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7.11 Shell Sort | Sorting Algorithms | Full explanation with Code | DSA Course

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Step by step instructions showing how Shell Sort works with example and its code. Analysis of shell sort has also been done.
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{'title': '7.11 Shell Sort | Sorting Algorithms | Full explanation with Code | DSA Course', 'heatmap': [{'end': 555.736, 'start': 508.77, 'weight': 0.828}, {'end': 614.919, 'start': 591.577, 'weight': 0.753}, {'end': 759.294, 'start': 708.753, 'weight': 0.734}, {'end': 1406.148, 'start': 1345.359, 'weight': 0.806}, {'end': 1495.116, 'start': 1433.939, 'weight': 0.813}, {'end': 1659.11, 'start': 1635.671, 'weight': 0.752}], 'summary': 'Provides a comprehensive explanation of shell sort, comparing it with insertion sort, and emphasizing its advantages in reducing time complexity and the number of required operations through optimizing comparison and shifting operations with gap sequences.', 'chapters': [{'end': 176.668, 'segs': [{'end': 21.116, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 0.189, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 11.133, 'text': 'we are going to see how shell sort will work on this array and plus I am going to write a piece of code for this shell sorting and also we will discuss the time complexity of this case in this case.', 'start': 0.189, 'duration': 10.944}, {'end': 17.715, 'text': 'so we are going to take this example and first of all, we are going to see how shell sort is different from insertion sort.', 'start': 11.133, 'duration': 6.582}, {'end': 21.116, 'text': 'or you can say what are the advantages of shell sort over insertion sort.', 'start': 17.715, 'duration': 3.401}], 'summary': "Analyzing shell sort's advantages over insertion sort using a specific example and exploring its time complexity.", 'duration': 20.927, 'max_score': 0.189, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM189.jpg'}, {'end': 158.23, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 129.163, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 140.49, 'text': 'right, and for placing this 2 here, how many you can say, comparison and shift operations are required 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 8.', 'start': 129.163, 'duration': 11.327}, {'end': 147.499, 'text': 'after that you are going to put this 2 into its proper place in case of insertion sort right now.', 'start': 140.49, 'duration': 7.009}, {'end': 155.928, 'text': 'see, if we implement some kind of algorithm in which we are going to, we are going to compare the element which are destined,', 'start': 147.499, 'duration': 8.429}, {'end': 158.23, 'text': 'the part which are not adjacent.', 'start': 155.928, 'duration': 2.302}], 'summary': 'Inserting 2 requires 8 comparisons and shifts in insertion sort algorithm.', 'duration': 29.067, 'max_score': 129.163, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM129163.jpg'}], 'start': 0.189, 'title': 'Shell sort and time complexity', 'summary': 'Explains shell sort on an array, compares it with insertion sort, and discusses its advantages, with a detailed analysis of time complexity, comparisons, and shift operations.', 'chapters': [{'end': 176.668, 'start': 0.189, 'title': 'Shell sort and time complexity analysis', 'summary': 'Explains the working of shell sort on an array, compares it with insertion sort, and discusses its advantages, with a detailed analysis of time complexity and the number of comparisons and shift operations involved.', 'duration': 176.479, 'highlights': ['Shell sort is explained in comparison to insertion sort, emphasizing the number of comparisons and shift operations involved. The chapter explains the working of shell sort on an array, compares it with insertion sort, and discusses its advantages, with a detailed analysis of time complexity and the number of comparisons and shift operations involved.', 'Comparison and shift operations for placing elements in a sorted array using insertion sort are demonstrated, with quantifiable data. The chapter demonstrates the number of comparisons and shift operations required to place elements in a sorted array using insertion sort, with quantifiable data provided.', 'The concept of shell sort is introduced, focusing on comparing non-adjacent elements, providing an alternative approach to insertion sort. The chapter introduces the concept of shell sort, emphasizing the comparison of non-adjacent elements as an alternative approach to insertion sort.']}], 'duration': 176.479, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM189.jpg', 'highlights': ['The chapter explains the working of shell sort on an array, compares it with insertion sort, and discusses its advantages, with a detailed analysis of time complexity and the number of comparisons and shift operations involved.', 'Comparison and shift operations for placing elements in a sorted array using insertion sort are demonstrated, with quantifiable data.', 'The chapter introduces the concept of shell sort, emphasizing the comparison of non-adjacent elements as an alternative approach to insertion sort.']}, {'end': 441.57, 'segs': [{'end': 374.121, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 325.754, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 330.996, 'text': 'then to bring that element to the left hand side, to the left hand side,', 'start': 325.754, 'duration': 5.242}, {'end': 337.039, 'text': 'less number of swaps and less number of comparisons are required rather than insertion sort.', 'start': 330.996, 'duration': 6.043}, {'end': 340.941, 'text': 'so now, in shell sorting, the main funda is about this gap.', 'start': 337.039, 'duration': 3.902}, {'end': 343.403, 'text': 'how we are going to choose the gap.', 'start': 340.941, 'duration': 2.462}, {'end': 346.424, 'text': 'gap is 4, gap is 3, gap is 5 or 6, something like this.', 'start': 343.403, 'duration': 3.021}, {'end': 347.705, 'text': 'how we are going to choose this thing?', 'start': 346.424, 'duration': 1.281}, {'end': 352.536, 'text': 'The efficiency of this shell sorting depends on this gap sequence.', 'start': 348.709, 'duration': 3.827}, {'end': 359.39, 'text': 'The better the gap sequence, less time would be taken to sort the array.', 'start': 355.041, 'duration': 4.349}, {'end': 364.811, 'text': 'and there are many methods to calculate this gap.', 'start': 361.588, 'duration': 3.223}, {'end': 366.993, 'text': 'this gap sequence, right.', 'start': 364.811, 'duration': 2.182}, {'end': 369.736, 'text': 'see, many passes would be there in shell shot also.', 'start': 366.993, 'duration': 2.743}, {'end': 374.121, 'text': "so see, it's not like that in every pass gap would be 5 at starting.", 'start': 369.736, 'duration': 4.385}], 'summary': 'Shell sorting efficiency depends on gap sequence. less swaps and comparisons than insertion sort. gap choice crucial for performance.', 'duration': 48.367, 'max_score': 325.754, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM325754.jpg'}, {'end': 451.62, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 418.964, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 424.507, 'text': 'but in that case that shift operation would be very less as compared to this insertion sort,', 'start': 418.964, 'duration': 5.543}, {'end': 436.989, 'text': 'because we have already brought the smaller element from the right hand side to the left hand side in the first pass only or may be in the second pass only,', 'start': 425.526, 'duration': 11.463}, {'end': 441.57, 'text': 'so in the last pass, very few shift operations would be required.', 'start': 436.989, 'duration': 4.581}, {'end': 451.62, 'text': 'so in this video I am going to take an example in which we are going to take gap is equal to n by 2, where n is the number of elements in the array.', 'start': 441.57, 'duration': 10.05}], 'summary': 'Using a gap of n/2, a few shift operations are needed in the final pass of the insertion sort, as the smaller elements are already moved to the left in the earlier passes.', 'duration': 32.656, 'max_score': 418.964, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM418964.jpg'}], 'start': 176.668, 'title': 'Inefficiency of insertion sort and efficiency of shell sorting', 'summary': 'Discusses the inefficiency of insertion sort due to requiring many shift and comparison operations, while emphasizing the efficiency of shell sorting through optimizing comparison and shifting operations with gap sequences, aiming to reduce the number of required operations and sorting time.', 'chapters': [{'end': 245.522, 'start': 176.668, 'title': 'Inefficiency of insertion sort', 'summary': 'Discusses the inefficiency of insertion sort due to its property of requiring many shift and comparison operations to bring the smallest element to the left-hand side, as exemplified by the comparison of 23 with 7.', 'duration': 68.854, 'highlights': ['Insertion sort requires many shift and comparison operations to bring the smallest element to the left-hand side, leading to inefficiency in the sorting process.', 'In the example provided, the comparison of 23 with 7 results in 7 being placed on the left-hand side after just one swap operation, highlighting the contrast in operations required for insertion sort.']}, {'end': 303.479, 'start': 245.522, 'title': 'Shell sorting technique', 'summary': 'Explains the main idea of shell sorting, which involves comparing distant elements using a specified gap, such as 5, to optimize the comparison and shifting operations with the aim of reducing the number of required operations.', 'duration': 57.957, 'highlights': ['The main idea of shell sorting involves comparing distant elements using a specified gap, such as 5, to optimize the comparison and shifting operations.', 'This technique aims to reduce the number of required operations, as demonstrated by the example of comparing 23 with 7 and 29 with 9.']}, {'end': 441.57, 'start': 303.479, 'title': 'Efficiency of shell sorting', 'summary': 'Discusses the efficiency of shell sorting, emphasizing the importance of gap sequence in reducing the number of swaps and comparisons, with examples of gap sequences and the impact on sorting time.', 'duration': 138.091, 'highlights': ['Shell sorting requires less swaps and comparisons than insertion sort if the smaller element is at the rightmost side, reducing shift operations in the last pass. The smaller element at the rightmost side in shell sorting requires less swaps and comparisons, resulting in fewer shift operations in the last pass compared to insertion sort.', 'The efficiency of shell sorting depends on the chosen gap sequence, with a better sequence leading to less time taken for sorting the array. Efficiency of shell sorting is directly impacted by the chosen gap sequence, as a better sequence results in reduced sorting time for the array.', 'Shell sorting involves choosing the gap sequence, such as 5 at starting and reducing the gap until it reaches 1, mimicking insertion sort in the last pass. In shell sorting, the process involves choosing the gap sequence, starting with 5 and reducing the gap until it reaches 1, resembling insertion sort in the last pass.']}], 'duration': 264.902, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM176668.jpg', 'highlights': ['Shell sorting aims to optimize comparison and shifting operations by using a specified gap, such as 5.', 'Efficiency of shell sorting is directly impacted by the chosen gap sequence, leading to reduced sorting time for the array.', 'Insertion sort requires many shift and comparison operations, leading to inefficiency in the sorting process.', 'The efficiency of shell sorting depends on the chosen gap sequence, with a better sequence leading to less time taken for sorting the array.', 'Shell sorting involves choosing the gap sequence, starting with 5 and reducing the gap until it reaches 1, resembling insertion sort in the last pass.']}, {'end': 797.976, 'segs': [{'end': 555.736, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 464.483, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 470.965, 'text': 'so we are going to take gap is equal to n by 2 and we are going to take the floor value of this one.', 'start': 464.483, 'duration': 6.482}, {'end': 476.046, 'text': 'fine, and in next pass, in first pass, gap is this one.', 'start': 470.965, 'duration': 5.081}, {'end': 478.067, 'text': 'in next pass, again, gap would be.', 'start': 476.046, 'duration': 2.021}, {'end': 481.545, 'text': 'Let us suppose this is gap 1.', 'start': 480.063, 'duration': 1.482}, {'end': 484.89, 'text': 'in next pass, gap 2 and gap 2 would be gap 1.', 'start': 481.545, 'duration': 3.345}, {'end': 485.711, 'text': 'divide by 2.', 'start': 484.89, 'duration': 0.821}, {'end': 488.455, 'text': 'it means n, divide by 4..', 'start': 485.711, 'duration': 2.744}, {'end': 495.445, 'text': 'In next pass maybe gap 3 is equal to gap 2 divide by 2 it means n by 8.', 'start': 488.455, 'duration': 6.99}, {'end': 498.506, 'text': 'like this we are going to reduce till we reach to 1.', 'start': 495.445, 'duration': 3.061}, {'end': 500.727, 'text': 'when gap is 1, then we are going to stop.', 'start': 498.506, 'duration': 2.221}, {'end': 504.428, 'text': 'then this sorting algorithm will work same as insertion sort.', 'start': 500.727, 'duration': 3.701}, {'end': 508.77, 'text': 'so now i will discuss the working principle of shell sort with the help of this example.', 'start': 504.428, 'duration': 4.342}, {'end': 511.751, 'text': 'fine, after that i will write down a piece of code for this sorting algorithm.', 'start': 508.77, 'duration': 2.981}, {'end': 513.452, 'text': 'so now, first of all, find out the gap.', 'start': 511.751, 'duration': 1.701}, {'end': 516.988, 'text': 'Gap could be what?', 'start': 516.147, 'duration': 0.841}, {'end': 517.649, 'text': 'n by 2..', 'start': 517.268, 'duration': 0.381}, {'end': 519.09, 'text': 'I am using that formula.', 'start': 517.649, 'duration': 1.441}, {'end': 521.914, 'text': 'Fine Now n is what here? 9 elements are there.', 'start': 519.331, 'duration': 2.583}, {'end': 523.615, 'text': 'So 9 by 2 means 4.5.', 'start': 521.953, 'duration': 1.662}, {'end': 525.578, 'text': 'We are taking the floor value.', 'start': 523.615, 'duration': 1.963}, {'end': 529.714, 'text': 'So that is why we are going to take 4.', 'start': 526.038, 'duration': 3.676}, {'end': 537.099, 'text': 'It means we are going to start from here and at a gap of 4, which element is there? 1, 2, 3, 4, this one.', 'start': 529.714, 'duration': 7.385}, {'end': 540.142, 'text': 'We are going to compare this 23 with this 31.', 'start': 537.64, 'duration': 2.502}, {'end': 542.484, 'text': 'Then at a gap of 4, 1, 2, 3, 4, this one.', 'start': 540.142, 'duration': 2.342}, {'end': 549.429, 'text': 'Then we are going to compare this with 2 or you can say this is a kind of sub list 23, 31 and 33.', 'start': 543.244, 'duration': 6.185}, {'end': 555.736, 'text': '2. fine, like this, we are going to compare 29 with 7 at a gap of 4, 1, 2, 3, 4.', 'start': 549.429, 'duration': 6.307}], 'summary': 'Shell sort uses gap values to reduce complexity, with example for 9 elements.', 'duration': 53.166, 'max_score': 464.483, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM464483.jpg'}, {'end': 570.508, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 543.244, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 549.429, 'text': 'Then we are going to compare this with 2 or you can say this is a kind of sub list 23, 31 and 33.', 'start': 543.244, 'duration': 6.185}, {'end': 555.736, 'text': '2. fine, like this, we are going to compare 29 with 7 at a gap of 4, 1, 2, 3, 4.', 'start': 549.429, 'duration': 6.307}, {'end': 556.917, 'text': 'there is no element.', 'start': 555.736, 'duration': 1.181}, {'end': 561.662, 'text': 'ok. so we have only 2 element, 2 element in a sub list 29 and 7.', 'start': 556.917, 'duration': 4.745}, {'end': 566.466, 'text': 'then we are going to compare 15 with 9, 19 with 5.', 'start': 561.662, 'duration': 4.804}, {'end': 570.508, 'text': 'like this, we are going to compare how actually this comparison would be done.', 'start': 566.466, 'duration': 4.042}], 'summary': 'Comparing elements in sublists using specific gaps and quantifiable data', 'duration': 27.264, 'max_score': 543.244, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM543244.jpg'}, {'end': 617.633, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 591.577, 'weight': 0.753, 'content': [{'end': 596.799, 'text': 'so gap and j, both variable, would be at same place in starting.', 'start': 591.577, 'duration': 5.222}, {'end': 599.56, 'text': 'fine, now, compare 23 with this 31.', 'start': 596.799, 'duration': 2.761}, {'end': 602.642, 'text': '23 is less than 31, so no swapping would be done.', 'start': 599.56, 'duration': 3.082}, {'end': 605.384, 'text': 'we are going to sort this array in ascending order.', 'start': 602.642, 'duration': 2.742}, {'end': 606.544, 'text': 'fine, now.', 'start': 605.384, 'duration': 1.16}, {'end': 607.565, 'text': 'next, what would happen?', 'start': 606.544, 'duration': 1.021}, {'end': 613.208, 'text': 'this i would be incremented by 1 and j would also be incremented by 1.', 'start': 607.565, 'duration': 5.643}, {'end': 614.919, 'text': 'now, compare 29 with this 7.', 'start': 613.208, 'duration': 1.711}, {'end': 617.633, 'text': '29 is greater than 7, so swapping would be done.', 'start': 614.919, 'duration': 2.714}], 'summary': 'Sorting algorithm compares and swaps elements to achieve ascending order.', 'duration': 26.056, 'max_score': 591.577, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM591577.jpg'}, {'end': 759.294, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 708.753, 'weight': 0.734, 'content': [{'end': 720.913, 'text': 'after swapping, 2 comes here and 31 go there, and remaining element would be as it is.', 'start': 708.753, 'duration': 12.16}, {'end': 727.235, 'text': 'here is i and here is position of j right now.', 'start': 720.913, 'duration': 6.322}, {'end': 729.675, 'text': 'here you have to take care of one more thing.', 'start': 727.235, 'duration': 2.44}, {'end': 736.047, 'text': 'see, we have done swapping, but this is not yet done right.', 'start': 729.675, 'duration': 6.372}, {'end': 741.529, 'text': 'you are going to compare this one with a previous element, which is at a gap of 4.', 'start': 736.047, 'duration': 5.482}, {'end': 745.81, 'text': 'see previous element, which is at a gap of 4, 1, 2, 3, 4, this element.', 'start': 741.529, 'duration': 4.281}, {'end': 749.711, 'text': 'so you are going to compare 2 with this 23.', 'start': 745.81, 'duration': 3.901}, {'end': 752.752, 'text': 'now, 23 is greater than 2, so swapping would be done again.', 'start': 749.711, 'duration': 3.041}, {'end': 754.173, 'text': 'swapping would be done.', 'start': 752.752, 'duration': 1.421}, {'end': 759.294, 'text': 'fine. so now 2 comes here and 23 goes there.', 'start': 754.173, 'duration': 5.121}], 'summary': 'After swapping, 2 comes here and 31 go there, and remaining element stays.', 'duration': 50.541, 'max_score': 708.753, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM708753.jpg'}, {'end': 759.294, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 727.235, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 729.675, 'text': 'here you have to take care of one more thing.', 'start': 727.235, 'duration': 2.44}, {'end': 736.047, 'text': 'see, we have done swapping, but this is not yet done right.', 'start': 729.675, 'duration': 6.372}, {'end': 741.529, 'text': 'you are going to compare this one with a previous element, which is at a gap of 4.', 'start': 736.047, 'duration': 5.482}, {'end': 745.81, 'text': 'see previous element, which is at a gap of 4, 1, 2, 3, 4, this element.', 'start': 741.529, 'duration': 4.281}, {'end': 749.711, 'text': 'so you are going to compare 2 with this 23.', 'start': 745.81, 'duration': 3.901}, {'end': 752.752, 'text': 'now, 23 is greater than 2, so swapping would be done again.', 'start': 749.711, 'duration': 3.041}, {'end': 754.173, 'text': 'swapping would be done.', 'start': 752.752, 'duration': 1.421}, {'end': 759.294, 'text': 'fine. so now 2 comes here and 23 goes there.', 'start': 754.173, 'duration': 5.121}], 'summary': 'Swapping process involves comparing elements at a gap of 4 and performing swaps accordingly.', 'duration': 32.059, 'max_score': 727.235, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM727235.jpg'}], 'start': 441.57, 'title': 'Shell sort and element comparison', 'summary': 'Explains the working principle of shell sort, using a decreasing sequence of gaps to sort the array, with the initial gap set to n/2 and then reducing the gap by half in each pass until it reaches 1. it also covers the process of comparing and swapping elements within a list of 9 elements using a gap of 4 and the floor function, including the initialization of variables i and j, and the subsequent swapping process.', 'chapters': [{'end': 517.649, 'start': 441.57, 'title': 'Shell sort working principle', 'summary': 'Explains the working principle of shell sort, where the algorithm uses a decreasing sequence of gaps to sort the array, with the initial gap set to n/2 and then reducing the gap by half in each pass until it reaches 1.', 'duration': 76.079, 'highlights': ['The algorithm uses a decreasing sequence of gaps, starting with gap = n/2, and then reducing the gap by half in each pass until it reaches 1, where it works the same as insertion sort.', 'There are multiple methods to calculate the gap, and the discussed method may not be the best one, but it effectively reduces the gap by half in each pass, providing a sequence of decreasing gaps.', 'The chapter provides a detailed example of how the gap values are calculated in each pass, showing the reduction from n/2 to 1 by dividing the previous gap by 2 in each subsequent pass.']}, {'end': 797.976, 'start': 517.649, 'title': 'Comparing and swapping elements', 'summary': 'Explains the process of comparing and swapping elements within a list of 9 elements using a gap of 4 and the floor function, including the initialization of variables i and j, and the subsequent swapping process.', 'duration': 280.327, 'highlights': ['Explaining the comparison and swapping process The transcript provides a detailed explanation of how elements within a list of 9 elements are compared and swapped using a gap of 4, including the use of the floor function and the initialization of variables i and j.', 'Demonstrating the comparison of specific elements The chapter exemplifies the comparison and swapping process by comparing specific elements such as 23 with 31, 29 with 7, 15 with 9, and 19 with 5 within the list of elements.', 'Illustrating the swapping of elements The transcript illustrates the swapping process, showing the rearrangement of elements within the list, for instance, swapping 29 with 7, resulting in the updated array and the subsequent increment of variables i and j.']}], 'duration': 356.406, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM441570.jpg', 'highlights': ['The algorithm uses a decreasing sequence of gaps, starting with gap = n/2, and then reducing the gap by half in each pass until it reaches 1, where it works the same as insertion sort.', 'The chapter provides a detailed example of how the gap values are calculated in each pass, showing the reduction from n/2 to 1 by dividing the previous gap by 2 in each subsequent pass.', 'Explaining the comparison and swapping process The transcript provides a detailed explanation of how elements within a list of 9 elements are compared and swapped using a gap of 4, including the use of the floor function and the initialization of variables i and j.', 'Demonstrating the comparison of specific elements The chapter exemplifies the comparison and swapping process by comparing specific elements such as 23 with 31, 29 with 7, 15 with 9, and 19 with 5 within the list of elements.']}, {'end': 1224.149, 'segs': [{'end': 854.123, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 821.248, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 823.731, 'text': 'That is why we are going to compare this with this element.', 'start': 821.248, 'duration': 2.483}, {'end': 827.453, 'text': 'so you have to take care of this thing in forward direction also.', 'start': 824.312, 'duration': 3.141}, {'end': 831.714, 'text': 'at a gap of four, you are going to compare, fine, and if swapping is done,', 'start': 827.453, 'duration': 4.261}, {'end': 836.575, 'text': 'then again you are going to check in the backward direction also at a gap of four.', 'start': 831.714, 'duration': 4.861}, {'end': 840.436, 'text': 'if any element exists, then you are going to compare this with this element.', 'start': 836.575, 'duration': 3.861}, {'end': 844.336, 'text': 'if no element exists, then obviously you are going to break the loop.', 'start': 840.436, 'duration': 3.9}, {'end': 847.417, 'text': "fine, i'll write down the code, then you will get it better.", 'start': 844.336, 'duration': 3.081}, {'end': 854.123, 'text': 'fine, now, see, now j has been breached at this place, N minus 1..', 'start': 847.417, 'duration': 6.706}], 'summary': 'Comparing elements at a gap of four in both forward and backward directions to check for swapping and breaking the loop if no element exists.', 'duration': 32.875, 'max_score': 821.248, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM821248.jpg'}, {'end': 1132.742, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1100.145, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 1102.927, 'text': 'If j reached to this position then we are going to stop.', 'start': 1100.145, 'duration': 2.782}, {'end': 1105.628, 'text': 'Now this is pass 2.', 'start': 1102.967, 'duration': 2.661}, {'end': 1109.41, 'text': 'After pass 2 erase this one.', 'start': 1105.628, 'duration': 3.782}, {'end': 1114.209, 'text': 'Now pass 3.', 'start': 1109.89, 'duration': 4.319}, {'end': 1115.31, 'text': 'now in pass 3 array.', 'start': 1114.209, 'duration': 1.101}, {'end': 1116.671, 'text': 'is this one?', 'start': 1115.31, 'duration': 1.361}, {'end': 1118.232, 'text': 'now again we are going to start.', 'start': 1116.671, 'duration': 1.561}, {'end': 1121.915, 'text': 'see, in pass 3, gap would be updated now.', 'start': 1118.232, 'duration': 3.683}, {'end': 1123.956, 'text': 'gap is what 2 by 2, that is 1.', 'start': 1121.915, 'duration': 2.041}, {'end': 1129.441, 'text': 'now and when gap is 1, this shell sort works same as insertion sort.', 'start': 1123.956, 'duration': 5.485}, {'end': 1132.742, 'text': 'fine, now at a gap of 1.', 'start': 1130.282, 'duration': 2.46}], 'summary': 'Shell sort with 3 passes, updating gap to 1.', 'duration': 32.597, 'max_score': 1100.145, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM1100145.jpg'}], 'start': 797.976, 'title': 'Shell sort algorithm', 'summary': 'Explains the process of shell sort algorithm, with a focus on updating gaps and comparing elements, demonstrating the working with specific examples and comparisons.', 'chapters': [{'end': 840.436, 'start': 797.976, 'title': 'Comparing elements at a gap of four', 'summary': 'Discusses the process of comparing elements at a gap of four and checking for swapping in both forward and backward directions.', 'duration': 42.46, 'highlights': ['Comparing elements at a gap of four and checking for swapping in forward and backward directions', 'The need to handle the absence of an element at a gap of four in the forward direction and the existence of an element in the backward direction']}, {'end': 1224.149, 'start': 840.436, 'title': 'Shell sort algorithm', 'summary': 'Explains the process of shell sort algorithm, with a focus on the updating of gaps and the comparison of elements at different positions, demonstrating the working of the algorithm with specific examples and comparisons.', 'duration': 383.713, 'highlights': ['Shell sort algorithm explanation, demonstrating the updating of gaps and comparison of elements at different positions with specific examples and comparisons.', 'Demonstration of shell sort algorithm with specific examples and comparisons, showcasing the updating of gaps and the comparison of elements at different positions.', 'Explanation of shell sort algorithm, emphasizing the process of updating gaps and comparing elements at different positions with specific examples and comparisons.']}], 'duration': 426.173, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM797976.jpg', 'highlights': ['Demonstration of shell sort algorithm with specific examples and comparisons, showcasing the updating of gaps and the comparison of elements at different positions.', 'Explanation of shell sort algorithm, emphasizing the process of updating gaps and comparing elements at different positions with specific examples and comparisons.', 'Comparing elements at a gap of four and checking for swapping in forward and backward directions.', 'The need to handle the absence of an element at a gap of four in the forward direction and the existence of an element in the backward direction.']}, {'end': 1499.719, 'segs': [{'end': 1282.025, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1256.348, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 1264.475, 'text': 'So see, as you can see in the last pass, when gap is 1, this shell sort is working same as insertion sort,', 'start': 1256.348, 'duration': 8.127}, {'end': 1269.159, 'text': 'but in the last pass only one swap operation was there for this.', 'start': 1264.475, 'duration': 4.684}, {'end': 1273.763, 'text': '9 and 7, because all the elements are at its proper place.', 'start': 1269.159, 'duration': 4.604}, {'end': 1282.025, 'text': 'so that is why we follow shell sorting when smaller elements are to the right most side,', 'start': 1274.983, 'duration': 7.042}], 'summary': 'Shell sort reduces swap operations, making it efficient for smaller elements on right side.', 'duration': 25.677, 'max_score': 1256.348, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM1256348.jpg'}, {'end': 1345.359, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1308.739, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 1312.721, 'text': 'so one for loop would be for this gap sequence, one.', 'start': 1308.739, 'duration': 3.982}, {'end': 1320.225, 'text': 'one may be this for this pass, because we have three passes and within this passes we are also having the comparisons.', 'start': 1312.721, 'duration': 7.504}, {'end': 1323.546, 'text': 'we have taken i variable and j variable, something like this.', 'start': 1320.225, 'duration': 3.321}, {'end': 1325.627, 'text': 'so three loops would be there.', 'start': 1323.546, 'duration': 2.081}, {'end': 1329.089, 'text': 'so first starting loop would be for gap.', 'start': 1325.627, 'duration': 3.462}, {'end': 1330.83, 'text': 'so you can say four.', 'start': 1329.089, 'duration': 1.741}, {'end': 1345.359, 'text': 'you can say this gap is equal to n by two, n number of that elements in the array and gap greater than equal to 1, greater than equal to 1.', 'start': 1330.83, 'duration': 14.529}], 'summary': 'The algorithm uses three nested loops to iterate through a gap sequence, with the first loop iterating four times and the gap being determined as n/2.', 'duration': 36.62, 'max_score': 1308.739, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM1308739.jpg'}, {'end': 1406.148, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 1345.359, 'weight': 0.806, 'content': [{'end': 1353.164, 'text': 'and then we will write what gap divide by 2, because after each pass we are going to divide this gap by 2.', 'start': 1345.359, 'duration': 7.805}, {'end': 1355.226, 'text': 'so this is one form now.', 'start': 1353.164, 'duration': 2.062}, {'end': 1357.929, 'text': 'next, next, is what see?', 'start': 1356.508, 'duration': 1.421}, {'end': 1360.671, 'text': 'we have taken two variables i and j.', 'start': 1357.929, 'duration': 2.742}, {'end': 1361.512, 'text': 'at starting.', 'start': 1360.671, 'duration': 0.841}, {'end': 1365.434, 'text': 'at starting, i was this and j was at 4.', 'start': 1361.512, 'duration': 3.922}, {'end': 1371.498, 'text': 'this is i and this is j, because gap was 4, 1, 2, 3, 4, fine.', 'start': 1365.434, 'duration': 6.064}, {'end': 1381.932, 'text': 'so we are going to take this j is equal to gap, gap value is also 4 and j value is also 4, and we have incremented this j by 1.', 'start': 1371.498, 'duration': 10.434}, {'end': 1388.157, 'text': 'till this j has been raised to n, minus 1, because here n is what 9.', 'start': 1381.932, 'duration': 6.225}, {'end': 1391.179, 'text': 'so here the last index is 8.', 'start': 1388.157, 'duration': 3.022}, {'end': 1393.841, 'text': 'so what you are going to do?', 'start': 1391.179, 'duration': 2.662}, {'end': 1406.148, 'text': 'j should be less than n, or you can say less than equal to n, minus 1, fine, and j plus plus, right again.', 'start': 1393.841, 'duration': 12.307}], 'summary': 'Algorithm divides gap by 2, iterates through i and j, with j incrementing till n-1.', 'duration': 60.789, 'max_score': 1345.359, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM1345359.jpg'}, {'end': 1495.116, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 1433.939, 'weight': 0.813, 'content': [{'end': 1441.981, 'text': 'fine, we are going to increment both with this pair this first of all, this and this, then this and this, then this and this, then this and this,', 'start': 1433.939, 'duration': 8.042}, {'end': 1443.262, 'text': 'and then this and this.', 'start': 1441.981, 'duration': 1.281}, {'end': 1446.242, 'text': 'so i would be incremented till four.', 'start': 1443.262, 'duration': 2.98}, {'end': 1450.344, 'text': 'right, so you, you cannot write that i would be zero and i plus plus.', 'start': 1446.242, 'duration': 4.102}, {'end': 1452.964, 'text': 'simply no, you have to do something else.', 'start': 1450.344, 'duration': 2.62}, {'end': 1466.485, 'text': 'so here i would be this j minus And this i should be greater than equal to 0.', 'start': 1452.964, 'duration': 13.521}, {'end': 1471.768, 'text': 'And we are going to decrement i is minus gap.', 'start': 1466.485, 'duration': 5.283}, {'end': 1475.17, 'text': 'Or you can say i is equal to i minus gap.', 'start': 1471.768, 'duration': 3.402}, {'end': 1485.789, 'text': "So now we are going to check If, See, if this value is greater than this value, then it's fine,", 'start': 1475.17, 'duration': 10.619}, {'end': 1490.632, 'text': 'because we are going to arrange the data in ascending order.', 'start': 1485.789, 'duration': 4.843}, {'end': 1495.116, 'text': "or you can say, in other words, if this value is less than this value, then it's fine.", 'start': 1490.632, 'duration': 4.484}], 'summary': 'Increment and decrement operations to arrange data in ascending order till four iterations.', 'duration': 61.177, 'max_score': 1433.939, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM1433939.jpg'}], 'start': 1224.149, 'title': 'Shell sorting and shell sort algorithm', 'summary': 'Explains the concept of shell sorting, demonstrating its process and the stopping condition, concluding with the significance of arranging smaller elements to the right. additionally, it introduces the shell sort algorithm, explaining the process of sorting elements with gap sequences of 4, 2, and 1, utilizing three loops for gap, i, and j variables, and emphasizing the importance of minimizing swap operations.', 'chapters': [{'end': 1282.025, 'start': 1224.149, 'title': 'Shell sorting explanation', 'summary': 'Explains the concept of shell sorting, demonstrating its process and the stopping condition, concluding with the significance of using shell sorting for arranging smaller elements to the right.', 'duration': 57.876, 'highlights': ['The stopping condition for shell sorting is when the gap becomes 0, and in the last pass, only one swap operation was performed. The stopping condition for shell sorting is when the gap becomes 0, and in the last pass, only one swap operation was performed, showcasing the efficiency of the algorithm.', 'Shell sort works similarly to insertion sort when the gap is 1, with minimal swap operations, leading to a sorted array. Shell sort works similarly to insertion sort when the gap is 1, with minimal swap operations, leading to a sorted array, demonstrating the practical application of the sorting algorithm.', 'The significance of using shell sorting is highlighted for arranging smaller elements to the rightmost side. The significance of using shell sorting is highlighted for arranging smaller elements to the rightmost side, emphasizing its practical utility in specific scenarios.']}, {'end': 1499.719, 'start': 1282.025, 'title': 'Shell sort algorithm', 'summary': 'Introduces the shell sort algorithm and explains the process of sorting elements with gap sequences of 4, 2, and 1, utilizing three loops for gap, i, and j variables and emphasizing the importance of minimizing swap operations.', 'duration': 217.694, 'highlights': ['Explaining the gap sequence and the number of passes The algorithm utilizes gap sequences of 4, 2, and 1, with three passes and comparisons within the passes.', 'Utilizing three loops for gap, i, and j variables The algorithm employs three loops for gap, i, and j variables to iterate through the elements and minimize swap operations.', 'Emphasizing the importance of minimizing swap operations The chapter highlights the significance of minimizing swap operations to enhance the efficiency of the sorting algorithm.']}], 'duration': 275.57, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM1224149.jpg', 'highlights': ['The stopping condition for shell sorting is when the gap becomes 0, and in the last pass, only one swap operation was performed, showcasing the efficiency of the algorithm.', 'Shell sort works similarly to insertion sort when the gap is 1, with minimal swap operations, leading to a sorted array, demonstrating the practical application of the sorting algorithm.', 'The significance of using shell sorting is highlighted for arranging smaller elements to the rightmost side, emphasizing its practical utility in specific scenarios.', 'Explaining the gap sequence and the number of passes The algorithm utilizes gap sequences of 4, 2, and 1, with three passes and comparisons within the passes.', 'Utilizing three loops for gap, i, and j variables The algorithm employs three loops for gap, i, and j variables to iterate through the elements and minimize swap operations.', 'Emphasizing the importance of minimizing swap operations The chapter highlights the significance of minimizing swap operations to enhance the efficiency of the sorting algorithm.']}, {'end': 2046.873, 'segs': [{'end': 1567.099, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1542.809, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 1549.191, 'text': 'this a plus gap with a of i.', 'start': 1542.809, 'duration': 6.382}, {'end': 1551.092, 'text': 'now here we are going to close this.', 'start': 1549.191, 'duration': 1.901}, {'end': 1554.394, 'text': 'four. or you can write this coding into a function.', 'start': 1551.092, 'duration': 3.302}, {'end': 1561.276, 'text': 'you can make a function that is shell sort word shell sort, and you can pass array and that number of elements in there.', 'start': 1554.394, 'duration': 6.882}, {'end': 1564.178, 'text': 'and you can write this, this coding, into that function.', 'start': 1561.276, 'duration': 2.902}, {'end': 1564.878, 'text': 'and you can write.', 'start': 1564.178, 'duration': 0.7}, {'end': 1567.099, 'text': 'you can call that function into main function.', 'start': 1564.878, 'duration': 2.221}], 'summary': 'Introducing a shell sort function with a sample implementation.', 'duration': 24.29, 'max_score': 1542.809, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM1542809.jpg'}, {'end': 1660.871, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 1635.671, 'weight': 0.752, 'content': [{'end': 1640.973, 'text': 'Break means the control will go out from the loop in which break is written.', 'start': 1635.671, 'duration': 5.302}, {'end': 1643.994, 'text': 'So in which loop break is written in this for loop.', 'start': 1641.353, 'duration': 2.641}, {'end': 1645.974, 'text': 'The for loop which is for i.', 'start': 1644.074, 'duration': 1.9}, {'end': 1648.275, 'text': 'So control will go from this for loop.', 'start': 1645.974, 'duration': 2.301}, {'end': 1649.376, 'text': 'From this for loop.', 'start': 1648.395, 'duration': 0.981}, {'end': 1650.996, 'text': 'It means control will go here j++.', 'start': 1649.496, 'duration': 1.5}, {'end': 1651.597, 'text': 'So j is now 5.', 'start': 1651.016, 'duration': 0.581}, {'end': 1657.888, 'text': 'Right. Now j is 5.', 'start': 1651.597, 'duration': 6.291}, {'end': 1659.11, 'text': '5 is less than 9.', 'start': 1657.888, 'duration': 1.222}, {'end': 1660.871, 'text': 'yes, control will go again in this loop.', 'start': 1659.11, 'duration': 1.761}], 'summary': 'Using break in for loop to exit and continue iterations with quantifiable examples.', 'duration': 25.2, 'max_score': 1635.671, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM1635671.jpg'}, {'end': 1943.799, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1911.727, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 1914.369, 'text': 'Now again check a of i plus gap.', 'start': 1911.727, 'duration': 2.642}, {'end': 1916.49, 'text': 'See i is equal to 0.', 'start': 1914.509, 'duration': 1.981}, {'end': 1917.17, 'text': '0 plus gap.', 'start': 1916.49, 'duration': 0.68}, {'end': 1918.371, 'text': '0 plus 4.', 'start': 1917.771, 'duration': 0.6}, {'end': 1922.113, 'text': 'That is a of 4 greater than a of i.', 'start': 1918.371, 'duration': 3.742}, {'end': 1923.694, 'text': 'See i is equal to 0.', 'start': 1922.113, 'duration': 1.581}, {'end': 1926.296, 'text': 'Means a of 0.', 'start': 1923.694, 'duration': 2.602}, {'end': 1929.798, 'text': 'So we have done in that case also previous element.', 'start': 1926.296, 'duration': 3.502}, {'end': 1934.34, 'text': 'We are going to compare this with previous element which is at a gap of 4.', 'start': 1930.658, 'duration': 3.682}, {'end': 1936.28, 'text': '1, 2, 3, 4.', 'start': 1934.34, 'duration': 1.94}, {'end': 1938.223, 'text': 'So we are going to compare this with this.', 'start': 1936.282, 'duration': 1.941}, {'end': 1943.799, 'text': 'If this 2, this 2 greater than 23,?', 'start': 1939.497, 'duration': 4.302}], 'summary': 'Comparing elements at a gap of 4: 0+4=4, a(4)>a(0), comparing 2>23', 'duration': 32.072, 'max_score': 1911.727, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM1911727.jpg'}, {'end': 2037.321, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1995.346, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 2003.775, 'text': 'you can trace out this code with the gap of 2, then with the gap of 1 and after gap of 1, you will find out that that array is sorted.', 'start': 1995.346, 'duration': 8.429}, {'end': 2011.062, 'text': 'so i hope you go to how shell sort works and the time complexity of this is, in the worst case it is order of n square.', 'start': 2003.775, 'duration': 7.287}, {'end': 2016.266, 'text': 'See, I have told you, time complexity depends on the gap sequence.', 'start': 2012.523, 'duration': 3.743}, {'end': 2019.808, 'text': 'I am taking the gap sequence with the help of n by 2.', 'start': 2016.386, 'duration': 3.422}, {'end': 2023.131, 'text': 'So in this case time complexity in worst case is order of n square.', 'start': 2019.808, 'duration': 3.323}, {'end': 2028.214, 'text': 'Maybe if you take better gap sequence and you will get better time complexity.', 'start': 2023.571, 'duration': 4.643}, {'end': 2032.457, 'text': 'I am not saying that always the time complexity would be n square order of n square.', 'start': 2028.234, 'duration': 4.223}, {'end': 2037.321, 'text': 'In this case if you are going to take this one then time complexity would be order of n square.', 'start': 2033.218, 'duration': 4.103}], 'summary': 'Shell sort has worst-case time complexity of o(n^2) using gap sequence of n/2.', 'duration': 41.975, 'max_score': 1995.346, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM1995346.jpg'}], 'start': 1499.719, 'title': 'Shell sort algorithm and its example', 'summary': 'Explains the shell sort algorithm and its example, demonstrating the process of sorting an array using a specific gap sequence, implementing the algorithm into a function for reusability, and detailing the time complexity of o(n^2) influenced by the gap sequence.', 'chapters': [{'end': 1567.099, 'start': 1499.719, 'title': 'Shell sort algorithm', 'summary': 'Explains the shell sort algorithm by demonstrating the process of sorting an array using a specific gap sequence and implementing the algorithm into a function for reusability.', 'duration': 67.38, 'highlights': ['The algorithm utilizes a specific gap sequence of 4, 1, 2, 3, 4 for sorting the array.', 'It demonstrates the process of swapping elements based on the comparison of i plus gap and a of i.', 'The chapter emphasizes the creation of a shell sort function for reusability and modularity.']}, {'end': 2046.873, 'start': 1568.021, 'title': 'Shell sort algorithm example', 'summary': 'Explains the shell sort algorithm using an example, detailing the process of sorting an array with a time complexity of o(n^2) and emphasizing how the time complexity is influenced by the gap sequence.', 'duration': 478.852, 'highlights': ['The time complexity of shell sort algorithm is O(n^2). The chapter highlights the time complexity of the shell sort algorithm, specifying it as O(n^2).', "The sorting process is demonstrated using an example, emphasizing the influence of the gap sequence on time complexity. The transcript details the process of sorting an array using the shell sort algorithm and emphasizes the impact of the gap sequence on the algorithm's time complexity.", "The gap sequence used in the example is n by 2, contributing to the worst-case time complexity of O(n^2). The transcript mentions the use of the gap sequence 'n by 2' in the example, which is linked to the worst-case time complexity of O(n^2)."]}], 'duration': 547.154, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/9crZRd8GPWM/pics/9crZRd8GPWM1499719.jpg', 'highlights': ['The chapter emphasizes the creation of a shell sort function for reusability and modularity.', 'The sorting process is demonstrated using an example, emphasizing the influence of the gap sequence on time complexity.', 'The gap sequence used in the example is n by 2, contributing to the worst-case time complexity of O(n^2).', 'The algorithm utilizes a specific gap sequence of 4, 1, 2, 3, 4 for sorting the array.', 'It demonstrates the process of swapping elements based on the comparison of i plus gap and a of i.', 'The time complexity of shell sort algorithm is O(n^2).']}], 'highlights': ['The chapter introduces the concept of shell sort, emphasizing the comparison of non-adjacent elements as an alternative approach to insertion sort.', 'Demonstration of shell sort algorithm with specific examples and comparisons, showcasing the updating of gaps and the comparison of elements at different positions.', 'The algorithm uses a decreasing sequence of gaps, starting with gap = n/2, and then reducing the gap by half in each pass until it reaches 1, where it works the same as insertion sort.', 'The stopping condition for shell sorting is when the gap becomes 0, and in the last pass, only one swap operation was performed, showcasing the efficiency of the algorithm.', 'The chapter emphasizes the creation of a shell sort function for reusability and modularity.']}