 'and the private key which can decrypt the message need not be shared with anyone.', 'start': 1096.04, 'duration': 3.643}, {'end': 1105.248, 'text': 'The sender and receiver can exchange personal data using the same set of keys as often as possible.', 'start': 1100.304, 'duration': 4.944}, {'end': 1110.333, 'text': 'To understand this better, take the analogy of your mailbox.', 'start': 1107.05, 'duration': 3.283}, {'end': 1116.519, 'text': 'Anyone who wants to send you a letter has access to the box and can easily share information with you.', 'start': 1111.554, 'duration': 4.965}, {'end': 1120.97, 'text': 'In a way you can say the mailbox is publicly available to all,', 'start': 1117.409, 'duration': 3.561}, {'end': 1125.592, 'text': 'but only you have access to the key that can open the mailbox and read the letters in it.', 'start': 1120.97, 'duration': 4.622}, {'end': 1128.753, 'text': 'This is how the private key comes to play.', 'start': 1126.892, 'duration': 1.861}, {'end': 1133.174, 'text': "No one can intercept the message and read its contents since it's encrypted.", 'start': 1129.413, 'duration': 3.761}, {'end': 1138.536, 'text': 'Once the receiver gets its contents, he can use his private key to decrypt the information.', 'start': 1133.975, 'duration': 4.561}], 'summary': 'Public key encrypts, private key decrypts. no key exchange required, enhancing security.', 'duration': 91.467, 'max_score': 1047.069, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM1047069.jpg'}, {'end': 1434.671, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1406.194, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 1410.198, 'text': 'The key which is made public cannot decrypt any confidential information,', 'start': 1406.194, 'duration': 4.004}, {'end': 1414.803, 'text': "and the only key that can decrypt doesn't need to be shared publicly under any circumstance.", 'start': 1410.198, 'duration': 4.605}, {'end': 1424.531, 'text': 'We have much more extensive key lengths in RSA encryption and other asymmetric algorithms like 2048-bit key and 4096-bit keys.', 'start': 1416.138, 'duration': 8.393}, {'end': 1429.359, 'text': 'Larger keys are much harder to break into via brute force and are much more secure.', 'start': 1425.312, 'duration': 4.047}, {'end': 1434.671, 'text': 'Asymmetric key cryptography can be used as a proof of authenticity,', 'start': 1431.149, 'duration': 3.522}], 'summary': 'Asymmetric encryption uses longer keys like 2048-bit and 4096-bit for enhanced security and authenticity.', 'duration': 28.477, 'max_score': 1406.194, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM1406194.jpg'}, {'end': 1621.441, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 1453.775, 'weight': 0.767, 'content': [{'end': 1461.403, 'text': 'It also has a tamper protection feature where the message cannot be intercepted and changed without invalidating the private key used to encrypt the data.', 'start': 1453.775, 'duration': 7.628}, {'end': 1471.353, 'text': 'Consequently, the public key cannot decrypt the message and it is easy to realize the information is not 100% legitimate when and where the case requires.', 'start': 1462.284, 'duration': 9.069}, {'end': 1477.359, 'text': "Before getting too deep into the topic, let's get a brief overview of how hashing works.", 'start': 1472.254, 'duration': 5.105}, {'end': 1484.582, 'text': 'Hashing is the process of scrambling a piece of information or data beyond recognition.', 'start': 1480.077, 'duration': 4.505}, {'end': 1492.672, 'text': 'We can achieve this by using hash functions, which are essentially algorithms that perform mathematical operations on the main plaintext.', 'start': 1485.463, 'duration': 7.209}, {'end': 1501.222, 'text': 'The value generated after passing the plaintext information through the hash function is called the hash value digest, or in general,', 'start': 1493.68, 'duration': 7.542}, {'end': 1502.843, 'text': 'just the hash of the original data.', 'start': 1501.222, 'duration': 1.621}, {'end': 1509.405, 'text': 'While this may sound similar to encryption, the major difference is hashes are made to be irreversible.', 'start': 1503.763, 'duration': 5.642}, {'end': 1513.606, 'text': 'No decryption key can convert a digest back to its original value.', 'start': 1510.045, 'duration': 3.561}, {'end': 1522.585, 'text': "However, a few hashing algorithms have been broken due to the increase in computational complexity of today's new generation computers and processors.", 'start': 1514.522, 'duration': 8.063}, {'end': 1531.389, 'text': 'There are new algorithms that stand the test of time and are still in use among multiple areas for password storage, identity verification, etc.', 'start': 1523.345, 'duration': 8.044}, {'end': 1537.251, 'text': "Like we discussed earlier, websites use hashing to store the user's passwords.", 'start': 1533.249, 'duration': 4.002}, {'end': 1540.212, 'text': 'So how do they make use of these hashed passwords?', 'start': 1537.891, 'duration': 2.321}, {'end': 1544.159, 'text': 'When a user signs up to create a new account,', 'start': 1541.598, 'duration': 2.561}, {'end': 1549.162, 'text': 'the password is then run through the hash function and the resulting hash value is stored on the servers.', 'start': 1544.159, 'duration': 5.003}, {'end': 1552.864, 'text': 'So, the next time a user comes to log into the account,', 'start': 1549.862, 'duration': 3.002}, {'end': 1558.527, 'text': 'the password he enters is passed through the same hash function and compared to the hash stored on the main server.', 'start': 1552.864, 'duration': 5.663}, {'end': 1566.395, 'text': 'If the newly calculated hash is the same as the one stored on the website server, the password must have been correct because,', 'start': 1559.648, 'duration': 6.747}, {'end': 1571.441, 'text': "according to hash function's terminology, same inputs will always provide the same outputs.", 'start': 1566.395, 'duration': 5.046}, {'end': 1579.627, 'text': 'If the hashes do not match, then the password entered during login is not the same as the password entered during the sign-out.', 'start': 1572.682, 'duration': 6.945}, {'end': 1581.189, 'text': 'Hence, the login will be denied.', 'start': 1579.808, 'duration': 1.381}, {'end': 1584.751, 'text': 'This way, no plain text passwords get stored,', 'start': 1581.649, 'duration': 3.102}, {'end': 1592.157, 'text': "preventing both the owner from snooping on user data and protecting users' privacy in the unfortunate event of a data breach or a hack.", 'start': 1584.751, 'duration': 7.406}, {'end': 1597.902, 'text': 'Apart from password storage, hashing can also be used to perform integrity checks.', 'start': 1593.598, 'duration': 4.304}, {'end': 1606.933, 'text': "When a file is uploaded on the internet, the file's hash value is generated and it is uploaded along with the original information.", 'start': 1598.888, 'duration': 8.045}, {'end': 1613.556, 'text': 'When a new user downloads the file, he can calculate the digest of the downloaded file using the same hash function.', 'start': 1607.653, 'duration': 5.903}, {'end': 1621.441, 'text': 'When the hash values are compared, if they match, then file integrity has been maintained and there has been no data corruption.', 'start': 1614.357, 'duration': 7.084}], 'summary': 'Hashing ensures data integrity and password security, preventing unauthorized access to plaintext passwords, with hash functions used for password storage and integrity checks of uploaded files.', 'duration': 167.666, 'max_score': 1453.775, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM1453775.jpg'}], 'start': 213.148, 'title': 'Cryptography and data security', 'summary': 'Covers the importance and function of cryptography, history and working of symmetric and asymmetric key cryptography, hashing for data security, emphasizing the impact on data transmission and storage, faster encryption and decryption speed, and enhanced security features such as proof of authenticity and tamper protection.', 'chapters': [{'end': 389.645, 'start': 213.148, 'title': 'Cryptography: protecting data', 'summary': 'Explains the importance and function of cryptography, emphasizing its role in securing data transmission and storage, with examples of its impact on personal and digital security.', 'duration': 176.497, 'highlights': ['Cryptography is essential for securing data transmission and storage, with over 65 billion messages sent daily on WhatsApp using end-to-end encryption.', 'Explanation of encryption and decryption methods, emphasizing the role of ciphers and encryption keys in securing data.', 'Impact of cryptography on digital security, including its role in preventing unauthorized access and securing personal information.']}, {'end': 699.374, 'start': 390.686, 'title': 'Symmetric key cryptography', 'summary': 'Explains the history and working of symmetric key cryptography, including its applications in banking, internet browsing, and the importance of keeping the encryption key secret, using examples such as the caesar cipher and enigma, and emphasizing the need for a pre-shared secret key for encryption and decryption.', 'duration': 308.688, 'highlights': ['Symmetric key cryptography is primarily used in banking applications for encrypting personally identifiable information and detecting bank fraud, providing a reliable safety net for internet banking.', 'Symmetric encryption is essential for browsing secure HTTPS websites, verifying website server authenticity, exchanging encryption keys, and preventing insecure HTTP website format.', 'The importance of keeping the encryption and decryption key private at all times to prevent unauthorized access and interception of information.', 'The history of symmetric key cryptography, including examples such as the Caesar cipher and the Enigma device used by Nazi German armies in World Wars for protecting confidential information.', 'The need for a pre-shared secret key for encryption and decryption, emphasizing that the secret key should not be sent along with the ciphertext to the receiver.']}, {'end': 1020.356, 'start': 700.074, 'title': 'Symmetric key cryptography overview', 'summary': 'Provides an overview of symmetric key cryptography, including its two categories of ciphers, stream ciphers and block ciphers, and their respective characteristics, as well as the advantages and challenges of symmetric key cryptography, highlighting its faster encryption and decryption speed, efficient memory management, and suitability for handling large amounts of data.', 'duration': 320.282, 'highlights': ['Symmetric key cryptography offers faster encryption and decryption speed compared to asymmetric key cryptography.', 'Symmetric key cryptography provides efficient memory management and is well-suited for handling large amounts of data.', 'The chapter explains the two categories of ciphers in symmetric key cryptography: stream ciphers and block ciphers.']}, {'end': 1461.403, 'start': 1020.356, 'title': 'Asymmetric key cryptography', 'summary': 'Explains the concept of asymmetric key cryptography, which uses a public and a private key to encrypt and decrypt data respectively, eliminating the need for key sharing and providing enhanced security features such as proof of authenticity and tamper protection.', 'duration': 441.047, 'highlights': ['Asymmetric encryption uses a double layer of protection with a public key used to encrypt information pre-transit and a private key used to decrypt the data post-transit, eliminating the need for key sharing.', 'The larger keys in asymmetric algorithms like 2048-bit key and 4096-bit keys are much harder to break into via brute force and are much more secure.', 'Asymmetric key cryptography can be used as a proof of authenticity, ensuring that only the rightful owner of the keys can generate and decrypt the messages, providing tamper protection.']}, {'end': 1869.102, 'start': 1462.284, 'title': 'Hashing for data security', 'summary': "Discusses the process of hashing, its applications in password storage and integrity checks, the importance of hash functions' irreversibility, the potential for hash collisions and the techniques of sorting and peppering to mitigate them.", 'duration': 406.818, 'highlights': ['Hashing Process and Applications', 'Techniques of Sorting and Peppering', 'Importance of Irreversible Hash Functions', 'Potential for Hash Collisions and Common Passwords']}], 'duration': 1655.954, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM213148.jpg', 'highlights': ['Cryptography is essential for securing data transmission and storage, with over 65 billion messages sent daily on WhatsApp using end-to-end encryption.', 'Symmetric key cryptography is primarily used in banking applications for encrypting personally identifiable information and detecting bank fraud, providing a reliable safety net for internet banking.', 'Asymmetric encryption uses a double layer of protection with a public key used to encrypt information pre-transit and a private key used to decrypt the data post-transit, eliminating the need for key sharing.', 'Symmetric key cryptography offers faster encryption and decryption speed compared to asymmetric key cryptography.', 'The larger keys in asymmetric algorithms like 2048-bit key and 4096-bit keys are much harder to break into via brute force and are much more secure.']}, {'end': 2708.044, 'segs': [{'end': 1916.972, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1890.168, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 1893.971, 'text': 'Since brute force takes such a long time, many hackers avoid taking the effort.', 'start': 1890.168, 'duration': 3.803}, {'end': 1901.438, 'text': 'The returns are mostly not worth it and the possible combinations of using both salting and peppering is humongous.', 'start': 1894.432, 'duration': 7.006}, {'end': 1908.104, 'text': "In today's world, the most widely used symmetric encryption algorithm is AES-256.", 'start': 1902.058, 'duration': 6.046}, {'end': 1916.972, 'text': 'that stands for Advanced Encryption Standard, which has a key size of 256-bit, with 128-bit and 196-bit key sizes also being available.', 'start': 1908.104, 'duration': 8.868}], 'summary': 'Hackers avoid brute force due to time; aes-256 widely used encryption algorithm.', 'duration': 26.804, 'max_score': 1890.168, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM1890168.jpg'}, {'end': 2045.414, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2018.769, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 2025.535, 'text': 'But eventually DES was cracked and it was no longer considered a secure solution for all official routes of communication.', 'start': 2018.769, 'duration': 6.766}, {'end': 2028.883, 'text': 'Consequently, triple DES was developed.', 'start': 2026.601, 'duration': 2.282}, {'end': 2033.806, 'text': 'Triple DES is a symmetric key block cipher that uses a double DES cipher.', 'start': 2029.483, 'duration': 4.323}, {'end': 2040.03, 'text': 'Encrypt with the first key, delete encryption with the second key and encrypt again with the third key.', 'start': 2034.606, 'duration': 5.424}, {'end': 2045.414, 'text': 'There is also a variation of the two keys where the first and second key are duplicate of each other.', 'start': 2040.67, 'duration': 4.744}], 'summary': 'Des was cracked, leading to the development of triple des, a symmetric key block cipher using a double des cipher.', 'duration': 26.645, 'max_score': 2018.769, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM2018769.jpg'}, {'end': 2149.325, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2125.771, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 2132.837, 'text': 'If the entire process is repeated in a reverse order, we will eventually get back our plaintext and this simplicity helps the speed.', 'start': 2125.771, 'duration': 7.066}, {'end': 2139.282, 'text': 'Overall, this was later detrimental to the efficiency of the algorithm, hence the security was compromised.', 'start': 2133.657, 'duration': 5.625}, {'end': 2149.325, 'text': 'A Fistel block cipher is a structure used to derive many symmetric block ciphers such as DES which as we have discussed in our previous comment.', 'start': 2141.997, 'duration': 7.328}], 'summary': 'Reversing process compromises security, affecting algorithm efficiency.', 'duration': 23.554, 'max_score': 2125.771, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM2125771.jpg'}, {'end': 2407.543, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2380.77, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 2386.693, 'text': 'we can take a look at how DES manages to run through 16 rounds of this structure and provide a ciphertext.', 'start': 2380.77, 'duration': 5.923}, {'end': 2393.439, 'text': 'In simple terms, DS takes a 64-bit plaintext and converts it into a 64-bit ciphertext.', 'start': 2387.597, 'duration': 5.842}, {'end': 2399.82, 'text': 'And since we are talking about asymmetric algorithms, the same key is being used when it is decrypting the data as well.', 'start': 2394.059, 'duration': 5.761}, {'end': 2407.543, 'text': 'We first take a 64-bit plaintext and we pass it through an initial permutation function.', 'start': 2402.521, 'duration': 5.022}], 'summary': 'Des algorithm runs 16 rounds, converting 64-bit plaintext to ciphertext using the same key for encryption and decryption.', 'duration': 26.773, 'max_score': 2380.77, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM2380770.jpg'}, {'end': 2506.849, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2465.168, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 2469.93, 'text': 'This is the entire process of DES, with 16 rounds of Fistel ciphers encompassed in it.', 'start': 2465.168, 'duration': 4.762}, {'end': 2473.252, 'text': 'To decrypt our ciphertext back to the plaintext.', 'start': 2470.551, 'duration': 2.701}, {'end': 2479.595, 'text': 'we just have to reverse the process we did in the DES algorithm and reverse the key order along with the functions.', 'start': 2473.252, 'duration': 6.343}, {'end': 2484.797, 'text': 'This kind of simplicity is what gave DES the bonus when it comes to speed,', 'start': 2480.375, 'duration': 4.422}, {'end': 2490.2, 'text': 'but eventually it was detrimental to the overall efficiency of the program when it comes to security factors.', 'start': 2484.797, 'duration': 5.403}, {'end': 2494.262, 'text': 'DES have five different modes of operation to choose from.', 'start': 2491.04, 'duration': 3.222}, {'end': 2497.461, 'text': 'One of those is electronic codebook.', 'start': 2495.799, 'duration': 1.662}, {'end': 2503.326, 'text': 'Each 64-bit block is encrypted and decrypted independently in the electronic codebook format.', 'start': 2498.262, 'duration': 5.064}, {'end': 2506.849, 'text': 'We also have cipher block chaining or the CBC method.', 'start': 2504.167, 'duration': 2.682}], 'summary': 'Des has 16 rounds, 5 modes of operation, including ecb and cbc, but its simplicity compromised security.', 'duration': 41.681, 'max_score': 2465.168, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM2465168.jpg'}, {'end': 2580.426, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2553.717, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 2559.323, 'text': 'but the five mentioned above are the most widely used in the industry and recommended by cryptographers worldwide.', 'start': 2553.717, 'duration': 5.606}, {'end': 2562.206, 'text': "Let's take a look at the future of TES.", 'start': 2560.464, 'duration': 1.742}, {'end': 2571.56, 'text': 'The dominance of DES ended in 2002 when the Advanced Encryption Standard replaced the DES encryption algorithm as the accepted standard.', 'start': 2564.005, 'duration': 7.555}, {'end': 2575.167, 'text': 'It was done following a public competition to find a replacement.', 'start': 2572.141, 'duration': 3.026}, {'end': 2580.426, 'text': 'NIST officially withdrew the Global Acceptance Standard in May 2005,,', 'start': 2576.084, 'duration': 4.342}], 'summary': 'Aes replaced des as the industry standard in 2002.', 'duration': 26.709, 'max_score': 2553.717, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM2553717.jpg'}, {'end': 2685.173, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2657.867, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 2665.31, 'text': 'The AES algorithm also known as the Rindahl algorithm is a symmetric block cipher with a block size of 128 bits.', 'start': 2657.867, 'duration': 7.443}, {'end': 2671.672, 'text': 'It is converted into ciphertext using keys of 128, 192 or 256 bits.', 'start': 2666.19, 'duration': 5.482}, {'end': 2676.994, 'text': 'It is implemented in software and hardware throughout the world to encrypt sensitive data.', 'start': 2672.572, 'duration': 4.422}, {'end': 2685.173, 'text': 'The National Institute of Standards and Technology, also known as NIST, started development on AES in 1997,', 'start': 2677.967, 'duration': 7.206}], 'summary': 'Aes (rindahl) is a widely-used symmetric block cipher with 128-bit block size and 128/192/256-bit keys, developed by nist in 1997.', 'duration': 27.306, 'max_score': 2657.867, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM2657867.jpg'}], 'start': 1869.642, 'title': 'Security algorithms and advanced encryption', 'summary': 'Delves into the use of salting, peppering, and symmetric encryption algorithms to enhance security, including the evolution from des to triple des and the subsequent adoption of the advanced encryption standard (aes). it also explores the structure and functionality of the fistel cipher in the des algorithm and its influence on speed, efficiency, and security, as well as the transition to aes due to des limitations.', 'chapters': [{'end': 2125.11, 'start': 1869.642, 'title': 'Security algorithms and advanced encryption', 'summary': 'Discusses the use of salting, peppering, and symmetric encryption algorithms to bolster security, including the rise and fall of des, the development of triple des, and the eventual replacement of des by the advanced encryption standard following a public competition.', 'duration': 255.468, 'highlights': ['The advanced encryption standard AES-256 is the most widely used symmetric encryption algorithm, with a key size of 256-bit.', 'The development of triple DES as a symmetric key block cipher, using a double DES cipher, and its eventual replacement by the advanced encryption standard.', 'The eventual replacement of DES as a standard for data encryption by the advanced encryption standard following a public competition.']}, {'end': 2708.044, 'start': 2125.771, 'title': 'Fistel cipher in des algorithm', 'summary': 'Discusses the structure and working of the fistel cipher in des algorithm, highlighting its impact on speed, efficiency, and security, along with the transition to the advanced encryption standard (aes) due to the limitations of des.', 'duration': 582.273, 'highlights': ['The transition from DES to AES', 'Impact of Fistel cipher on efficiency and security', 'Working of the Fistel cipher in DES', 'Structure of the AES algorithm', 'Modes of operation for DES']}], 'duration': 838.402, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM1869642.jpg', 'highlights': ['The advanced encryption standard AES-256 is the most widely used symmetric encryption algorithm, with a key size of 256-bit.', 'The development of triple DES as a symmetric key block cipher, using a double DES cipher, and its eventual replacement by the advanced encryption standard.', 'The eventual replacement of DES as a standard for data encryption by the advanced encryption standard following a public competition.', 'The transition from DES to AES', 'Impact of Fistel cipher on efficiency and security', 'Working of the Fistel cipher in DES', 'Structure of the AES algorithm', 'Modes of operation for DES']}, {'end': 3209.911, 'segs': [{'end': 2762.432, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2731.985, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 2734.246, 'text': 'It was approved by the US Secretary of Commerce.', 'start': 2731.985, 'duration': 2.261}, {'end': 2743.21, 'text': 'Now that we understand the origin of AES, let us have a look at the features that make AES encryption algorithm unique.', 'start': 2736.467, 'duration': 6.743}, {'end': 2750.067, 'text': 'The AES algorithm uses a substitution permutation or SP network.', 'start': 2745.785, 'duration': 4.282}, {'end': 2753.388, 'text': 'It consists of multiple rounds to produce a ciphertext.', 'start': 2750.807, 'duration': 2.581}, {'end': 2762.432, 'text': 'It has a series of linked operations, including replacing inputs with specific outputs, that is, substitutions, and others that involve bit shuffling,', 'start': 2754.148, 'duration': 8.284}], 'summary': 'Aes encryption approved by us sec of commerce, uses sp network, multiple rounds, linked operations.', 'duration': 30.447, 'max_score': 2731.985, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM2731985.jpg'}, {'end': 2827.446, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2794.111, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 2798.413, 'text': 'The number of rounds during the encryption process depends on the key size that is being used.', 'start': 2794.111, 'duration': 4.302}, {'end': 2807.904, 'text': 'The 128-bit key size fixes 10 rounds, the 192-bit key size fixes 12 rounds, and the 256-bit key holds 14 rounds.', 'start': 2799.278, 'duration': 8.626}, {'end': 2814.549, 'text': 'A round key is required for each of these rounds, but since only one key is input into the algorithm,', 'start': 2808.825, 'duration': 5.724}, {'end': 2819.112, 'text': 'the single key needs to be expanded to get the key for each round, including the round zero.', 'start': 2814.549, 'duration': 4.563}, {'end': 2827.446, 'text': 'With so many mathematical calculations going on in the background, there are bound to be a lot of steps throughout the procedure.', 'start': 2821.442, 'duration': 6.004}], 'summary': 'Encryption rounds depend on key size: 128-bit=10, 192-bit=12, 256-bit=14.', 'duration': 33.335, 'max_score': 2794.111, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM2794111.jpg'}, {'end': 2894.583, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2863.087, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 2869.992, 'text': 'It is a 16 byte matrix with each cell representing one byte with each four bytes representing a word.', 'start': 2863.087, 'duration': 6.905}, {'end': 2874.075, 'text': 'So every state array will have a total of four words representing it.', 'start': 2870.592, 'duration': 3.483}, {'end': 2884.817, 'text': 'As we previously discussed, we take a single key and expand it to the number of rounds that we need the key to be used in.', 'start': 2878.453, 'duration': 6.364}, {'end': 2894.583, 'text': "Let's say the number of rounds are n, then the key has to be expanded to be used with n plus one rounds because the first round is the key zero round.", 'start': 2885.638, 'duration': 8.945}], 'summary': '16 byte matrix, 4 words in state array, key expanded for n+1 rounds.', 'duration': 31.496, 'max_score': 2863.087, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM2863087.jpg'}, {'end': 2968.813, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2940.141, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 2947.049, 'text': 'Later on, the state array is mixed with a constant matrix to shuffle its column in the mixed column segment,', 'start': 2940.141, 'duration': 6.908}, {'end': 2950.253, 'text': 'after which we add the round key for that particular round.', 'start': 2947.049, 'duration': 3.204}, {'end': 2957.723, 'text': 'The last four steps mentioned are part of every single round that the encryption algorithm goes through.', 'start': 2952.318, 'duration': 5.405}, {'end': 2961.987, 'text': 'The state arrays are then passed from one round to the next as an input.', 'start': 2958.423, 'duration': 3.564}, {'end': 2968.813, 'text': 'In the last round, however, we skip the mixed columns portion, with the rest of the process remaining unchanged.', 'start': 2962.947, 'duration': 5.866}], 'summary': 'State array mixed with constant matrix, round key added for each round, final round skips mixed columns.', 'duration': 28.672, 'max_score': 2940.141, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM2940141.jpg'}], 'start': 2709.225, 'title': 'Aes encryption algorithm and process', 'summary': 'Discusses the selection of aes as the standard symmetric key encryption algorithm, its features including the sp network, key expansion, and the number of rounds based on key size. the chapter also explains the aes encryption process, involving key expansion, xor operations, byte substitution, row shifting, column mixing, and round key addition.', 'chapters': [{'end': 2838.713, 'start': 2709.225, 'title': 'Aes encryption algorithm overview', 'summary': 'Discusses the selection of aes as the standard symmetric key encryption algorithm, its features including the sp network, key expansion, and the number of rounds based on key size, highlighted by the release of federal information processing standards publication 197 in november 2001, and the unique features of aes such as substitution permutation network, multiple rounds, and key expansion for various key sizes.', 'duration': 129.488, 'highlights': ['The release of Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 197 in November 2001 formalized the selection of the Rindell encryption algorithm, also known as AES, as the standard symmetric key encryption algorithm.', 'The AES algorithm uses a substitution permutation or SP network and consists of multiple rounds to produce a ciphertext, with the number of rounds depending on the key size being used - 10 rounds for a 128-bit key, 12 rounds for a 192-bit key, and 14 rounds for a 256-bit key.', 'At the beginning of the encryption process, a single key is used, which can be either a 128-bit key, a 192-bit key, or a 256-bit key, and eventually expanded to be used in multiple rounds throughout the encryption and decryption cycle.', 'AES performs all its calculations on byte data instead of bit data, treating 128 bits of clear text block as 16 bytes, and a round key is required for each round, with the single key being expanded to get the key for each round, including the round zero.']}, {'end': 3209.911, 'start': 2840.254, 'title': 'Aes encryption process', 'summary': 'Explains the aes encryption process, which uses a 4x4 matrix state array to transmit data through multiple rounds, involving key expansion, xor operations, byte substitution, row shifting, column mixing, and round key addition, with each step altering the state array and contributing to the complexity of the encryption algorithm.', 'duration': 369.657, 'highlights': ['The AES encryption process uses a 4x4 matrix state array to transmit data through multiple rounds, involving key expansion, XOR operations, byte substitution, row shifting, column mixing, and round key addition, contributing to the complexity of the encryption algorithm.', 'The state array in AES encryption is a 16-byte matrix with each cell representing one byte and every state array having a total of four words representing it.', 'The key is expanded to be used with n plus one rounds, with the first round being the key zero round, resulting in a state array having four words in its vicinity.', 'The state array is subjected to XOR operations with the round key, followed by byte substitution using an S box to create a new state array, which is then passed through a row shifting process.', 'In the mixed columns step, each column of 4 bytes is replaced using a special mathematical function, and the resulting 128 bits from adding the round key are interpreted as 16 bytes.', 'The encryption process involves multiple rounds where the state arrays are passed from one round to the next as an input, and in the last round, the mixed columns step is skipped.', "If plaintext is '2192' and the encryption key is 'That's My Kung Fu', the state array undergoes XOR operations, byte substitution, row shifting, and mixed columns to produce the ciphertext."]}], 'duration': 500.686, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM2709225.jpg', 'highlights': ['The AES algorithm uses a substitution permutation or SP network and consists of multiple rounds to produce a ciphertext, with the number of rounds depending on the key size being used - 10 rounds for a 128-bit key, 12 rounds for a 192-bit key, and 14 rounds for a 256-bit key.', 'The AES encryption process uses a 4x4 matrix state array to transmit data through multiple rounds, involving key expansion, XOR operations, byte substitution, row shifting, column mixing, and round key addition, contributing to the complexity of the encryption algorithm.', 'At the beginning of the encryption process, a single key is used, which can be either a 128-bit key, a 192-bit key, or a 256-bit key, and eventually expanded to be used in multiple rounds throughout the encryption and decryption cycle.', 'The state array in AES encryption is a 16-byte matrix with each cell representing one byte and every state array having a total of four words representing it.', 'The encryption process involves multiple rounds where the state arrays are passed from one round to the next as an input, and in the last round, the mixed columns step is skipped.']}, {'end': 3929.519, 'segs': [{'end': 3280.361, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3210.691, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 3218.893, 'text': 'In mixed columns, we multiply the state array with a constant matrix, after which I receive a new state array to be passed on onto the next step.', 'start': 3210.691, 'duration': 8.202}, {'end': 3228.297, 'text': 'We add the new state array as an XOR with the round key of the particular iteration.', 'start': 3223.035, 'duration': 5.262}, {'end': 3234, 'text': 'Whatever state array we receive here, it becomes an output for this particular round.', 'start': 3229.118, 'duration': 4.882}, {'end': 3244.345, 'text': 'Now since this is the first round of the entire encryption process, the state array that we receive is passed off as an input to the new round.', 'start': 3236.001, 'duration': 8.344}, {'end': 3251.228, 'text': 'We repeat this process for 10 more rounds and we finally receive a ciphertext.', 'start': 3246.766, 'duration': 4.462}, {'end': 3256.915, 'text': 'Once the final state array can be denoted in the hexadecimal format,', 'start': 3252.873, 'duration': 4.042}, {'end': 3262.779, 'text': 'this becomes our final ciphertext that we can use for transferring information from the sender and receiver.', 'start': 3256.915, 'duration': 5.864}, {'end': 3268.822, 'text': "Let's take a look at the applications of AES in this world.", 'start': 3265.82, 'duration': 3.002}, {'end': 3280.361, 'text': 'AES finds most use in the area of wireless security in order to establish a secure mode of authentication between routers and clients.', 'start': 3271.937, 'duration': 8.424}], 'summary': 'Aes encryption process involves 10 rounds and results in a final ciphertext. aes is widely used in wireless security for router-client authentication.', 'duration': 69.67, 'max_score': 3210.691, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM3210691.jpg'}, {'end': 3381.89, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3353.892, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 3357.855, 'text': 'AES has managed to nab up 128, 192 and 256 bit key lengths to bolster the security further.', 'start': 3353.892, 'duration': 3.963}, {'end': 3366.892, 'text': 'The block size is also larger in AES, owing to more complexity of the algorithm.', 'start': 3361.926, 'duration': 4.966}, {'end': 3372.198, 'text': 'The number of rounds in DES is fixed, irrespective of the plaintext being used.', 'start': 3367.853, 'duration': 4.345}, {'end': 3378.305, 'text': 'In AES, the number of rounds depends on the key length that is being used for the particular iteration,', 'start': 3372.859, 'duration': 5.446}, {'end': 3381.89, 'text': 'thereby providing more randomness and complexity in the algorithm.', 'start': 3378.305, 'duration': 3.585}], 'summary': 'Aes offers increased security with key lengths of 128, 192, and 256 bits, larger block size, and variable number of rounds based on key length.', 'duration': 27.998, 'max_score': 3353.892, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM3353892.jpg'}, {'end': 3571.917, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3547.622, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 3554.126, 'text': 'Properly implemented, a digital signature gives the receiver reason to believe that the message was sent by the claimed sender.', 'start': 3547.622, 'duration': 6.504}, {'end': 3559.689, 'text': 'Digital signatures are equivalent to traditional handwritten signatures in many respects,', 'start': 3554.906, 'duration': 4.783}, {'end': 3564.452, 'text': 'but properly implemented digital signatures are more difficult to forge than the handwritten type.', 'start': 3559.689, 'duration': 4.763}, {'end': 3571.917, 'text': 'Digital signature schemes in the sense used here are cryptographically based and must be implemented properly to be effective.', 'start': 3565.633, 'duration': 6.284}], 'summary': 'Digital signatures provide strong sender authentication and are more difficult to forge than handwritten signatures.', 'duration': 24.295, 'max_score': 3547.622, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM3547622.jpg'}, {'end': 3719.789, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3691.349, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 3698.214, 'text': 'DSA also provides three benefits, which is the message authentication, integrity verification, and non-repudiation.', 'start': 3691.349, 'duration': 6.865}, {'end': 3703.197, 'text': 'In the image, we can see the entire process of DSA validation.', 'start': 3699.395, 'duration': 3.802}, {'end': 3710.683, 'text': 'A plain text message is passed on to a hash function where the digest is generated, which is passed on to a signing function.', 'start': 3703.898, 'duration': 6.785}, {'end': 3719.789, 'text': 'Signing function also has other parameters like a global variable G, a random variable K, and the private key of the sender.', 'start': 3711.503, 'duration': 8.286}], 'summary': 'Dsa provides message authentication, integrity verification, and non-repudiation, with a process involving hash function, signing, and specific parameters.', 'duration': 28.44, 'max_score': 3691.349, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM3691349.jpg'}], 'start': 3210.691, 'title': 'Aes encryption and applications', 'summary': "Explains the aes encryption process, consisting of 11 rounds and its applications in wireless security, web encryption, and processor security. it also discusses the digital signature algorithm (dsa), its role in authentication and verification, and key generation, with aes key lengths of 128, 192, and 256 bits and dsa's function in message authentication and non-repudiation.", 'chapters': [{'end': 3256.915, 'start': 3210.691, 'title': 'Aes encryption process summary', 'summary': 'Explains the aes encryption process, consisting of 11 rounds where the state array is multiplied with a constant matrix, xored with the round key, and repeated 10 more times to obtain the ciphertext in hexadecimal format.', 'duration': 46.224, 'highlights': ['The state array is multiplied with a constant matrix and then XORed with the round key to generate a new state array for each round of the encryption process.', 'The encryption process consists of 11 rounds, with the first round serving as the input for the subsequent rounds, and finally resulting in a ciphertext.', 'The final state array is represented in hexadecimal format.']}, {'end': 3929.519, 'start': 3256.915, 'title': 'Aes and dsa in cybersecurity', 'summary': "Discusses the applications of advanced encryption standard (aes) in wireless security, web encryption, and processor security. it also delves into the digital signature algorithm (dsa), explaining its role in authentication and verification of documents, its comparison with rsa, and the process of key generation, signature generation, and verification. key points include aes's use in wi-fi security and ssl tls encryption, its key lengths of 128, 192, and 256 bits, and dsa's function in message authentication, integrity verification, and non-repudiation.", 'duration': 672.604, 'highlights': ['AES finds most use in the area of wireless security in order to establish a secure mode of authentication between routers and clients.', 'AES has managed to nab up 128, 192 and 256 bit key lengths to bolster the security further.', 'Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) provides three benefits, which is the message authentication, integrity verification, and non-repudiation.', 'Digital signatures are equivalent to traditional handwritten signatures in many respects, but properly implemented digital signatures are more difficult to forge than the handwritten type.', 'Digital Signature Algorithm is a FIPS standard and globally standardized in 1994 by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).']}], 'duration': 718.828, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM3210691.jpg', 'highlights': ['The encryption process consists of 11 rounds, resulting in a ciphertext.', 'The state array is multiplied with a constant matrix and then XORed with the round key.', 'AES has key lengths of 128, 192, and 256 bits to bolster security.', 'AES finds most use in wireless security for authentication between routers and clients.', 'Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) provides message authentication, integrity verification, and non-repudiation.', 'Digital signatures are more difficult to forge than traditional handwritten signatures.']}, {'end': 4735.621, 'segs': [{'end': 4023.81, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3929.519, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 3935.181, 'text': 'starting from key generation to the signature generation, all the way up to the verification of the signature.', 'start': 3929.519, 'duration': 5.662}, {'end': 3944.803, 'text': 'With so many steps to follow, we are bound to have a few advantages to boot this and we would be right to think so.', 'start': 3938.942, 'duration': 5.861}, {'end': 3953.544, 'text': 'DSA is highly robust in the security and stability aspect when compared to alternative signature verification algorithms.', 'start': 3946.218, 'duration': 7.326}, {'end': 3962.092, 'text': 'We have a few other ciphers that aim to achieve the simplicity and the flexibility of DSA, but it has been a tough ask for all the other suits.', 'start': 3954.285, 'duration': 7.807}, {'end': 3968.163, 'text': 'The key generation is much faster when compared to the RSA algorithm and such.', 'start': 3963.837, 'duration': 4.326}, {'end': 3973.752, 'text': 'While the actual encryption and decryption process may falter a little in comparison,', 'start': 3968.925, 'duration': 4.827}, {'end': 3977.778, 'text': 'a quicker start in the beginning is well known to optimize a lot of frameworks.', 'start': 3973.752, 'duration': 4.026}, {'end': 3983.104, 'text': 'DSA requires less storage space to work its entire cycle.', 'start': 3979.642, 'duration': 3.462}, {'end': 3992.528, 'text': 'In contrast, its direct correspondent that is RSA algorithm needs a certain amount of computational and storage space to function efficiently.', 'start': 3983.944, 'duration': 8.584}, {'end': 3998.611, 'text': 'This is not the case with DSA, which has been optimized to work with weaker hardware and lesser resources.', 'start': 3993.188, 'duration': 5.423}, {'end': 4005.677, 'text': 'The DSA is patented, but NIST has made this patent available worldwide royalty-free.', 'start': 4000.353, 'duration': 5.324}, {'end': 4014.343, 'text': 'A draft version of the speculation FIPS 1865 indicates that DSA will no longer be approved for digital signature generation,', 'start': 4006.478, 'duration': 7.865}, {'end': 4019.527, 'text': 'but it may be used to verify signatures generated prior to the implementation date of that standard.', 'start': 4014.343, 'duration': 5.184}, {'end': 4023.81, 'text': 'The RSA algorithm can be used for general data encryption and decryption as well.', 'start': 4019.848, 'duration': 3.962}], 'summary': 'Dsa offers advantages such as faster key generation and less storage space requirement compared to rsa algorithm.', 'duration': 94.291, 'max_score': 3929.519, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM3929519.jpg'}, {'end': 4352.734, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4322.991, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 4329.575, 'text': 'the sender cannot refuse signing it with his private key without admitting the private key is not in fact private anymore.', 'start': 4322.991, 'duration': 6.584}, {'end': 4334.418, 'text': 'The encryption process is faster than that of the DSA algorithm.', 'start': 4331.236, 'duration': 3.182}, {'end': 4338.059, 'text': 'Even if the key generation is slower in RSA,', 'start': 4335.338, 'duration': 2.721}, {'end': 4346.344, 'text': 'many systems across the world tend to reuse the same keys so that they can spend less time in key generation and more time on actual ciphertext management.', 'start': 4338.059, 'duration': 8.285}, {'end': 4352.734, 'text': 'Data will be tamper-proof in transit since meddling with the data will alter the usage of the keys.', 'start': 4347.571, 'duration': 5.163}], 'summary': 'Rsa encryption is faster, key reuse common, tamper-proof data in transit.', 'duration': 29.743, 'max_score': 4322.991, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM4322991.jpg'}, {'end': 4403.132, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4368.722, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 4374.624, 'text': 'MD5 algorithm was one of the first hashing algorithms to take the global stage as a successor to the MD4.', 'start': 4368.722, 'duration': 5.902}, {'end': 4379.406, 'text': 'Despite the security vulnerabilities encountered in the future,', 'start': 4375.865, 'duration': 3.541}, {'end': 4384.187, 'text': 'MD5 still remains a crucial part of data infrastructure in a multitude of environments.', 'start': 4379.406, 'duration': 4.781}, {'end': 4398.551, 'text': 'The MD5 hashing algorithm is a one-way cryptographic function that accepts a message of any length as input and it returns as output a fixed length digest value to be used for authenticating the original messages.', 'start': 4386.028, 'duration': 12.523}, {'end': 4403.132, 'text': 'The digest size is always 128 bits irrespective of the input.', 'start': 4399.271, 'duration': 3.861}], 'summary': 'Md5 is a 128-bit hashing algorithm, still crucial despite security vulnerabilities.', 'duration': 34.41, 'max_score': 4368.722, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM4368722.jpg'}], 'start': 3929.519, 'title': 'Rsa, dsa, and md5 algorithms', 'summary': "Compares the advantages of dsa and rsa algorithms, highlighting dsa's security and storage benefits, and rsa's speed, tamper-proof nature, and elimination of secret key exchange. additionally, it explains the md5 hashing algorithm, emphasizing its role, vulnerabilities, and detailed working mechanism to produce a secure 128-bit digest.", 'chapters': [{'end': 4368.201, 'start': 3929.519, 'title': 'Rsa vs dsa algorithm', 'summary': 'Compares the advantages of the dsa and rsa algorithms, highlighting that dsa is robust in security and stability, requires less storage space, but is no longer approved for digital signature generation, while rsa encryption is faster, tamper-proof, and eliminates the need to exchange secret keys.', 'duration': 438.682, 'highlights': ['RSA encryption is faster than DSA algorithm', 'DSA is robust in security and stability', 'RSA eliminates the need to exchange secret keys', 'DSA requires less storage space', 'DSA will no longer be approved for digital signature generation']}, {'end': 4735.621, 'start': 4368.722, 'title': 'Md5 hashing algorithm overview', 'summary': 'Explains the md5 hashing algorithm, highlighting its role, vulnerabilities, and detailed working mechanism including the process of message padding, buffer initialization, and round operations with the objective of producing a secure 128-bit digest.', 'duration': 366.899, 'highlights': ['MD5 is a crucial part of data infrastructure despite security vulnerabilities.', 'MD5 hashing algorithm produces a fixed-length 128-bit digest from input messages of any length.', 'The process of MD5 hashing involves message padding and 512-bit block breakdown for buffer initialization and round operations.']}], 'duration': 806.102, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM3929519.jpg', 'highlights': ['RSA encryption is faster than DSA algorithm', 'DSA is robust in security and stability', 'RSA eliminates the need to exchange secret keys', 'DSA requires less storage space', 'MD5 hashing algorithm produces a fixed-length 128-bit digest from input messages of any length', 'MD5 is a crucial part of data infrastructure despite security vulnerabilities', 'DSA will no longer be approved for digital signature generation', 'The process of MD5 hashing involves message padding and 512-bit block breakdown for buffer initialization and round operations']}, {'end': 5663.837, 'segs': [{'end': 4776.916, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4735.621, 'weight': 8, 'content': [{'end': 4742.265, 'text': 'Now that we have a full register ready for this sub-block, the values of A, B, C, D are moved on as input to the next sub-block.', 'start': 4735.621, 'duration': 6.644}, {'end': 4749.909, 'text': 'Once all 16 sub-blocks are completed, the final register value is saved and the next 512-bit block begins.', 'start': 4743.205, 'duration': 6.704}, {'end': 4754.797, 'text': 'At the end of all these blocks, we get a final digest of the MD5 algorithm.', 'start': 4750.834, 'duration': 3.963}, {'end': 4762.824, 'text': "Regarding the nonlinear process mentioned in the first step, the formula changes for each round it's being run on.", 'start': 4757.219, 'duration': 5.605}, {'end': 4769.109, 'text': 'This is done to maintain the computational complexity of the algorithm and to increase randomness of the procedure.', 'start': 4763.384, 'duration': 5.725}, {'end': 4776.916, 'text': 'The formula for each of the four rounds uses the same parameters that is B, C and D to generate a single output.', 'start': 4769.95, 'duration': 6.966}], 'summary': 'Md5 algorithm processes 16 sub-blocks to produce a final 512-bit digest.', 'duration': 41.295, 'max_score': 4735.621, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM4735621.jpg'}, {'end': 4974.909, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4943.864, 'weight': 7, 'content': [{'end': 4947.786, 'text': 'This was designed by the NSA to be a part of the digital signature algorithm.', 'start': 4943.864, 'duration': 3.922}, {'end': 4956.924, 'text': 'SHA-2 is a family of two similar hash functions with different block sizes known as the SHA-256 and the SHA-512.', 'start': 4949.142, 'duration': 7.782}, {'end': 4959.225, 'text': 'They differ in the word size.', 'start': 4956.964, 'duration': 2.261}, {'end': 4965.106, 'text': 'SHA-256 uses 32-bit words while SHA-512 uses 64-bit words.', 'start': 4959.845, 'duration': 5.261}, {'end': 4969.908, 'text': 'SHA-3 is a hash function properly known as KKAK.', 'start': 4966.527, 'duration': 3.381}, {'end': 4974.909, 'text': 'It was chosen in 2012 after a public competition among non-NSA designers.', 'start': 4970.328, 'duration': 4.581}], 'summary': 'Nsa designed sha-2 with sha-256 and sha-512 using 32-bit and 64-bit words respectively. sha-3 (kkak) was chosen in 2012 after a public competition.', 'duration': 31.045, 'max_score': 4943.864, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM4943864.jpg'}, {'end': 5109.38, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5049.813, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 5056.56, 'text': 'The length of the clear text should be less than 2 to the power 64 bits in the case of SHA-1 and SHA-256.', 'start': 5049.813, 'duration': 6.747}, {'end': 5061.265, 'text': 'This is essential to keep the plain text compatible with the hash function,', 'start': 5057.361, 'duration': 3.904}, {'end': 5066.231, 'text': 'and the size needs to be in comparison area to keep the digest as random as possible.', 'start': 5061.265, 'duration': 4.966}, {'end': 5078.058, 'text': 'The length of the hash digest should be 256 bits in the SHA-256 algorithm, 512 bits in the SHA-512 algorithm and so on.', 'start': 5069.372, 'duration': 8.686}, {'end': 5084.663, 'text': 'Bigger digest usually suggests significantly more calculations at the cost of speed and space.', 'start': 5078.939, 'duration': 5.724}, {'end': 5093.569, 'text': 'We typically go for the longest digest to bolster security, but there must be a definite balance between the speed and security of a hash function.', 'start': 5085.403, 'duration': 8.166}, {'end': 5103.954, 'text': 'By design, all hash functions of the SHA-512, SHA-256 are irreversible.', 'start': 5097.648, 'duration': 6.306}, {'end': 5109.38, 'text': 'You should neither get a plain text when you have the digest beforehand,', 'start': 5105.116, 'duration': 4.264}], 'summary': 'Hash functions should have compatible text length, larger digest size for security, balanced speed, and irreversible nature.', 'duration': 59.567, 'max_score': 5049.813, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM5049813.jpg'}, {'end': 5156.102, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5129.675, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 5134.678, 'text': 'To achieve this level of intricacy, there are a number of steps to be followed before we receive the digest.', 'start': 5129.675, 'duration': 5.003}, {'end': 5139.982, 'text': 'Let us take a look at the detailed procedure as to how the SHA algorithm works.', 'start': 5135.559, 'duration': 4.423}, {'end': 5145.093, 'text': 'The first step is to make the plaintext compatible with the hash function.', 'start': 5141.65, 'duration': 3.443}, {'end': 5148.315, 'text': 'To do this, we need to pad the bits in the message.', 'start': 5146.114, 'duration': 2.201}, {'end': 5156.102, 'text': 'When you receive the input string, you have to make sure the size is 64 bits short of a multiple of 512.', 'start': 5149.196, 'duration': 6.906}], 'summary': 'The sha algorithm requires the plaintext to be padded to ensure a size 64 bits short of a multiple of 512.', 'duration': 26.427, 'max_score': 5129.675, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM5129675.jpg'}, {'end': 5458.42, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5433.894, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 5441.239, 'text': 'let us learn about the advantages we obtain when using the SHA hash algorithm instead of relying on data in a plaintext format.', 'start': 5433.894, 'duration': 7.345}, {'end': 5449.233, 'text': 'Digital signatures follow asymmetric encryption methodology to verify the authenticity of a document or a file.', 'start': 5442.728, 'duration': 6.505}, {'end': 5458.42, 'text': 'Hash algorithms like SHA-256 and the industry standard SHA-512 go a long way in ensuring the verification of signatures.', 'start': 5450.194, 'duration': 8.226}], 'summary': 'Advantages of using sha hash algorithm for digital signatures, including sha-256 and sha-512.', 'duration': 24.526, 'max_score': 5433.894, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM5433894.jpg'}, {'end': 5663.837, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5592.381, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 5596.229, 'text': 'and it is slowly projected to decline until 2020..', 'start': 5592.381, 'duration': 3.848}, {'end': 5602.832, 'text': 'However, the daily mobile internet consumption is set to increase to 155 minutes in 2021.', 'start': 5596.229, 'duration': 6.603}, {'end': 5605.974, 'text': 'If our current lifestyle is any indication of the future,', 'start': 5602.832, 'duration': 3.142}, {'end': 5612.657, 'text': 'these statistics are just a window into what is going to be a future full of artificial intelligence and its derivatives.', 'start': 5605.974, 'duration': 6.683}, {'end': 5619.84, 'text': 'As observed by researchers around the world, this level of dependability has made us vulnerable to the worst of the internet.', 'start': 5613.777, 'duration': 6.063}, {'end': 5624.65, 'text': 'According to the Forbes magazine in 2019,', 'start': 5621.988, 'duration': 2.662}, {'end': 5631.435, 'text': 'the cumulative damage and costs of cyber effects are far more significant than those inflicted by natural disasters in a year.', 'start': 5624.65, 'duration': 6.785}, {'end': 5635.919, 'text': 'Every 11 seconds, a business falls victim to a ransomware attack.', 'start': 5632.196, 'duration': 3.723}, {'end': 5640.863, 'text': 'The average cost of a data breach in 2020 is $3.86 million.', 'start': 5636.7, 'duration': 4.163}, {'end': 5649.049, 'text': 'The huge increase in cyber crimes is a major contributor to the 12% annual growth rate of cybersecurity spending.', 'start': 5641.964, 'duration': 7.085}, {'end': 5657.414, 'text': "The United States has the world's highest average data breach crossed at $6.84 million as per 2020 records.", 'start': 5649.89, 'duration': 7.524}, {'end': 5663.837, 'text': 'Opportunities breed innovation, and this has been observed in the cybersecurity domain as well.', 'start': 5658.955, 'duration': 4.882}], 'summary': 'Mobile internet consumption to increase to 155 minutes in 2021, with cyber crimes contributing to 12% annual growth in cybersecurity spending.', 'duration': 71.456, 'max_score': 5592.381, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM5592381.jpg'}], 'start': 4735.621, 'title': 'Cryptographic hash functions', 'summary': "Covers the md5 algorithm's process, with 16 sub-blocks and a 512-bit block, emphasizing computational complexity and randomness. it also discusses the significance of secure hash algorithms in data security, covering hash functions, sha algorithm details, and the impact of digital technology on cybersecurity with related statistics.", 'chapters': [{'end': 4776.916, 'start': 4735.621, 'title': 'Md5 algorithm overview', 'summary': 'Explains the process of md5 algorithm, involving 16 sub-blocks, with the final register value saved and a 512-bit block beginning, leading to a final digest. the nonlinear process changes formula for each round to maintain computational complexity and increase randomness of the procedure.', 'duration': 41.295, 'highlights': ['The final register value is saved and the next 512-bit block begins, leading to a final digest of the MD5 algorithm.', 'The formula changes for each round to maintain computational complexity and increase randomness of the procedure.', 'The values of A, B, C, D are moved on as input to the next sub-block once all 16 sub-blocks are completed.']}, {'end': 5127.794, 'start': 4777.516, 'title': 'Secure hash algorithms', 'summary': 'Discusses the importance of secure hash algorithms in enhancing data security, including the benefits of using hash functions for storing user credentials, the characteristics and requirements of cryptographically secure hash functions, and the different families of sha algorithms with their respective properties and applications.', 'duration': 350.278, 'highlights': ["The length of the clear text should be less than 2 to the power 64 bits in the case of SHA-1 and SHA-256, essential to keep the plaintext compatible with the hash function and maintain the digest's randomness.", 'SHA-256 uses 32-bit words while SHA-512 uses 64-bit words, and bigger digest suggests significantly more calculations at the cost of speed and space, requiring a balance between speed and security.', "Hash functions ensure that the data hasn't been tampered with on route to the receiver of the message, and the dependency on technology for secure communication and data transmission is at an all-time high.", 'SHA-3, known as KKAK, was chosen in 2012 after a public competition among non-NSA designers, supporting the same hash lengths as SHA-2 and having a significantly different internal structure from the rest of the SHA family.']}, {'end': 5663.837, 'start': 5129.675, 'title': 'Sha algorithm and cybersecurity', 'summary': 'Explains the detailed procedure of the sha algorithm, including padding steps, iteration rounds, and its advantages. it also highlights the impact of digital technology on cybersecurity and presents statistics on internet consumption and cybercrime costs.', 'duration': 534.162, 'highlights': ['The average cost of a data breach in 2020 is $3.86 million, contributing to the 12% annual growth rate of cybersecurity spending.', 'The daily mobile internet consumption is projected to increase to 155 minutes in 2021, indicating the growing reliance on digital technology.', 'Every 11 seconds, a business falls victim to a ransomware attack, highlighting the significant increase in cybercrimes and their impact on businesses.', 'The SHA algorithm ensures the verification of digital signatures and provides enhanced database security by storing passwords in a hashed format, making them irreversible by design.', 'The detailed procedure of the SHA algorithm includes padding steps to make the plaintext compatible with the hash function, initializing chaining variables, and processing each 512-bit block through 80 rounds of operation.']}], 'duration': 928.216, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM4735621.jpg', 'highlights': ['The average cost of a data breach in 2020 is $3.86 million, contributing to the 12% annual growth rate of cybersecurity spending.', 'Every 11 seconds, a business falls victim to a ransomware attack, highlighting the significant increase in cybercrimes and their impact on businesses.', 'The daily mobile internet consumption is projected to increase to 155 minutes in 2021, indicating the growing reliance on digital technology.', 'SHA-256 uses 32-bit words while SHA-512 uses 64-bit words, and bigger digest suggests significantly more calculations at the cost of speed and space, requiring a balance between speed and security.', "The length of the clear text should be less than 2 to the power 64 bits in the case of SHA-1 and SHA-256, essential to keep the plaintext compatible with the hash function and maintain the digest's randomness.", 'The SHA algorithm ensures the verification of digital signatures and provides enhanced database security by storing passwords in a hashed format, making them irreversible by design.', 'The detailed procedure of the SHA algorithm includes padding steps to make the plaintext compatible with the hash function, initializing chaining variables, and processing each 512-bit block through 80 rounds of operation.', 'SHA-3, known as KKAK, was chosen in 2012 after a public competition among non-NSA designers, supporting the same hash lengths as SHA-2 and having a significantly different internal structure from the rest of the SHA family.', 'The formula changes for each round to maintain computational complexity and increase randomness of the procedure.', 'The values of A, B, C, D are moved on as input to the next sub-block once all 16 sub-blocks are completed.', 'The final register value is saved and the next 512-bit block begins, leading to a final digest of the MD5 algorithm.']}, {'end': 7152.425, 'segs': [{'end': 5714.169, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5664.578, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 5668.119, 'text': 'To safeguard against such threats, the SSL protocol was developed.', 'start': 5664.578, 'duration': 3.541}, {'end': 5670.901, 'text': 'Let us learn about the SSL protocol first.', 'start': 5668.8, 'duration': 2.101}, {'end': 5677.992, 'text': 'SSL or Secure Sockets Layer is an encryption-based internet security protocol.', 'start': 5673.391, 'duration': 4.601}, {'end': 5687.735, 'text': 'It was first developed by Netscape in 1995 for the purpose of ensuring privacy, authentication and data integrity in internet communication.', 'start': 5678.732, 'duration': 9.003}, {'end': 5692.236, 'text': 'SSL is the predecessor to the modern TLS encryption used today.', 'start': 5688.715, 'duration': 3.521}, {'end': 5700.138, 'text': 'It acts as a cryptographic layer protocol that provides privacy and security to communication between a client and a web server.', 'start': 5692.976, 'duration': 7.162}, {'end': 5707.526, 'text': 'A website that implements SSL authentication has HTTPS in its URL instead of HTTP.', 'start': 5701.604, 'duration': 5.922}, {'end': 5714.169, 'text': 'In order to provide a high degree of privacy, SSL encrypts data that is transmitted across the web.', 'start': 5708.527, 'duration': 5.642}], 'summary': 'Ssl, developed in 1995, ensures privacy and data integrity in internet communication, using encryption and authentication.', 'duration': 49.591, 'max_score': 5664.578, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM5664578.jpg'}, {'end': 6178.42, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 6153.274, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 6159.355, 'text': 'The data is now encrypted with the symmetric key client sent in phase 3.', 'start': 6153.274, 'duration': 6.081}, {'end': 6160.816, 'text': 'With the end of phase 4,', 'start': 6159.355, 'duration': 1.461}, {'end': 6167.757, 'text': 'authentication is complete and the SSL handshake has maintained the authenticity of the entire session between the client and server.', 'start': 6160.816, 'duration': 6.941}, {'end': 6174.999, 'text': "To reiterate the entire process, let's go through each step one more time.", 'start': 6170.558, 'duration': 4.441}, {'end': 6178.42, 'text': 'The client sends a hello request to the server.', 'start': 6176.359, 'duration': 2.061}], 'summary': "Ssl handshake completed, data encrypted with client's symmetric key.", 'duration': 25.146, 'max_score': 6153.274, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM6153274.jpg'}, {'end': 6299.644, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 6274.17, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 6278.913, 'text': 'Even though a major part of the internet is still using TLS 1.2 as a safety net,', 'start': 6274.17, 'duration': 4.743}, {'end': 6284.796, 'text': 'the transition to the latest version should be completed before any security deficiencies are exploited.', 'start': 6278.913, 'duration': 5.883}, {'end': 6291.119, 'text': "A significant portion of today's internet is encrypted using secret encryption keys and for good reason.", 'start': 6285.196, 'duration': 5.923}, {'end': 6299.644, 'text': 'Apart from bolstering security, encrypting communication channels maintain both the confidentiality and the integrity of the data being transmitted.', 'start': 6291.399, 'duration': 8.245}], 'summary': 'Transition to latest tls version before security risks arise', 'duration': 25.474, 'max_score': 6274.17, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM6274170.jpg'}, {'end': 6389.897, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 6360.538, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 6363.88, 'text': 'This is where the Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm comes into play.', 'start': 6360.538, 'duration': 3.342}, {'end': 6367.923, 'text': 'It made the process much more streamlined and more secure.', 'start': 6364.581, 'duration': 3.342}, {'end': 6371.526, 'text': "Let's start by learning a bit more about this exchange process.", 'start': 6368.564, 'duration': 2.962}, {'end': 6383.428, 'text': 'Diffie-Hellman algorithm is a method for securely exchanging cryptography keys over insecure channels without compromising the security and integrity of the data transmission.', 'start': 6373.595, 'duration': 9.833}, {'end': 6389.897, 'text': 'It was developed and published in 1976 by Martin Hellman and Whitfield Diffie.', 'start': 6384.83, 'duration': 5.067}], 'summary': 'Diffie-hellman algorithm: secure key exchange method developed in 1976', 'duration': 29.359, 'max_score': 6360.538, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM6360538.jpg'}], 'start': 5664.578, 'title': 'Ssl, tls, and diffie-hellman', 'summary': 'Covers the ssl protocol, its role in internet security, emphasizing encryption, authentication, and data integrity. it also explains the ssl handshake process, the transition to tls 1.3, and the diffie-hellman key exchange algorithm, ensuring secure communication.', 'chapters': [{'end': 5863.445, 'start': 5664.578, 'title': 'Ssl protocol and internet security', 'summary': "Explains the ssl protocol, its role in internet security, and its development by netscape in 1995. it emphasizes ssl's encryption, authentication, and data integrity, and its position between the application and transport layers of the osi model, ensuring privacy and security in internet communication.", 'duration': 198.867, 'highlights': ['SSL ensures privacy and security in internet communication by encrypting data and authenticating the client and web server through a handshake process.', 'SSL acts as a cryptographic layer protocol between the application and transport layers of the OSI model, ensuring that data is encrypted and authenticated before transmission.', 'The SSL protocol was developed by Netscape in 1995 to ensure privacy, authentication, and data integrity in internet communication.']}, {'end': 6226.774, 'start': 5865.947, 'title': 'Ssl handshake and protocol', 'summary': 'Explains the ssl handshake process, which consists of four phases, involving the exchange of public and private keys, authentication certificates, and encryption algorithms, ensuring data integrity and confidentiality.', 'duration': 360.827, 'highlights': ['The SSL handshake process consists of four phases, involving the exchange of public and private keys, authentication certificates, and encryption algorithms, ensuring data integrity and confidentiality.', 'The SSL record protocol provides confidentiality and message integrity by dividing data into fragments and appending the encrypted SHA and MD5 codes.', 'The change cipher spec protocol is used to transition the SSL record output from a pending state to a current state, ensuring data encryption after the handshake.', 'The SSL alert protocol conveys SSL-related alerts using messages containing only two bytes.', 'SSL uses a combination of symmetric and asymmetric encryption to ensure message privacy and data integrity.']}, {'end': 6547.839, 'start': 6226.774, 'title': 'Transition to tls 1.3 and diffie-hellman key exchange', 'summary': 'Explores the transition from ssl encryption to tls 1.3 due to security vulnerabilities, with a focus on the importance of encrypting communication channels and the use of diffie-hellman key exchange algorithm to securely exchange cryptography keys over insecure channels.', 'duration': 321.065, 'highlights': ['The TLS 1.3 is the current version proposed by IETF in 2018, emphasizing the need for its adoption to mitigate security deficiencies in TLS 1.2 and strengthen internet security.', 'The Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm, developed in 1976, allows the secure exchange of critical keys over insecure networks, ensuring the integrity and security of data transmission.', 'The explanation of the one-way functions using color theory provides a clear understanding of how private keys can be exchanged securely over insecure channels, mitigating the risk of interception and compromising privacy.']}, {'end': 7152.425, 'start': 6548.559, 'title': 'Diffie-hellman key exchange', 'summary': 'Explains the mathematical process of the diffie-hellman key exchange, which involves choosing prime numbers, calculating private and public keys, and generating a secret key using real-world examples, as well as its applications in cryptography and cybersecurity.', 'duration': 603.866, 'highlights': ['The process of Diffie-Hellman key exchange involves three distinct steps: choosing Q and alpha, driving the key pair process, and key generation steps.', 'Choosing a prime number Q and a primitive root alpha are the initial steps in the Diffie-Hellman key exchange process.', 'The key pair process involves the calculation of private and public keys for each user using the chosen prime number and primitive root.', "The key generation step calculates the secret key using the recipients' public key, the sender's private key, and the chosen prime number.", 'The Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm enables the secure exchange of cryptographic entities over all channels, contributing to the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and Secure Shell Access (SSH).', 'Cryptography, encryption, and decryption are explained, including the concepts of cleartext and ciphertext, and the methodology of block ciphers.']}], 'duration': 1487.847, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM5664578.jpg', 'highlights': ['TLS 1.3 emphasizes adoption to mitigate security deficiencies in TLS 1.2 and strengthen internet security.', 'SSL ensures privacy and security in internet communication by encrypting data and authenticating the client and web server through a handshake process.', 'The SSL handshake process consists of four phases, involving the exchange of public and private keys, authentication certificates, and encryption algorithms, ensuring data integrity and confidentiality.', 'The Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm allows the secure exchange of critical keys over insecure networks, ensuring the integrity and security of data transmission.', 'The SSL protocol was developed by Netscape in 1995 to ensure privacy, authentication, and data integrity in internet communication.']}, {'end': 8069.678, 'segs': [{'end': 7222.093, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 7172.192, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 7180.816, 'text': 'So the infrastructure itself is a set of policies, people, procedures and techniques which are standardized in nature.', 'start': 7172.192, 'duration': 8.624}, {'end': 7191.145, 'text': 'and are globally accepted, which allow us to use digital certificates to encrypt data and decrypt the data at the other end.', 'start': 7181.776, 'duration': 9.369}, {'end': 7195.309, 'text': 'We use asymmetric encryption over here, which means that we use two keys.', 'start': 7191.726, 'duration': 3.583}, {'end': 7199.393, 'text': 'One is a public key to encrypt and the private key to decrypt.', 'start': 7195.89, 'duration': 3.503}, {'end': 7206.56, 'text': 'The other part of encryption is asymmetric encryption where the same key is used to encrypt and the same key is used to decrypt.', 'start': 7200.474, 'duration': 6.086}, {'end': 7212.668, 'text': 'Now in a public key infrastructure, like I said, we have standardized that.', 'start': 7207.765, 'duration': 4.903}, {'end': 7218.191, 'text': 'So in the standardizing part of it, these are the various players that have been defined in the public key infrastructure.', 'start': 7212.708, 'duration': 5.483}, {'end': 7222.093, 'text': 'The first is the user or the sender in this scenario,', 'start': 7218.691, 'duration': 3.402}], 'summary': 'Infrastructure uses digital certificates, asymmetric and symmetric encryption for data security in public key infrastructure.', 'duration': 49.901, 'max_score': 7172.192, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM7172192.jpg'}, {'end': 7394.576, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 7369.779, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 7377.326, 'text': 'So going back to the previous slide, these are the key players that have been standardized in the public key infrastructure.', 'start': 7369.779, 'duration': 7.547}, {'end': 7381.189, 'text': 'The certification authority is the authority that issues the digital certificates.', 'start': 7377.766, 'duration': 3.423}, {'end': 7385.253, 'text': 'The validation authority is the one who validates that digital certificate.', 'start': 7381.529, 'duration': 3.724}, {'end': 7394.576, 'text': 'Moving on, what is RSA? RSA is one of the first public key crypto systems that is used for secure data transmission.', 'start': 7385.913, 'duration': 8.663}], 'summary': 'Public key infrastructure involves certification and validation authorities; rsa is a key crypto system.', 'duration': 24.797, 'max_score': 7369.779, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM7369779.jpg'}, {'end': 7457.841, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 7431.201, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 7436.567, 'text': 'What are the few alternatives to RSA? Now RSA is an algorithm that is used for encryption.', 'start': 7431.201, 'duration': 5.366}, {'end': 7443.215, 'text': 'There are a lot of other algorithms that can be utilized to alter or to scramble data depending on your requirements.', 'start': 7436.627, 'duration': 6.588}, {'end': 7447.439, 'text': 'So in the previous question we have studied and we have talked about what RSA is.', 'start': 7443.615, 'duration': 3.824}, {'end': 7452.485, 'text': 'It stands for Rivers, Shamir and Edelman, the three creators of that particular algorithm.', 'start': 7447.519, 'duration': 4.966}, {'end': 7457.841, 'text': 'But there are a lot of alternatives to this algorithm depending on how secure you want that data to be.', 'start': 7453.015, 'duration': 4.826}], 'summary': 'Various alternatives to rsa exist for encryption, depending on security needs.', 'duration': 26.64, 'max_score': 7431.201, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM7431201.jpg'}, {'end': 7567.048, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 7541.992, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 7548.057, 'text': 'So the main and the prime objectives of modern cryptography are as follows, mentioned on your screen', 'start': 7541.992, 'duration': 6.065}, {'end': 7549.918, 'text': 'The first one is confidentiality.', 'start': 7548.357, 'duration': 1.561}, {'end': 7552.18, 'text': 'The second one is non-repudiation.', 'start': 7550.659, 'duration': 1.521}, {'end': 7554.402, 'text': 'Third one is authenticity.', 'start': 7553.321, 'duration': 1.081}, {'end': 7556.244, 'text': 'And the fourth one is integrity.', 'start': 7554.878, 'duration': 1.366}, {'end': 7563.367, 'text': 'Now, if I go back to the first one, confidentiality, that is where I want to keep data confidential.', 'start': 7557.065, 'duration': 6.302}, {'end': 7567.048, 'text': 'That means it will only be visible to the authorized users.', 'start': 7563.727, 'duration': 3.321}], 'summary': 'Modern cryptography aims for confidentiality, non-repudiation, authenticity, and integrity to keep data secure and accessible to authorized users.', 'duration': 25.056, 'max_score': 7541.992, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM7541992.jpg'}, {'end': 7870.388, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 7845.249, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 7851.252, 'text': 'As we have discussed previously, block cipher is a cipher that is used to encrypt data that is stored.', 'start': 7845.249, 'duration': 6.003}, {'end': 7855.404, 'text': 'So it has a 64-bit block size and byte-oriented algorithm.', 'start': 7852.321, 'duration': 3.083}, {'end': 7858.886, 'text': "Safer's encryption and decryption procedures are highly secure.", 'start': 7856.384, 'duration': 2.502}, {'end': 7862.149, 'text': 'This technology is widely used in applications like digital payment cards.', 'start': 7859.227, 'duration': 2.922}, {'end': 7870.388, 'text': "So when you're using a digital payment gateway to make transactions, so you have, you have gone onto an online portal,", 'start': 7862.169, 'duration': 8.219}], 'summary': 'Block cipher uses 64-bit block size for highly secure encryption, widely used in digital payment applications.', 'duration': 25.139, 'max_score': 7845.249, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM7845249.jpg'}, {'end': 7986.05, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 7943.302, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 7948.311, 'text': 'who then process the request and the digital certificate is issued to the person who has requested it.', 'start': 7943.302, 'duration': 5.009}, {'end': 7956.758, 'text': 'So when the person wants to conduct that transaction, they use that digital certificate to sign that transaction with the end user.', 'start': 7949.112, 'duration': 7.646}, {'end': 7962.723, 'text': 'The end user validates that with the validation authority and once validated, the transaction goes through.', 'start': 7957.098, 'duration': 5.625}, {'end': 7966.386, 'text': 'And now the last question what is the Blowfish algorithm??', 'start': 7963.463, 'duration': 2.923}, {'end': 7969.47, 'text': 'it is a 64-bit symmetric encryption algorithm.', 'start': 7967.066, 'duration': 2.404}, {'end': 7977.921, 'text': 'so this is an algorithm that uses the same key to encrypt and the same key to decrypt, the same secret keys used to encrypt and decrypt the messages.', 'start': 7969.47, 'duration': 8.451}, {'end': 7982.027, 'text': 'here the operations are based on exclusive ors and additions to the.', 'start': 7977.921, 'duration': 4.106}, {'end': 7986.05, 'text': 'on 32-bit words, the key has a maximum length of 448 bits.', 'start': 7982.027, 'duration': 4.023}], 'summary': 'Digital certificates are issued for transactions; blowfish is a 64-bit symmetric encryption algorithm with a 448-bit key length.', 'duration': 42.748, 'max_score': 7943.302, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM7943302.jpg'}, {'end': 8067.556, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 8016.424, 'weight': 0.724, 'content': [{'end': 8023.767, 'text': 'As far as the interview questions are concerned, what we need to remember is which algorithms are symmetric, which algorithms are asymmetric,', 'start': 8016.424, 'duration': 7.343}, {'end': 8027.969, 'text': 'what do symmetric algorithms do and what do asymmetric algorithms do?', 'start': 8023.767, 'duration': 4.202}, {'end': 8031.59, 'text': 'And we also look at block ciphers and stream ciphers.', 'start': 8028.469, 'duration': 3.121}, {'end': 8035.232, 'text': 'Block ciphers are utilized to encrypt data that is stored.', 'start': 8031.971, 'duration': 3.261}, {'end': 8042.056, 'text': 'stationary data, data at rest, and stream ciphers are utilized for data in motion while they are being streamed.', 'start': 8035.672, 'duration': 6.384}, {'end': 8047.68, 'text': 'So SSL and TLS is another algorithm that comes into the picture when we are looking at streaming data.', 'start': 8042.637, 'duration': 5.043}, {'end': 8051.223, 'text': 'With this, we reach the end of our full course on cryptography.', 'start': 8048.301, 'duration': 2.922}, {'end': 8058.549, 'text': 'We hope you learned a lot of new concepts today and will be able to make use of your newly acquired knowledge to propel your career forward.', 'start': 8051.943, 'duration': 6.606}, {'end': 8065.594, 'text': 'If you have any questions or queries regarding the topics explained in this video, please feel free to ask us in the comment section,', 'start': 8059.109, 'duration': 6.485}, {'end': 8067.556, 'text': 'and we will be happy to assist you in your learning.', 'start': 8065.594, 'duration': 1.962}], 'summary': 'Learn about symmetric and asymmetric algorithms, block ciphers, stream ciphers, ssl, and tls in cryptography.', 'duration': 51.132, 'max_score': 8016.424, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM8016424.jpg'}], 'start': 7152.425, 'title': 'Modern cryptography and pki', 'summary': 'Covers the concept of public key infrastructure, the process of obtaining digital signatures, and the prime objectives of modern cryptography, including examples of encryption algorithms and their usage.', 'chapters': [{'end': 7222.093, 'start': 7152.425, 'title': 'Public key infrastructure', 'summary': 'Explains the concept of public key infrastructure (pki) as a set of policies securing communication using two cryptographic keys, and standardizing the use of digital certificates for data encryption and decryption with asymmetric encryption.', 'duration': 69.668, 'highlights': ['The public key infrastructure is a set of policies which secures the communication between a server and a client, using two cryptographic keys, public and private.', 'It uses asymmetric encryption, with a public key to encrypt and a private key to decrypt, and standardizes the use of digital certificates for data encryption and decryption.', 'The infrastructure consists of policies, people, procedures, and techniques, globally accepted to encrypt and decrypt data using digital certificates.', 'In a public key infrastructure, various players are defined, such as the user or the sender.']}, {'end': 7521.714, 'start': 7222.093, 'title': 'Digital signature and public key infrastructure', 'summary': 'Outlines the process of obtaining a digital signature, the role of various authorities in the public key infrastructure (pki), the utilization of pki for secure transactions, and the explanation of rsa as an asymmetric cryptography algorithm along with its alternatives.', 'duration': 299.621, 'highlights': ['The chapter outlines the process of obtaining a digital signature, the role of various authorities in the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), and the utilization of PKI for secure transactions.', 'The chapter provides an explanation of RSA as an asymmetric cryptography algorithm along with its alternatives.']}, {'end': 7676.206, 'start': 7522.034, 'title': 'Objectives of modern cryptography', 'summary': 'Discusses the prime objectives of modern cryptography, including confidentiality, non-repudiation, authenticity, and integrity, and provides examples of how these objectives are achieved through access controls, digital signatures, and delivery reports.', 'duration': 154.172, 'highlights': ['Non-repudiation is achieved through methods such as digital signatures and SMS delivery reports, preventing denial of participation in a transaction.', 'Confidentiality is maintained by creating a list of authorized users, assigning digital identities, and implementing access controls to restrict data access.', 'The main objectives of modern cryptography include confidentiality, non-repudiation, authenticity, and integrity, ensuring that data is kept confidential, transactions cannot be denied, and the integrity of data is maintained.']}, {'end': 8069.678, 'start': 7678.567, 'title': 'Modern cryptography and security', 'summary': 'Discusses the four prime objectives of modern cryptography - confidentiality, authenticity, non-repudiation, and integrity - and the usage of safer block cipher in digital payment cards, along with the working of public key infrastructure and the blowfish algorithm for encryption and decryption.', 'duration': 391.111, 'highlights': ['SAFER block cipher is widely used in applications like digital payment cards and ensures highly secure encryption and decryption procedures.', 'The four prime objectives of modern cryptography are confidentiality, authenticity, non-repudiation, and integrity, ensuring secure and trustworthy data transactions.', 'The public key infrastructure works through the certification authority, registration authority, end user, and validation authority to issue and validate digital certificates for secure transactions.', 'The Blowfish algorithm is a 64-bit symmetric encryption algorithm, utilizing the same key for encryption and decryption, and is used to encrypt and decrypt data.']}], 'duration': 917.253, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/C7vmouDOJYM/pics/C7vmouDOJYM7152425.jpg', 'highlights': ['The public key infrastructure uses asymmetric encryption with a public key to encrypt and a private key to decrypt.', 'The main objectives of modern cryptography include confidentiality, non-repudiation, authenticity, and integrity.', 'The public key infrastructure works through the certification authority, registration authority, end user, and validation authority.', 'SAFER block cipher is widely used in applications like digital payment cards and ensures highly secure encryption and decryption procedures.', 'The chapter outlines the process of obtaining a digital signature and the utilization of PKI for secure transactions.', 'The infrastructure consists of policies, people, procedures, and techniques, globally accepted to encrypt and decrypt data using digital certificates.', 'The chapter provides an explanation of RSA as an asymmetric cryptography algorithm along with its alternatives.', 'The Blowfish algorithm is a 64-bit symmetric encryption algorithm, utilizing the same key for encryption and decryption.']}], 'highlights': ['The average cost of a data breach in 2020 is $3.86 million, contributing to the 12% annual growth rate of cybersecurity spending.', 'Cryptography is essential for securing data transmission and storage, with over 65 billion messages sent daily on WhatsApp using end-to-end encryption.', 'The full course on cryptography and network security by simplilearn covers topics like encryption algorithms (des, aes, dsa, rsa), hashing algorithms (md5, sha), ssl handshake, diffie-hellman key exchange, and modern cryptography, providing comprehensive knowledge in just under 3 hours.', 'Symmetric key cryptography is primarily used in banking applications for encrypting personally identifiable information and detecting bank fraud, providing a reliable safety net for internet banking.', 'The chapter delves into individual encryption and decryption algorithms used in cryptography, covering DES, AES, DSA, and RSA Encryption algorithm.', 'The SSL handshake process consists of four phases, involving the exchange of public and private keys, authentication certificates, and encryption algorithms, ensuring data integrity and confidentiality.', 'The advanced encryption standard AES-256 is the most widely used symmetric encryption algorithm, with a key size of 256-bit.', 'The development of triple DES as a symmetric key block cipher, using a double DES cipher, and its eventual replacement by the advanced encryption standard.', 'The chapter provides insight into popular interview questions for candidates applying for positions related to cryptography and cybersecurity.', 'The public key infrastructure uses asymmetric encryption with a public key to encrypt and a private key to decrypt.']}