title

Po-Shen Loh: Mathematics, Math Olympiad, Combinatorics & Contact Tracing | Lex Fridman Podcast #183

description

Po-Shen Loh is a mathematician at CMU and coach of the USA International Math Olympiad team. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors:
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EPISODE LINKS:
Po's Twitter: https://twitter.com/poshenloh
Po's Website: https://www.poshenloh.com/
Daily Challenges: https://daily.poshenloh.com/
NOVID: https://www.novid.org/
PODCAST INFO:
Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast
Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr
Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8
RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/
Full episodes playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLrAXtmErZgOdP_8GztsuKi9nrraNbKKp4
Clips playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLrAXtmErZgOeciFP3CBCIEElOJeitOr41
OUTLINE:
0:00 - Introduction
1:43 - Planes and bridges
5:21 - Writing a computer game from scratch
7:46 - Programming competitions
11:21 - Math is hard
16:52 - Contact tracing that preserves privacy
54:09 - Math Olympiad
1:09:49 - Hard math problem
1:17:06 - Is math discovered or invented?
1:22:02 - Intelligence
1:28:52 - Math education
1:33:03 - How to learn math
1:41:58 - Combinatorics
1:45:05 - Voting trees
1:55:29 - Stochastic coalescence
2:05:15 - P=NP
2:09:32 - Tolkien and WWII
2:11:52 - Advice for young people
2:13:57 - Meaning of life
SOCIAL:
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- Support on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/lexfridman

detail

{'title': 'Po-Shen Loh: Mathematics, Math Olympiad, Combinatorics & Contact Tracing | Lex Fridman Podcast #183', 'heatmap': [{'end': 6482.992, 'start': 6394.433, 'weight': 0.77}], 'summary': 'Features a conversation with po-shen lo, discussing math education, anonymous contact tracing, disease control using network theory and smartphones, decentralized optimization in game theory, empowering individuals for infection control, innovative education, math olympiad, mathematics as discovery or invention, math teaching, problem solving, circuit board for candidate selection, and insights on the p vs np problem probability.', 'chapters': [{'end': 1030.988, 'segs': [{'end': 28.558, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 0.109, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 6.412, 'text': 'The following is a conversation with Po Shen Lo, a professor of mathematics at Carnegie Mellon University,', 'start': 0.109, 'duration': 6.303}, {'end': 14.796, 'text': 'national coach of the USA International Math Olympia team and founder of XP that does online education of basic math and science.', 'start': 6.412, 'duration': 8.384}, {'end': 23.197, 'text': "He's also the founder of Novid, an app that takes a really interesting approach to contact tracing, making sure you stay completely anonymous,", 'start': 15.356, 'duration': 7.841}, {'end': 28.558, 'text': 'and it gives you statistical information about COVID cases in your physical network of interactions.', 'start': 23.197, 'duration': 5.361}], 'summary': 'Po shen lo, a math professor, founder of xp and novid, innovates in education and contact tracing for covid.', 'duration': 28.449, 'max_score': 0.109, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ109.jpg'}, {'end': 403.708, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 378.7, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 384.141, 'text': "I say the word sort of, like still quite far away, but at least I didn't need to hire a 3D CG artist.", 'start': 378.7, 'duration': 5.441}, {'end': 390.143, 'text': "There weren't enough pixels to draw anyway, even I can draw, right? Bad art, of course.", 'start': 385.262, 'duration': 4.881}, {'end': 396.625, 'text': 'But the point is I wanted to know is it possible for me to try to do those things where, back in those days,', 'start': 390.343, 'duration': 6.282}, {'end': 401.006, 'text': "you didn't even have an easy way to draw letters on the screen in a particular font?", 'start': 396.625, 'duration': 4.381}, {'end': 402.847, 'text': "You couldn't just say import a font.", 'start': 401.426, 'duration': 1.421}, {'end': 403.708, 'text': "It wasn't like Python.", 'start': 402.887, 'duration': 0.821}], 'summary': "The speaker didn't need to hire a 3d cg artist due to lack of pixels for drawing, and discusses limitations in drawing letters on the screen in the past.", 'duration': 25.008, 'max_score': 378.7, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ378700.jpg'}, {'end': 591.716, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 557.101, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 562.245, 'text': 'You have to think through a really clean, beautiful solution.', 'start': 557.101, 'duration': 5.144}, {'end': 567.448, 'text': 'I mean, what do you think is the use of those programming competitions?', 'start': 562.265, 'duration': 5.183}, {'end': 570.631, 'text': "Do you think they're ultimately something you would recommend for students,", 'start': 567.809, 'duration': 2.822}, {'end': 573.413, 'text': 'for people interested in programming or people interested in building stuff?', 'start': 570.631, 'duration': 2.782}, {'end': 580.287, 'text': "Yes, I think so, because, especially with the work that I've been doing nowadays, even trying to control COVID,", 'start': 574.042, 'duration': 6.245}, {'end': 591.716, 'text': 'something that was very helpful from day one was understanding that the kinds of computations we would want to do we could conceivably do on like a four core cloud machine on Amazon Web Services.', 'start': 580.287, 'duration': 11.429}], 'summary': 'Programming competitions can be recommended for students, helpful for covid control with computations feasible on a four-core cloud machine.', 'duration': 34.615, 'max_score': 557.101, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ557101.jpg'}], 'start': 0.109, 'title': 'Math, science, and education', 'summary': 'Features a conversation with po shen lo, discussing his involvement in math education and the development of an app for anonymous contact tracing. it also explores the intersection of mathematics and software engineering, emphasizing the problem-solving aspect of both fields and its transferable skills to building startups.', 'chapters': [{'end': 358.229, 'start': 0.109, 'title': 'Po shen lo: math, science, and education', 'summary': 'Features a conversation with po shen lo, discussing his involvement in math education, the development of an app for anonymous contact tracing, and his fascination with the achievements of human civilization in aviation, engineering, and technology.', 'duration': 358.12, 'highlights': ['Po Shen Lo developed an app for anonymous contact tracing providing statistical information about COVID cases in physical networks, emphasizing privacy and informed decisions. Po Shen Lo created an app for anonymous contact tracing that provides statistical information about COVID cases in physical networks, emphasizing privacy and informed decisions.', 'Po Shen Lo discusses the need for solutions like the contact tracing app in early 2020 and anticipates the need for similar solutions in the next pandemic. Po Shen Lo discusses the need for solutions like the contact tracing app in early 2020 and anticipates the need for similar solutions in the next pandemic.', 'Po Shen Lo expresses his fascination with human achievements in aviation and space travel, pondering the magical experience of flying and the capability of humans to accomplish such feats. Po Shen Lo expresses his fascination with human achievements in aviation and space travel, pondering the magical experience of flying and the capability of humans to accomplish such feats.', 'Po Shen Lo shares his admiration for the structural integrity of buildings, bridges, and elevators, emphasizing the humbling realization of human dependency and collaboration in engineering and architecture. Po Shen Lo shares his admiration for the structural integrity of buildings, bridges, and elevators, emphasizing the humbling realization of human dependency and collaboration in engineering and architecture.', 'Po Shen Lo reflects on the interconnectedness and collaboration in knowledge networks, discussing the levels of abstractions in programming and the dependency on a network of knowledge for quality of life. Po Shen Lo reflects on the interconnectedness and collaboration in knowledge networks, discussing the levels of abstractions in programming and the dependency on a network of knowledge for quality of life.']}, {'end': 617.3, 'start': 358.53, 'title': 'Coding, competitions, and computational efficiency', 'summary': "Explores the speaker's journey from creating games in high school to participating in programming competitions, emphasizing the importance of computational efficiency and its applications in dealing with large-scale problems like controlling covid.", 'duration': 258.77, 'highlights': ["The speaker's journey from creating games in high school to participating in programming competitions. The speaker discusses creating games in high school and later participating in programming competitions.", 'Emphasis on computational efficiency for dealing with large-scale problems like controlling COVID. The speaker emphasizes the importance of efficient algorithms in dealing with large-scale problems like controlling COVID, highlighting the significance of back-of-the-envelope calculations and efficient algorithms in managing computational resources.', 'The significance of efficient algorithms in managing computational resources for large-scale problems. The speaker underscores the importance of efficient algorithms for managing computational resources, citing the example of using a four-core cloud machine on Amazon Web Services for computations involving hundreds of thousands or millions of people.']}, {'end': 1030.988, 'start': 619.474, 'title': 'Mathematics and software engineering', 'summary': 'Discusses the intersection of mathematics and software engineering, emphasizing the problem-solving aspect of both fields and its transferable skills to building startups. it also explores the teaching philosophy of fostering invention and problem-solving capabilities in students, challenging the notion of math being hard.', 'duration': 411.514, 'highlights': ['The intersection of mathematics and software engineering, emphasizing problem-solving skills transferable to building startups. The speaker discusses the transferable skills from programming competitions to building startups and highlights the significance of problem-solving and system-building in software engineering.', 'Teaching philosophy emphasizing invention and problem-solving capabilities in students, challenging the notion of math being hard. The speaker advocates for a teaching philosophy that focuses on fostering invention and problem-solving capabilities in students, contrasting it with the conventional method of memorization and promoting the idea that math should be rewarding through the capability of invention.', 'Interactive and improvisational teaching approach, involving students in creating proofs and problem-solving. The speaker describes an interactive teaching approach, involving students in creating proofs through improvisation, where every proof is done differently based on how the students came up with it.', 'Utilizing online platforms to prompt invention and problem-solving in students through automatic hints. The speaker discusses using online platforms to prompt invention and problem-solving in students by presenting challenging questions and providing automatic hints to encourage creative thinking.', 'Engagement in mathematical and software engineering problem-solving related to disease and COVID. The speaker mentions engaging in mathematical and software engineering problem-solving related to disease and COVID, demonstrating a practical application of problem-solving skills.']}], 'duration': 1030.879, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ109.jpg', 'highlights': ['Po Shen Lo developed an app for anonymous contact tracing providing statistical information about COVID cases in physical networks, emphasizing privacy and informed decisions.', 'Po Shen Lo discusses the need for solutions like the contact tracing app in early 2020 and anticipates the need for similar solutions in the next pandemic.', 'Emphasis on computational efficiency for dealing with large-scale problems like controlling COVID.', 'The intersection of mathematics and software engineering, emphasizing problem-solving skills transferable to building startups.', 'Teaching philosophy emphasizing invention and problem-solving capabilities in students, challenging the notion of math being hard.']}, {'end': 1687.76, 'segs': [{'end': 1411.465, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1384.312, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 1387.633, 'text': "Exactly And actually that point you just made, I don't take credit for that observation.", 'start': 1384.312, 'duration': 3.321}, {'end': 1389.073, 'text': 'There was another person I talked to,', 'start': 1387.753, 'duration': 1.32}, {'end': 1396.596, 'text': "who pointed out that it's very interesting that this feedback loop is even more effective when the disease is worse.", 'start': 1389.073, 'duration': 7.523}, {'end': 1403.578, 'text': "And that's actually not a bad characteristic to have in your feedback loop if you're trying to help civilization keep running.", 'start': 1397.056, 'duration': 6.522}, {'end': 1406.64, 'text': "Yeah, it's a really, it's in this dynamic.", 'start': 1404.358, 'duration': 2.282}, {'end': 1411.465, 'text': 'Like people figure out, they dynamically figure out how bad the disease is.', 'start': 1407.401, 'duration': 4.064}], 'summary': 'Feedback loop more effective when disease is worse, aiding civilization.', 'duration': 27.153, 'max_score': 1384.312, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ1384312.jpg'}, {'end': 1461.289, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1429.939, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 1431.08, 'text': "Maybe we'll chat about that.", 'start': 1429.939, 'duration': 1.141}, {'end': 1435.004, 'text': "how we sort of make sure there's not misinformation while there's accurate information.", 'start': 1431.08, 'duration': 3.924}, {'end': 1438.488, 'text': 'But that aside, okay, so this is a really nice property.', 'start': 1435.024, 'duration': 3.464}, {'end': 1444.177, 'text': "Right And just going on on that, actually just talking more about what that could do and why we're so excited about it.", 'start': 1438.968, 'duration': 5.209}, {'end': 1449.363, 'text': "It's that not only would people want to install it, what would they do?", 'start': 1444.558, 'duration': 4.805}, {'end': 1457.447, 'text': 'If you start to see that this disease is getting closer and closer, we surveyed informally people, but they said, as we saw it getting closer,', 'start': 1449.803, 'duration': 7.644}, {'end': 1458.488, 'text': 'we would hide.', 'start': 1457.447, 'duration': 1.041}, {'end': 1461.289, 'text': 'We would try to not have contacts.', 'start': 1458.608, 'duration': 2.681}], 'summary': "Discussed mitigating misinformation and excitement about a property, with informal survey revealing people's intentions in response to disease proximity.", 'duration': 31.35, 'max_score': 1429.939, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ1429939.jpg'}, {'end': 1597.176, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1568.93, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 1570.971, 'text': 'the duration of visits and all of those kinds of things.', 'start': 1568.93, 'duration': 2.041}, {'end': 1582.336, 'text': "So you're saying we might want to be to create, on top of that network, a spread of information to let you know,", 'start': 1571.611, 'duration': 10.725}, {'end': 1585.797, 'text': 'as the virus travels through this network, how close is it getting to you?', 'start': 1582.336, 'duration': 3.461}, {'end': 1597.176, 'text': 'And the number of hops away it is on that network is really powerful information that creates a positive feedback loop where you can act essentially anonymously.', 'start': 1586.357, 'duration': 10.819}], 'summary': 'Anonymously track virus spread through network proximity and hops.', 'duration': 28.246, 'max_score': 1568.93, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ1568930.jpg'}, {'end': 1648.17, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1616.372, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 1619.814, 'text': "You have the freedom to do it yourself and you're incentivized to do it.", 'start': 1616.372, 'duration': 3.442}, {'end': 1625.175, 'text': "And you're most likely going to do it to protect yourself against.", 'start': 1620.234, 'duration': 4.941}, {'end': 1631.439, 'text': 'you know, gets you getting the disease as the closer it gets to you, based on the information that you have.', 'start': 1625.175, 'duration': 6.264}, {'end': 1635.802, 'text': 'But can you maybe elaborate, first of all, brilliant.', 'start': 1632.06, 'duration': 3.742}, {'end': 1641.686, 'text': "Whenever I saw the thing you're working on, so forget for COVID.", 'start': 1637.903, 'duration': 3.783}, {'end': 1648.17, 'text': "this is, of course, really relevant for COVID, but it's also probably relevant for future diseases as well.", 'start': 1641.686, 'duration': 6.484}], 'summary': 'Freedom to self-protect incentivizes action against diseases, relevant for covid and future diseases.', 'duration': 31.798, 'max_score': 1616.372, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ1616372.jpg'}], 'start': 1031.167, 'title': 'Disease control and tracking', 'summary': 'Explores using network theory and smartphones to control diseases, aiming for widespread adoption and positive feedback loops, with a focus on impacting deadly diseases and future pandemics.', 'chapters': [{'end': 1275.897, 'start': 1031.167, 'title': 'Controlling disease with network theory and smartphones', 'summary': 'Discusses the development of a new way to control diseases by combining network theory with smartphones, aiming to allow people to live their lives as much as possible and avoid getting sick, with the core idea being inspired by user experience designers and the aim to make it useful not only for the current pandemic but also for future pandemics.', 'duration': 244.73, 'highlights': ['The chapter discusses the development of a new way to control diseases by combining network theory with smartphones The idea of combining network theory with smartphones to control diseases was developed as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, aiming to create a new way to control diseases.', 'Aiming to allow people to live their lives as much as possible and avoid getting sick The main aim of the project is to develop an app that helps people avoid getting sick, rather than focusing on removing them from society after being exposed to illness, thus creating a positive feedback loop.', 'The core idea was inspired by user experience designers and aimed to be useful not only for the current pandemic but also for future pandemics The core team included user experience designers, and the project aims to be useful not only for the current pandemic but also for future pandemics, emphasizing the importance of user experience in the development process.']}, {'end': 1687.76, 'start': 1276.718, 'title': 'Incentivizing disease tracking', 'summary': 'Discusses how incentivizing disease tracking through a network-based approach can lead to widespread adoption and positive behavioral feedback loops, with a focus on the potential impact on deadly diseases like ebola and the effectiveness of the decentralized approach.', 'duration': 411.042, 'highlights': ['The more deadly and transmissible the disease, the stronger the incentive to install the tracking app in a positive feedback loop. The chapter highlights the correlation between disease severity and the incentive for installing a tracking app, indicating a positive feedback loop. This insight emphasizes the potential impact of incentivizing disease tracking for deadly diseases.', "The network-based approach creates a positive feedback loop where individuals can act anonymously and autonomously to protect themselves, incentivized by the proximity of the disease's spread. The discussion emphasizes the decentralized and incentivized nature of the network-based approach to disease tracking, highlighting the autonomy and anonymity it provides individuals in protecting themselves as the disease gets closer.", 'The observation that the feedback loop is more effective when the disease is worse, indicating the potential effectiveness of the approach for future deadly diseases beyond COVID. The insight into the increased effectiveness of the feedback loop for worse diseases underlines the potential relevance of the approach for future deadly diseases beyond the current context of COVID, showcasing its broader applicability.']}], 'duration': 656.593, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ1031166.jpg', 'highlights': ['The network-based approach creates a positive feedback loop for disease tracking.', 'The core idea combines network theory with smartphones to control diseases.', 'The project aims to be useful for future pandemics, emphasizing user experience.', 'The incentive for installing a tracking app strengthens with disease severity.', 'The approach emphasizes autonomy and anonymity for individuals in disease protection.', 'The feedback loop is more effective for worse diseases, indicating broader applicability.']}, {'end': 2526.522, 'segs': [{'end': 1722.696, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1688.12, 'weight': 9, 'content': [{'end': 1689.361, 'text': 'So your idea is brilliant.', 'start': 1688.12, 'duration': 1.241}, {'end': 1697.988, 'text': "Okay Mathematically, can you maybe elaborate what are we talking about? Like, how do you actually make that work? What's involved? Sure.", 'start': 1689.481, 'duration': 8.507}, {'end': 1704.372, 'text': "First, I'm going to reply to something you said about the freedom inside this, because actually that was the idea.", 'start': 1698.268, 'duration': 6.104}, {'end': 1706.434, 'text': 'The idea is this is game theory.', 'start': 1704.392, 'duration': 2.042}, {'end': 1714.104, 'text': 'And effectively what we did is analogous to free market economy, as opposed to central planning.', 'start': 1707.375, 'duration': 6.729}, {'end': 1722.696, 'text': 'If you just line up the set of incentives correctly so that people have in their purely selfish behavior,', 'start': 1714.945, 'duration': 7.751}], 'summary': 'The idea involves applying game theory to create a free market economy with aligned incentives.', 'duration': 34.576, 'max_score': 1688.12, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ1688120.jpg'}, {'end': 1843.943, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1812.046, 'weight': 7, 'content': [{'end': 1818.527, 'text': "Yeah, so we're not doing the old Pythagorean-based violation of privacy, okay.", 'start': 1812.046, 'duration': 6.481}, {'end': 1832.174, 'text': 'So is that enough to form, to give you enough information about physical connection to another human being??', 'start': 1819.167, 'duration': 13.007}, {'end': 1834.555, 'text': 'Is there a time element there??', 'start': 1832.974, 'duration': 1.581}, {'end': 1836.417, 'text': 'Is there so okay?', 'start': 1835.276, 'duration': 1.141}, {'end': 1841.221, 'text': 'That sounds like a really strong, like low hanging fruit.', 'start': 1837.458, 'duration': 3.763}, {'end': 1843.943, 'text': 'Like if you have that, you could probably go really, really far.', 'start': 1841.581, 'duration': 2.362}], 'summary': 'Discussion on privacy violation and physical connection to another human being.', 'duration': 31.897, 'max_score': 1812.046, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ1812046.jpg'}, {'end': 1952.163, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1923.268, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 1930.632, 'text': "it's going to come out as a strong relationship and a person in the grocery store is going to wash out as not an important physical relationship.", 'start': 1923.268, 'duration': 7.364}, {'end': 1932.333, 'text': 'I mean, this is brilliant.', 'start': 1931.132, 'duration': 1.201}, {'end': 1940.317, 'text': "How difficult is it to make work? So you said, one, there's a mathematical component that we just kind of talked about.", 'start': 1934.434, 'duration': 5.883}, {'end': 1943.358, 'text': "And then there's the user experience component.", 'start': 1941.317, 'duration': 2.041}, {'end': 1952.163, 'text': 'So how difficult is it to go just like you built the video game Alien Attack from zero to completion?', 'start': 1944.079, 'duration': 8.084}], 'summary': 'Developing the relationship-based grocery store app involves mathematical and user experience components, similar to building a video game from scratch.', 'duration': 28.895, 'max_score': 1923.268, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ1923268.jpg'}, {'end': 2153.675, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2091.61, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 2094.732, 'text': 'Beautiful So what else is required to make this thing work? Right.', 'start': 2091.61, 'duration': 3.122}, {'end': 2101.219, 'text': 'So the key was that you had to do a significant amount of work on the actual mobile app development, which, fortunately,', 'start': 2094.772, 'duration': 6.447}, {'end': 2109.147, 'text': 'the team that we brought was this kind of general thinkers where we would dig in deep into the operating system documentation and the API libraries.', 'start': 2101.219, 'duration': 7.928}, {'end': 2110.268, 'text': 'So we got that working.', 'start': 2109.468, 'duration': 0.8}, {'end': 2114.473, 'text': "But there's another angle, which is you also need the servers to be able to compute fast enough.", 'start': 2110.669, 'duration': 3.804}, {'end': 2119.596, 'text': 'which is tying back to this old school computer programming competitions and math Olympiads.', 'start': 2115.033, 'duration': 4.563}, {'end': 2129.523, 'text': 'In fact, our team that was working on the algorithm and backend side included several people who had been in these competitions from before,', 'start': 2120.117, 'duration': 9.406}, {'end': 2132.845, 'text': 'which I happen to know, because I do coach the team for the math.', 'start': 2129.523, 'duration': 3.322}, {'end': 2140.19, 'text': 'And so we were able to bring people in to build servers, a server infrastructure in C++ actually,', 'start': 2133.425, 'duration': 6.765}, {'end': 2144.713, 'text': 'so that we could support significant numbers of people without needing tons of servers.', 'start': 2140.19, 'duration': 4.523}, {'end': 2153.675, 'text': 'Is there some distributed algorithms working here or you basically have to keep in the same place the entire graph as it builds?', 'start': 2145.433, 'duration': 8.242}], 'summary': 'A significant amount of work on mobile app development and server infrastructure was done to support significant numbers of people without needing tons of servers.', 'duration': 62.065, 'max_score': 2091.61, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ2091610.jpg'}], 'start': 1688.12, 'title': 'Decentralized optimization in game theory', 'summary': 'Discusses decentralized optimization in game theory, aligning incentives for global function optimization, demonstrated through a smartphone app using bluetooth, and a paradigm for predicting physical proximity using probability, emphasizing extended proximity and challenges of low-battery app development. it also explores the use of networked information for pandemic control and decision-making, managing scaling issues and promoting individual freedom in risk aversion.', 'chapters': [{'end': 1809.905, 'start': 1688.12, 'title': 'Decentralized optimization in game theory', 'summary': 'Discusses the concept of decentralized optimization in game theory, where incentives are aligned to drive selfish behavior towards global function optimization, demonstrated through a smartphone app that utilizes bluetooth proximity instead of gps information.', 'duration': 121.785, 'highlights': ['The app creates a physical network based on Bluetooth proximity, eliminating the need for specifying exact GPS coordinates, which allows for decentralized optimization through selfish behavior (e.g., game theory).', 'The system operates by having smartphones communicate via Bluetooth to detect nearby objects, enabling the construction of a network based on relative proximity information, without requiring personal information or GPS data.', 'The mathematical and technical underpinnings involve exploring the search space to discover various possibilities, incorporating inputs from design and user experience design to optimize the global function through a free market economy approach in game theory.']}, {'end': 2153.675, 'start': 1812.046, 'title': 'Predicting future physical proximity', 'summary': 'Discusses a new paradigm for predicting future physical proximity using probability rather than tracking past encounters, emphasizing the importance of extended physical proximity and the challenges of developing a low-battery usage app.', 'duration': 341.629, 'highlights': ['The paradigm shift focuses on predicting the future physical proximity rather than tracking past encounters for infection risk, emphasizing the importance of extended hours of physical proximity rather than short-term interactions in crowded places.', "Developing the app 'Novid' required hooking into Bluetooth beyond the standard usage, leading to minimal battery consumption compared to Apple's own system, and overcoming challenges with iOS background operation, demonstrating the difficulty in creating this unique functionality.", 'The estimation of physical proximity duration is likened to filming a movie, where snapshots of nearby contacts are taken every few minutes, indicating a novel approach to estimating duration in a battery-efficient manner.', "The team's specialized approach in mobile app development and server infrastructure, including leveraging old school computer programming competitions and math Olympiads, allowed for the development of a low-battery usage app and efficient server infrastructure to support a significant number of users."]}, {'end': 2526.522, 'start': 2153.735, 'title': 'Networked information for pandemic control', 'summary': 'Discusses how a computer algorithm competition helped in managing the scaling problem due to the large number of potential connections between people, and the potential use of networked information for pandemic control and decision-making, aiming to keep the society open and provide individuals the freedom to decide their level of risk aversion.', 'duration': 372.787, 'highlights': ['The computer algorithm competition was helpful in managing the scaling problem due to the potential N squared connections between people, aiming to make algorithms linear time or almost linear time, allowing a computer to operate in gigahertz and do one recalculation every hour, considering the sparse typical network with the average degree of connections being at most a hundred strong connections (N squared potential connections between people).', 'Exposing individuals to the number of direct and indirect connections on the network boosted adoption and drove a feedback loop, with the app reaching a virality of two to three, contributing to the potential use of networked information for pandemic control and decision-making.', "Collaboration with epidemiologists and real researchers is underway to understand the potential power of using networked information as an end game for COVID, emphasizing the need for as many techniques as possible for parts of the world that can't afford vaccine distribution, and the importance of having networked information to provide individuals the freedom to decide their level of risk aversion."]}], 'duration': 838.402, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ1688120.jpg', 'highlights': ['The app creates a physical network based on Bluetooth proximity, enabling decentralized optimization through selfish behavior (e.g., game theory).', 'The system operates by having smartphones communicate via Bluetooth to detect nearby objects, constructing a network based on relative proximity information without requiring personal information or GPS data.', 'The mathematical and technical underpinnings involve exploring the search space to optimize the global function through a free market economy approach in game theory.', 'The estimation of physical proximity duration is likened to filming a movie, indicating a novel approach to estimating duration in a battery-efficient manner.', "The team's specialized approach in mobile app development and server infrastructure allowed for the development of a low-battery usage app and efficient server infrastructure to support a significant number of users.", 'The computer algorithm competition was helpful in managing the scaling problem due to the potential N squared connections between people, aiming to make algorithms linear time or almost linear time.', 'Exposing individuals to the number of direct and indirect connections on the network boosted adoption and drove a feedback loop, contributing to the potential use of networked information for pandemic control and decision-making.', 'Collaboration with epidemiologists and real researchers is underway to understand the potential power of using networked information as an end game for COVID, emphasizing the importance of having networked information to provide individuals the freedom to decide their level of risk aversion.', 'The paradigm shift focuses on predicting the future physical proximity rather than tracking past encounters for infection risk, emphasizing the importance of extended hours of physical proximity rather than short-term interactions in crowded places.', "Developing the app 'Novid' required hooking into Bluetooth beyond the standard usage, leading to minimal battery consumption compared to Apple's own system, and overcoming challenges with iOS background operation."]}, {'end': 3818.512, 'segs': [{'end': 2558.281, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2526.522, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 2529.423, 'text': 'well there might also be other people who are less risk tolerance.', 'start': 2526.522, 'duration': 2.901}, {'end': 2532.465, 'text': 'And then those people decide to isolate.', 'start': 2529.864, 'duration': 2.601}, {'end': 2538.428, 'text': 'But what matters is in the aggregate that this R naught of the infection spreading drops below one.', 'start': 2532.745, 'duration': 5.683}, {'end': 2543.471, 'text': 'And so the key is, if you can empower people with that power to make that decision,', 'start': 2539.048, 'duration': 4.423}, {'end': 2546.173, 'text': 'you might actually still be able to drive that are not down below one.', 'start': 2543.471, 'duration': 2.702}, {'end': 2558.281, 'text': 'Yeah, and also, this is me talking, is people get a little bit nervous, I think, with information somehow mapping to privacy violation.', 'start': 2547.674, 'duration': 10.607}], 'summary': 'Empower people to decide to isolate, lowering r naught below 1.', 'duration': 31.759, 'max_score': 2526.522, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ2526522.jpg'}, {'end': 2670.03, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2640.813, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 2644.316, 'text': 'I mean, if I were to criticize scientists, they spoke with too much authority.', 'start': 2640.813, 'duration': 3.503}, {'end': 2645.897, 'text': "It's okay to say, I'm not sure.", 'start': 2644.516, 'duration': 1.381}, {'end': 2652.081, 'text': "But then they think like, if I say, I'm not sure, then there's going to be a distrust.", 'start': 2646.537, 'duration': 5.544}, {'end': 2656.604, 'text': "What they realize is when you're wrong and you say, I'm sure, it's going to lead to more distrust.", 'start': 2652.441, 'duration': 4.163}, {'end': 2665.049, 'text': "So there's this imperfect, like just chaotic, messy system of people trying to figure out with very little information.", 'start': 2656.904, 'duration': 8.145}, {'end': 2670.03, 'text': "And what you're proposing is just a huge amount of information, and information is power.", 'start': 2665.489, 'duration': 4.541}], 'summary': 'Scientists should admit uncertainty to avoid distrust, despite imperfect information.', 'duration': 29.217, 'max_score': 2640.813, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ2640813.jpg'}, {'end': 2893.615, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2866.13, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 2872.452, 'text': "And so, for example, if anyone's watching this and you happen to be a public health researcher and you want to be involved in something like this,", 'start': 2866.13, 'duration': 6.322}, {'end': 2874.213, 'text': "I'm just going to say I'm still incentive thinking.", 'start': 2872.452, 'duration': 1.761}, {'end': 2877.076, 'text': "And there's something in it for the researchers too.", 'start': 2874.773, 'duration': 2.303}, {'end': 2880.319, 'text': 'This could open up an entire new way of controlling disease.', 'start': 2877.476, 'duration': 2.843}, {'end': 2881.14, 'text': "That's my hope.", 'start': 2880.38, 'duration': 0.76}, {'end': 2883.143, 'text': 'I mean, it might actually be true.', 'start': 2881.961, 'duration': 1.182}, {'end': 2889.77, 'text': 'And people who are involved in figuring out how to make this work, well, it could actually be good for their careers too.', 'start': 2883.703, 'duration': 6.067}, {'end': 2893.615, 'text': 'I always have to think like if a researcher was getting involved, what are they getting out of it?', 'start': 2890.271, 'duration': 3.344}], 'summary': 'Involvement in controlling disease can benefit public health researchers professionally and open new opportunities.', 'duration': 27.485, 'max_score': 2866.13, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ2866130.jpg'}, {'end': 3155.099, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3125.043, 'weight': 9, 'content': [{'end': 3126.885, 'text': "And now's the time to do the investment.", 'start': 3125.043, 'duration': 1.842}, {'end': 3132.097, 'text': "Let's step back to the beauty of mathematics.", 'start': 3128.274, 'duration': 3.823}, {'end': 3139.464, 'text': 'Maybe ask the big, silly question first, which is what do you find beautiful about mathematics??', 'start': 3133.038, 'duration': 6.426}, {'end': 3150.798, 'text': 'I think that being able to look at a complicated problem which looks unsolvable and then to be able to change the perspective,', 'start': 3140.865, 'duration': 9.933}, {'end': 3155.099, 'text': "to come from a different angle and suddenly see that there's a nice solution.", 'start': 3150.798, 'duration': 4.301}], 'summary': 'Invest in the beauty of mathematics and its ability to solve complex problems.', 'duration': 30.056, 'max_score': 3125.043, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ3125043.jpg'}, {'end': 3220.171, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3195.016, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 3204.203, 'text': "Yeah, it's quite interesting to see human civilization as a network, as a graph, and our relationships as kind of edges in that graph.", 'start': 3195.016, 'duration': 9.187}, {'end': 3211.538, 'text': 'and to then do, outside of just pandemic, do interesting inferences based on that.', 'start': 3205.282, 'duration': 6.256}, {'end': 3220.171, 'text': 'this is true for like Twitter, social networks and so on, how we expand the kind of things we talk about.', 'start': 3213.829, 'duration': 6.342}], 'summary': 'Human civilization viewed as a network, allowing for interesting inferences and expanding topics of conversation.', 'duration': 25.155, 'max_score': 3195.016, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ3195016.jpg'}, {'end': 3342.262, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3311.603, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 3316.944, 'text': 'first of all you have four and a half hours to solve three questions, and this is one day, and then you have a second day,', 'start': 3311.603, 'duration': 5.341}, {'end': 3319.025, 'text': 'which is four and a half hours three questions.', 'start': 3316.944, 'duration': 2.081}, {'end': 3324.286, 'text': "But when you look at the questions, they're all asking you, explain why the following thing is true, which you've never seen before.", 'start': 3319.405, 'duration': 4.881}, {'end': 3330.256, 'text': "And by the way, even though there are six questions, if you solve any one of them, you're a genius and you get an honorable mention.", 'start': 3325.333, 'duration': 4.923}, {'end': 3332.037, 'text': 'So this is hard to solve one.', 'start': 3330.396, 'duration': 1.641}, {'end': 3332.557, 'text': 'Really hard problem.', 'start': 3332.057, 'duration': 0.5}, {'end': 3342.262, 'text': 'So what about, is it one person? Is it a team? Ah, so each country can send six people and the score of the country is actually unofficial.', 'start': 3332.637, 'duration': 9.625}], 'summary': 'Three questions in 4.5 hours, solve one to be a genius, six people per country.', 'duration': 30.659, 'max_score': 3311.603, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ3311603.jpg'}, {'end': 3551.803, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3527.185, 'weight': 8, 'content': [{'end': 3533.729, 'text': 'People sometimes ask me you know, you go up under communism, you know, was there anything good about communism?', 'start': 3527.185, 'duration': 6.544}, {'end': 3539.574, 'text': "And it's difficult for me to talk about it, because it's not.", 'start': 3535.851, 'duration': 3.723}, {'end': 3544.818, 'text': "communism is one of those things that's looked down on like without, in absolutist terms, currently.", 'start': 3539.574, 'duration': 5.244}, {'end': 3551.803, 'text': 'But you could still, in my perspective, talk about the actual forget communism, or whatever the actual term is.', 'start': 3545.538, 'duration': 6.265}], 'summary': 'No good aspects of communism, despite some perspectives.', 'duration': 24.618, 'max_score': 3527.185, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ3527185.jpg'}], 'start': 2526.522, 'title': 'Empowering individuals for infection control', 'summary': "Discusses empowering individuals to lower infection spread, challenges in decision-making and information dissemination, novid's unique value proposition in incentivizing public health, and the significance of the international math olympiad and its impact on developing critical thinking skills.", 'chapters': [{'end': 2709.506, 'start': 2526.522, 'title': 'Empowering individuals for controlling infection spread', 'summary': 'Discusses the importance of empowering individuals to make decisions that can lower the r naught of infection spreading, emphasizes the need for information to make informed decisions, and highlights the challenges and imperfections in existing systems of decision-making and information dissemination related to public safety.', 'duration': 182.984, 'highlights': ['Empowering individuals to make decisions can lower the R naught of infection spreading below one. The key is to empower people to make decisions that can drive the R naught down below one, thus controlling the spread of infection.', 'The need for detailed information from March and April of last year to create a risk map for activities and locations. There is a need for detailed information from the initial months of the pandemic to create a risk map for activities and locations to guide safe decisions, such as running outside or going to a restaurant.', 'Challenges and imperfections in existing systems of decision-making and information dissemination related to public safety. The current system involves chaotic and imperfect decision-making processes, with little information available, leading to challenges and imperfections in decision-making and information dissemination related to public safety.']}, {'end': 3124.463, 'start': 2709.746, 'title': 'Incentivizing public health with novid', 'summary': "Discusses novid's unique value proposition, incentivizing adoption through a game theoretic solution, and the importance of collaboration with public health researchers for future pandemic control.", 'duration': 414.717, 'highlights': ["Novid's value proposition focuses on incentivizing individuals to protect themselves, rather than just helping others, resulting in a higher probability of adoption. Novid's approach incentivizes individuals to protect themselves, rather than solely focusing on helping others, leading to a higher probability of adoption.", "The utilization of game theoretic solutions in Novid's mechanism design incentivizes adoption and offers a different approach compared to traditional contact tracing apps. Novid's use of game theoretic solutions in mechanism design incentivizes adoption and provides a novel approach compared to traditional contact tracing apps.", 'Collaboration with public health researchers is a key focus, aiming to build partnerships and pilot deployments for controlling disease in various locations. The emphasis on collaborating with public health researchers is evident, aiming to establish partnerships and pilot deployments to control disease in diverse locations.']}, {'end': 3361.223, 'start': 3125.043, 'title': 'The beauty of mathematics and international math olympiad', 'summary': 'Discusses the beauty of mathematics in simplifying complex problems by changing perspectives and the international math olympiad, a prestigious competition for non-college students, featuring challenging questions and team participation from various countries.', 'duration': 236.18, 'highlights': ["The International Mathematical Olympiad is the most prestigious math competition for non-college students, involving challenging questions where explaining the truth of a concept is more important than computational answers. It's the most prestigious math competition for non-college students, with challenging questions that require explaining the truth of a concept rather than providing computational answers.", 'Participants have only four and a half hours to solve three questions each day, and solving any one question is considered a remarkable achievement. Participants have limited time, four and a half hours, to solve three questions each day, and solving any one question is considered a remarkable achievement.', "Each country can send six participants, and the country's score is determined by the cumulative points of its participants. Each country can send six participants, and the country's score is determined by the cumulative points of its participants.", 'The beauty of mathematics lies in simplifying complex problems by changing perspectives and reframing difficult concepts, making it beautiful in a pure sense. The beauty of mathematics lies in simplifying complex problems by changing perspectives and reframing difficult concepts, making it beautiful in a pure sense.', 'Mathematics is also used to analyze human civilization as a network and make inferences based on relationships, applicable to various fields including social networks and recommender systems. Mathematics is used to analyze human civilization as a network and make inferences based on relationships, applicable to various fields including social networks and recommender systems.']}, {'end': 3818.512, 'start': 3361.223, 'title': 'Math olympiad in soviet union', 'summary': 'Discusses the significance of the mathematical olympiad in the soviet union, highlighting its integration into the culture and its impact on developing minds, demonstrating the generalizability of the skills obtained, and comparing it to the approach in the united states, while emphasizing the potential for fostering a culture of critical thinking and idea creation in non-authoritarian regimes.', 'duration': 457.289, 'highlights': ['Integration into Culture The Mathematical Olympiad was highly integrated into the culture of the Soviet Union, akin to the pride associated with Olympic sports like wrestling and weightlifting, fostering a sense of national pride and accomplishment.', 'Developing Minds and Generalizability of Skills The Olympiad focused on developing young minds with the ability to invent creative solutions, demonstrating the generalizability of these skills to real-world problem-solving, ultimately leading to achievements in research and mathematics.', 'Comparison with the United States The contrast between the popularity and integration of the Olympiad in the Soviet Union and its relatively lesser prominence and cultural impact in the United States, with an emphasis on the difference in societal attitudes towards rigorous education and the fostering of excellence in students.', 'Potential for Idea Creation in Non-Authoritarian Regimes Exploration of the possibility and potential benefits of fostering a culture of critical thinking and idea creation in non-authoritarian regimes, drawing parallels with the emphasis on sports training in the United States and advocating for a universal message promoting the value of critical thinking and idea creation.']}], 'duration': 1291.99, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ2526522.jpg', 'highlights': ['Empowering individuals to make decisions can lower the R naught of infection spreading below one.', 'The need for detailed information from March and April of last year to create a risk map for activities and locations.', 'Challenges and imperfections in existing systems of decision-making and information dissemination related to public safety.', "Novid's value proposition focuses on incentivizing individuals to protect themselves, rather than just helping others, resulting in a higher probability of adoption.", "The utilization of game theoretic solutions in Novid's mechanism design incentivizes adoption and offers a different approach compared to traditional contact tracing apps.", 'Collaboration with public health researchers is a key focus, aiming to build partnerships and pilot deployments for controlling disease in various locations.', 'The International Mathematical Olympiad is the most prestigious math competition for non-college students, involving challenging questions where explaining the truth of a concept is more important than computational answers.', 'Participants have only four and a half hours to solve three questions each day, and solving any one question is considered a remarkable achievement.', 'The beauty of mathematics lies in simplifying complex problems by changing perspectives and reframing difficult concepts, making it beautiful in a pure sense.', 'Integration into Culture The Mathematical Olympiad was highly integrated into the culture of the Soviet Union, akin to the pride associated with Olympic sports like wrestling and weightlifting, fostering a sense of national pride and accomplishment.']}, {'end': 4593.789, 'segs': [{'end': 4038.887, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4008.757, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 4010.779, 'text': 'If you make minor mistake, maybe you get six points.', 'start': 4008.757, 'duration': 2.022}, {'end': 4023.271, 'text': "But if you don't succeed in explaining why, but you explain some other true fact, which is along the way of proving it, then you get partial credit.", 'start': 4011.359, 'duration': 11.912}, {'end': 4027.595, 'text': 'And actually, now this is tricky, because how do you score such a thing?', 'start': 4024.012, 'duration': 3.583}, {'end': 4029.137, 'text': "It's not like it was.", 'start': 4027.676, 'duration': 1.461}, {'end': 4033.161, 'text': "the answer was 72 and you wrote 71, and it's close, right?", 'start': 4029.137, 'duration': 4.024}, {'end': 4035.343, 'text': 'The answer is 72 and you wrote 36..', 'start': 4033.201, 'duration': 2.142}, {'end': 4038.887, 'text': "Oh, but that's pretty close because you were, you know, that maybe you were just off by a bit.", 'start': 4035.343, 'duration': 3.544}], 'summary': 'Scoring system awards partial credit for related true facts, even if answer is far off.', 'duration': 30.13, 'max_score': 4008.757, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ4008757.jpg'}, {'end': 4144.274, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4113.192, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 4116.734, 'text': 'then the coaches are explaining to you.', 'start': 4113.192, 'duration': 3.542}, {'end': 4118.055, 'text': 'this is what the student has written.', 'start': 4116.734, 'duration': 1.321}, {'end': 4120.176, 'text': "It's actually quite interesting process.", 'start': 4118.076, 'duration': 2.1}, {'end': 4123.12, 'text': "So it's almost like a jury.", 'start': 4120.497, 'duration': 2.623}, {'end': 4131.506, 'text': "In the American legal system, you have a jury where they're deliberating, but unlike a jury,", 'start': 4125.862, 'duration': 5.644}, {'end': 4135.288, 'text': "there's the members of the jury speaking different languages sometimes.", 'start': 4131.506, 'duration': 3.782}, {'end': 4136.67, 'text': "That's fascinating.", 'start': 4135.828, 'duration': 0.842}, {'end': 4144.274, 'text': "But I mean, it's hard to know what to do because it's probably really, really competitive.", 'start': 4137.21, 'duration': 7.064}], 'summary': 'Coaches explain a jury-like process for multilingual members, possibly competitive.', 'duration': 31.082, 'max_score': 4113.192, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ4113192.jpg'}, {'end': 4232.094, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4207.117, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 4215.082, 'text': 'What makes a hard problem? So I could quantify it by the number of leaps of insight, of changes of perspective that are along the way.', 'start': 4207.117, 'duration': 7.965}, {'end': 4215.863, 'text': "And here's why.", 'start': 4215.342, 'duration': 0.521}, {'end': 4219.365, 'text': 'This is like a very theoretical computer science way of looking at it.', 'start': 4216.543, 'duration': 2.822}, {'end': 4226.05, 'text': "okay?. It's that each reframing of the problem and using of some tool, I actually call that a leap of insight.", 'start': 4219.365, 'duration': 6.685}, {'end': 4232.094, 'text': 'When you say, oh, wow, now I see I should kind of put these plugs into those sockets, like so.', 'start': 4226.13, 'duration': 5.964}], 'summary': 'Hard problems can be quantified by the number of leaps of insight and changes of perspective required.', 'duration': 24.977, 'max_score': 4207.117, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ4207117.jpg'}], 'start': 3820.292, 'title': 'Innovative education and math olympiad', 'summary': 'Discusses an innovative education approach, emphasizing invention and problem-solving skills, and provides insights into the scoring and negotiation process in the mathematical olympiad, promoting long-term impact and a global perspective. it also delves into quantifying difficult math problems and the value of perseverance and impactful insights in research and problem-solving.', 'chapters': [{'end': 4167.948, 'start': 3820.292, 'title': 'Innovative education and mathematical olympiad', 'summary': 'Reveals an innovative approach to education, emphasizing invention and problem-solving skills, as well as insights into the scoring and negotiation process in the mathematical olympiad, promoting long-term impact and a global perspective.', 'duration': 347.656, 'highlights': ["The approach to education emphasizes invention and problem-solving skills, promoting long-term impact and the ability to step up in future catastrophes. The speaker's approach to teaching focuses on nurturing invention and problem-solving skills, aiming to prepare students to step up and solve future problems, promoting long-term impact.", 'Insights into the scoring and negotiation process in the Mathematical Olympiad, involving a negotiation process and language barriers during the grading. The chapter provides insights into the scoring and negotiation process in the Mathematical Olympiad, including a negotiation process with language barriers during the grading, offering a global perspective on the competition.', "Explanation of the scoring system in the Mathematical Olympiad, with problems equally weighted and partial credit awarded for explanations. The chapter explains the scoring system in the Mathematical Olympiad, where problems are equally weighted, and partial credit is awarded for explanations, giving a clear understanding of the competition's scoring mechanism."]}, {'end': 4593.789, 'start': 4168.627, 'title': 'Math problem difficulty insights', 'summary': 'Discusses the quantification of hard math problems through the number of insights, with examples from math textbooks and contests, and the value of perseverance and impactful insights in research and problem-solving.', 'duration': 425.162, 'highlights': ['The quantification of hard math problems is based on the number of insights, with each reframing of the problem and use of tools constituting a leap of insight, influencing the difficulty and branching of possibilities (e.g., three-insight problems are harder than one-insight problems).', 'The length of a math proof in a textbook indicates the number of insights required, with shorter proofs implying fewer insights, and this method is used in problem-solving and determining the difficulty of problems in math contests.', "The importance of perseverance and continued exploration of insights in professional research, exemplified by Andrew Wiles' seven-year pursuit of the same problem, and the potential wide-ranging impacts of insights beyond their initial problem domains."]}], 'duration': 773.497, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ3820292.jpg', 'highlights': ['The approach to education emphasizes invention and problem-solving skills, promoting long-term impact and the ability to step up in future catastrophes.', 'The quantification of hard math problems is based on the number of insights, with each reframing of the problem and use of tools constituting a leap of insight, influencing the difficulty and branching of possibilities (e.g., three-insight problems are harder than one-insight problems).', 'Insights into the scoring and negotiation process in the Mathematical Olympiad, involving a negotiation process and language barriers during the grading.']}, {'end': 5213.007, 'segs': [{'end': 4626.103, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4593.869, 'weight': 7, 'content': [{'end': 4595.911, 'text': 'We were both grad students together at the same time.', 'start': 4593.869, 'duration': 2.042}, {'end': 4598.094, 'text': "Well, most importantly, you're good at selecting good friends.", 'start': 4596.051, 'duration': 2.043}, {'end': 4599.915, 'text': "Ah, yeah, well, that's the key.", 'start': 4598.334, 'duration': 1.581}, {'end': 4601.615, 'text': 'You gotta find good people to learn things from.', 'start': 4599.975, 'duration': 1.64}, {'end': 4608.877, 'text': 'But his thing was, he often said if you solve a math problem and have this math proof, math problem for him is like a proof right?', 'start': 4601.995, 'duration': 6.882}, {'end': 4610.458, 'text': 'So suppose you came up with this proof.', 'start': 4608.897, 'duration': 1.561}, {'end': 4615.359, 'text': 'he always asks what have we learned from this that we could potentially use for something else?', 'start': 4610.458, 'duration': 4.901}, {'end': 4619.201, 'text': "It's not just did you solve the problem that was supposed to be famous?", 'start': 4616.06, 'duration': 3.141}, {'end': 4626.103, 'text': 'It was, and is there something new in the course of solving this that you had to invent that we could now use as a tool elsewhere?', 'start': 4619.441, 'duration': 6.662}], 'summary': 'The importance of selecting good friends and learning from them, with an emphasis on deriving new tools and knowledge from problem-solving.', 'duration': 32.234, 'max_score': 4593.869, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ4593869.jpg'}, {'end': 4741.57, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4711.199, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 4712.1, 'text': 'why is this hard??', 'start': 4711.199, 'duration': 0.901}, {'end': 4716.763, 'text': "I mean I'm often attracted to questions that look simple but are hard right?", 'start': 4712.16, 'duration': 4.603}, {'end': 4718.625, 'text': 'And what could you possibly learn from that?', 'start': 4716.903, 'duration': 1.722}, {'end': 4721.187, 'text': "Sort of like probably the attraction of Fermat's last theorem.", 'start': 4718.685, 'duration': 2.502}, {'end': 4727.116, 'text': "as you mentioned, simple statement, why is it so hard? So I'm more on the discovered side.", 'start': 4722.008, 'duration': 5.108}, {'end': 4736.926, 'text': 'And I also feel like if we ever ran into an intelligent other species in the universe, Probably if we compared notes,', 'start': 4727.556, 'duration': 9.37}, {'end': 4741.57, 'text': 'there might be some similarities between both of us realizing that pi is important.', 'start': 4736.926, 'duration': 4.644}], 'summary': "Attracted to hard questions like fermat's last theorem, seeking similarities in universal discoveries like pi.", 'duration': 30.371, 'max_score': 4711.199, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ4711199.jpg'}, {'end': 4798.605, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4770.402, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 4778.365, 'text': "And so, if it's discovered, it will still be pointing at a lot of same geometrical concepts, mathematical concepts.", 'start': 4770.402, 'duration': 7.963}, {'end': 4789.499, 'text': "It's interesting to think of how many things we would have to still align, not just based on notation but based on understanding, like,", 'start': 4780.433, 'duration': 9.066}, {'end': 4798.605, 'text': "just like some basic mathematical concepts like, how much work they're going to be in trying to find a common language.", 'start': 4789.499, 'duration': 9.106}], 'summary': 'Discoveries point to same concepts, requiring alignment and common language in mathematical understanding.', 'duration': 28.203, 'max_score': 4770.402, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ4770402.jpg'}, {'end': 4850.949, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4822.039, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 4825.92, 'text': 'It feels like there has to be an interactive component, just like we have a conversation.', 'start': 4822.039, 'duration': 3.881}, {'end': 4827.281, 'text': 'There has to be.', 'start': 4826.541, 'duration': 0.74}, {'end': 4834.004, 'text': "this is something we don't, I think, think about often, which is like With somebody who doesn't know anything about math,", 'start': 4827.281, 'duration': 6.723}, {'end': 4840.106, 'text': "doesn't know anything about English or any other natural language, how would we describe?", 'start': 4834.004, 'duration': 6.102}, {'end': 4841.786, 'text': 'we talked offline about visual proofs.', 'start': 4840.106, 'duration': 1.68}, {'end': 4850.949, 'text': "How would we, through visual proofs, have a conversation where we say something, here's the concept, the way we see it.", 'start': 4842.446, 'duration': 8.503}], 'summary': 'Emphasizing the need for interactive visual proofs to explain concepts to those unfamiliar with math or language.', 'duration': 28.91, 'max_score': 4822.039, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ4822039.jpg'}, {'end': 5025.987, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5002.18, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 5009.245, 'text': 'What do you think is the thing that allows us to solve that problem? And how hard is it to build a machine to do that??', 'start': 5002.18, 'duration': 7.065}, {'end': 5010.306, 'text': 'Asking for a friend?', 'start': 5009.625, 'duration': 0.681}, {'end': 5011.138, 'text': 'Yeah, wow.', 'start': 5010.598, 'duration': 0.54}, {'end': 5015.881, 'text': "So I guess, you see, because if I just think of the raw search space, it's huge.", 'start': 5011.439, 'duration': 4.442}, {'end': 5016.702, 'text': "That's why you can't do it.", 'start': 5015.901, 'duration': 0.801}, {'end': 5022.165, 'text': 'And if I think about what makes somebody good at doing these things, they have this heuristic sense.', 'start': 5017.062, 'duration': 5.103}, {'end': 5025.987, 'text': "It's almost like a good chess player of saying let's not keep analyzing down this way,", 'start': 5022.325, 'duration': 3.662}], 'summary': 'Discussion about the challenge of solving a problem with a large search space and the importance of heuristic sense in decision-making.', 'duration': 23.807, 'max_score': 5002.18, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ5002180.jpg'}, {'end': 5093.311, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5059.205, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 5064.531, 'text': 'Now, the question is, could a computer get as good at computing these kinds of heuristic functions? Maybe.', 'start': 5059.205, 'duration': 5.326}, {'end': 5067.914, 'text': "I'm not enough of an expert to understand,", 'start': 5065.071, 'duration': 2.843}, {'end': 5075.201, 'text': 'but one bit of me has always been a little bit curious of whether or not the human brain has a particular tendency, due to its wiring,', 'start': 5067.914, 'duration': 7.287}, {'end': 5084.008, 'text': 'to come up with certain kinds of things, which is just natural due to the way that the of the neurons and whatever is there, for which,', 'start': 5075.201, 'duration': 8.807}, {'end': 5089.19, 'text': 'if you tried to just build from scratch a computer to do it, would it naturally have different tendencies?', 'start': 5084.008, 'duration': 5.182}, {'end': 5090.11, 'text': "I don't know.", 'start': 5089.67, 'duration': 0.44}, {'end': 5093.311, 'text': 'This is just me being completely ignorant and just saying a few ideas.', 'start': 5090.55, 'duration': 2.761}], 'summary': 'Exploring whether computers can excel at heuristic functions like human brain. speculating on the influence of brain wiring on natural tendencies.', 'duration': 34.106, 'max_score': 5059.205, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ5059205.jpg'}], 'start': 4593.869, 'title': 'Mathematics: discovery or invention?', 'summary': 'Discusses the importance of selecting good friends for learning, the value of discovering new solutions with potential applications, and the perspective that most ideas are just different angles on the same concept, prompting the question of whether mathematics is discovered or invented. it also explores the concept of discovering mathematical truths and the potential similarities in understanding between different species in the universe, while delving into the challenges of communicating mathematical ideas and the complexities of intelligence. the potential for artificial intelligence to understand heuristic functions and the role of mathematics in understanding intelligence are also covered.', 'chapters': [{'end': 4682.582, 'start': 4593.869, 'title': 'Mathematics: discovery or invention?', 'summary': 'Discusses the importance of selecting good friends for learning, the value of discovering new solutions with potential applications, and the perspective that most ideas are just different angles on the same concept, prompting the question of whether mathematics is discovered or invented.', 'duration': 88.713, 'highlights': ['The importance of selecting good friends for learning and the value of discovering new solutions with potential applications.', 'The perspective that most ideas are just different angles on the same concept.', 'Questioning whether mathematics is discovered or invented.']}, {'end': 5213.007, 'start': 4682.582, 'title': 'Discovering math and intelligence', 'summary': 'Explores the concept of discovering mathematical truths and the potential similarities in understanding between different species in the universe, while also delving into the challenges of communicating mathematical ideas and the complexities of intelligence. it also touches on the potential for artificial intelligence to understand heuristic functions and the role of mathematics in understanding intelligence.', 'duration': 530.425, 'highlights': ['The potential similarities in understanding mathematical concepts between different species in the universe, and the challenges of finding a common language for mathematical communication.', 'The complexities of intelligence and the challenges in building machines to understand heuristic functions and the potential differences in tendencies between human brains and artificial intelligence.', 'The role of mathematics in exploring dimensions and surfaces outside of our natural day-to-day experiences, offering hope for understanding intelligence beyond human limitations.', "The concept of discovering mathematical truths through digging into core set of truths and the attraction of Fermat's last theorem, highlighting the challenges in seemingly simple yet difficult mathematical questions."]}], 'duration': 619.138, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ4593869.jpg', 'highlights': ['The role of mathematics in exploring dimensions and surfaces outside of our natural day-to-day experiences, offering hope for understanding intelligence beyond human limitations.', 'The potential similarities in understanding mathematical concepts between different species in the universe, and the challenges of finding a common language for mathematical communication.', 'The importance of selecting good friends for learning and the value of discovering new solutions with potential applications.', 'The perspective that most ideas are just different angles on the same concept.', "The concept of discovering mathematical truths through digging into core set of truths and the attraction of Fermat's last theorem, highlighting the challenges in seemingly simple yet difficult mathematical questions.", 'Questioning whether mathematics is discovered or invented.', 'The complexities of intelligence and the challenges in building machines to understand heuristic functions and the potential differences in tendencies between human brains and artificial intelligence.', 'The potential for artificial intelligence to understand heuristic functions and the role of mathematics in understanding intelligence are also covered.']}, {'end': 6383.011, 'segs': [{'end': 5243.49, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5213.108, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 5216.43, 'text': 'If I were to try to build a program that does that, where did that come from?', 'start': 5213.108, 'duration': 3.322}, {'end': 5217.951, 'text': 'So this is interesting.', 'start': 5216.93, 'duration': 1.021}, {'end': 5225.197, 'text': 'So I try to do this to teach middle school students how to learn how to create and think and invent.', 'start': 5219.052, 'duration': 6.145}, {'end': 5231.662, 'text': "And the way I do it is there are these math competition problems and I'm working in collaboration with the people who run those.", 'start': 5225.657, 'duration': 6.005}, {'end': 5237.246, 'text': 'And I will turn on my YouTube live and for the first time, look at those questions and live solve them.', 'start': 5232.102, 'duration': 5.144}, {'end': 5243.49, 'text': 'The reason I do this is to let the middle school students and the high school students and the adults whoever wants to watch,', 'start': 5238.547, 'duration': 4.943}], 'summary': 'Collaborating with math competitions to solve problems live on youtube for students and adults.', 'duration': 30.382, 'max_score': 5213.108, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ5213108.jpg'}, {'end': 5330.157, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5277.265, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 5278.806, 'text': 'Like how would you think about these things?', 'start': 5277.265, 'duration': 1.541}, {'end': 5286.649, 'text': "And then I eventually decided the easiest way to expose this would just be to go live on YouTube and just say I've never seen any of these questions before.", 'start': 5278.946, 'duration': 7.703}, {'end': 5286.949, 'text': 'here we go.', 'start': 5286.649, 'duration': 0.3}, {'end': 5291.733, 'text': "Don't you get, man, that's anxiety inducing for me.", 'start': 5287.83, 'duration': 3.903}, {'end': 5301.72, 'text': "Don't you get trapped in a kind of like little dead ends of confusion, even on middle school problems? Yes, that's what the comments are for.", 'start': 5292.754, 'duration': 8.966}, {'end': 5303.862, 'text': 'The live comments come in and students say, try this.', 'start': 5302.001, 'duration': 1.861}, {'end': 5305.422, 'text': 'Oh, wow.', 'start': 5304.782, 'duration': 0.64}, {'end': 5306.483, 'text': "It's actually pretty good.", 'start': 5305.683, 'duration': 0.8}, {'end': 5307.664, 'text': "And I'll never get stuck.", 'start': 5306.703, 'duration': 0.961}, {'end': 5311.766, 'text': "I mean, I'm willing to go on camera and say, guess what? Potion Low can't do this.", 'start': 5307.844, 'duration': 3.922}, {'end': 5312.827, 'text': "That's fine.", 'start': 5312.207, 'duration': 0.62}, {'end': 5319.391, 'text': 'But then what ends up happening is you will then see how maybe somebody saying something, and I look at the chat and I say aha,', 'start': 5313.227, 'duration': 6.164}, {'end': 5320.471, 'text': 'that actually looks useful.', 'start': 5319.391, 'duration': 1.08}, {'end': 5326.875, 'text': 'Now, that also shows how not all ideas, not all suggestions are the same power, if that makes sense.', 'start': 5320.712, 'duration': 6.163}, {'end': 5329.137, 'text': "Because if I actually do get stuck, I'll go fishing through the chat.", 'start': 5326.915, 'duration': 2.222}, {'end': 5330.157, 'text': 'Anyone got any ideas?', 'start': 5329.377, 'duration': 0.78}], 'summary': 'Teacher goes live on youtube to solve math questions, engages with live comments for help and feedback.', 'duration': 52.892, 'max_score': 5277.265, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ5277265.jpg'}, {'end': 5429.711, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5402.227, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 5405.369, 'text': 'Actually, back then, it was exciting to discover the Pythagorean theorem.', 'start': 5402.227, 'duration': 3.142}, {'end': 5406.609, 'text': "It wasn't just homework.", 'start': 5405.769, 'duration': 0.84}, {'end': 5410.434, 'text': 'so is there, um what?', 'start': 5407.91, 'duration': 2.524}, {'end': 5414.16, 'text': 'which discipline do you think has the most exciting coincidences?', 'start': 5410.434, 'duration': 3.726}, {'end': 5416.444, 'text': 'so is it geometry?', 'start': 5414.16, 'duration': 2.284}, {'end': 5419.169, 'text': 'is it algebra?', 'start': 5416.444, 'duration': 2.725}, {'end': 5420.811, 'text': 'um, is it calculus?', 'start': 5419.169, 'duration': 1.642}, {'end': 5427.11, 'text': "Well, you see, you're asking me, and I'm the guy who gets the most excited when the combinatorics shows up in the geometry.", 'start': 5421.527, 'duration': 5.583}, {'end': 5429.711, 'text': 'Is it? Okay.', 'start': 5428.571, 'duration': 1.14}], 'summary': 'Exciting discovery of pythagorean theorem led to enthusiasm for combinatorics in geometry.', 'duration': 27.484, 'max_score': 5402.227, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ5402227.jpg'}, {'end': 5704.926, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5672.895, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 5676.519, 'text': 'What about the daily challenges that you run? What are those about? We do that too.', 'start': 5672.895, 'duration': 3.624}, {'end': 5679.762, 'text': "But I mean, the difference was ours isn't, that one's not free.", 'start': 5676.719, 'duration': 3.043}, {'end': 5682.025, 'text': 'So I should actually probably be careful.', 'start': 5679.942, 'duration': 2.083}, {'end': 5684.047, 'text': "The things that I've just mentioned are also not free.", 'start': 5682.105, 'duration': 1.942}, {'end': 5686.269, 'text': 'Not all of those things I mentioned just now are free either.', 'start': 5684.327, 'duration': 1.942}, {'end': 5689.052, 'text': "People can figure out what is free and what's not.", 'start': 5686.71, 'duration': 2.342}, {'end': 5691.034, 'text': "But this is really nice to know what's out there.", 'start': 5689.192, 'duration': 1.842}, {'end': 5694.217, 'text': 'But can you speak a little bit to the daily challenges? Sure, sure.', 'start': 5691.074, 'duration': 3.143}, {'end': 5697.16, 'text': "So that's actually what we did when, I guess,", 'start': 5694.298, 'duration': 2.862}, {'end': 5704.926, 'text': 'I was thinking about how would I try to develop that skill in people if we had the power to architect the entire system ourselves.', 'start': 5697.16, 'duration': 7.766}], 'summary': 'Discussion about daily challenges and the cost of services offered.', 'duration': 32.031, 'max_score': 5672.895, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ5672895.jpg'}, {'end': 5758.919, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5727.563, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 5728.624, 'text': "I say hey, here's an interesting question.", 'start': 5727.563, 'duration': 1.061}, {'end': 5731.446, 'text': "Why don't we think about this? But I know you don't know how to do it.", 'start': 5728.644, 'duration': 2.802}, {'end': 5734.708, 'text': 'So now you think, and a minute later, a hint pops on the screen.', 'start': 5732.047, 'duration': 2.661}, {'end': 5736.109, 'text': 'but you still think.', 'start': 5735.509, 'duration': 0.6}, {'end': 5739.11, 'text': 'And a minute later, a big hint pops on the screen and you still think.', 'start': 5736.349, 'duration': 2.761}, {'end': 5743.352, 'text': 'And then finally, after the three minutes, hopefully you got some ideas, you try to answer.', 'start': 5739.43, 'duration': 3.922}, {'end': 5751.275, 'text': "And then suddenly there's like this pretty extended explanation of, oh yeah, so here's like multiple different ways that you can do the question.", 'start': 5743.752, 'duration': 7.523}, {'end': 5754.076, 'text': 'And by accident, you also just learned this other concept.', 'start': 5751.655, 'duration': 2.421}, {'end': 5755.236, 'text': "That's what we did.", 'start': 5754.696, 'duration': 0.54}, {'end': 5758.919, 'text': 'Is this targeted towards middle school students, high school students?', 'start': 5755.997, 'duration': 2.922}], 'summary': 'Encouraging problem-solving with hints, explanations, and accidental learning in 3 minutes', 'duration': 31.356, 'max_score': 5727.563, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ5727563.jpg'}], 'start': 5213.108, 'title': 'Math teaching and problem solving', 'summary': 'Covers teaching math problem-solving through live sessions on youtube, emphasizing the development of critical thinking skills. it also explores the beauty of geometry and daily math challenges, promoting continuous learning and skill development. furthermore, it delves into combinatorics, complexity analysis, and the significance of linear time complexity in practical applications, such as disease control and computational efficiency.', 'chapters': [{'end': 5401.567, 'start': 5213.108, 'title': 'Math problem solving on youtube live', 'summary': "Discusses a teacher's approach to teaching middle and high school students math problem-solving by live-solving math competition problems on youtube, encouraging student participation and showcasing the process of invention and critical thinking.", 'duration': 188.459, 'highlights': ['The teacher live-solves math competition problems on YouTube to teach middle and high school students math problem-solving. The teacher live-solves math competition problems on YouTube to teach middle and high school students math problem-solving.', 'Encourages student participation and showcases the process of invention and critical thinking. The teacher encourages student participation and showcases the process of invention and critical thinking.', 'The middle school is a crucial time for students to develop a sophisticated understanding of mathematics and start doing interesting things. The middle school is a crucial time for students to develop a sophisticated understanding of mathematics and start doing interesting things.']}, {'end': 6098.574, 'start': 5402.227, 'title': 'The beauty of geometry and daily math challenges', 'summary': 'Explores the beauty of geometry and the significance of daily math challenges in developing critical thinking skills, as well as recommends math competition problems for middle and high school students, emphasizing the philosophy of continuous learning and skill development in various domains.', 'duration': 696.347, 'highlights': ['The significance of geometry in visual proofs and exploration through invention is emphasized, acting as the earliest discipline to showcase the power of proofs and visual representation, contributing to a deeper understanding and love for mathematics. Emphasis on the visual nature of geometry and its role in visual proofs and invention, showcasing the power of proofs and love for mathematics.', 'Recommendation of using math competition problems for middle and high school students, such as Math Counts, mathleague.org, and American Math Competitions, as effective tools for developing critical thinking skills, even for professionals, and the promotion of daily math challenges through Daily Challenge with Po Hsuan Lo as a means to foster thinking skills and invention. Recommendation of math competition problems for developing critical thinking skills, promotion of Daily Challenge with Po Hsuan Lo for fostering thinking skills and invention.', 'Emphasis on the philosophy of continuous learning and skill development, advocating for the pursuit of expanding knowledge and capabilities beyond previous limits, incorporating the use of Anki for memorization and daily contemplation on various topics to build the thinking muscle. Advocacy for continuous learning and skill development, incorporating the use of Anki for memorization and daily contemplation on various topics to build the thinking muscle.']}, {'end': 6383.011, 'start': 6098.955, 'title': 'Combinatorics and complexity analysis', 'summary': 'Discusses combinatorics as the study of finite and discreet structures, different from calculus, and the importance of complexity analysis in practical applications, such as disease control and computational efficiency, emphasizing the significance of linear time complexity. it also explores the voting tree data structure as an abstract question in math and its application in elections with multiple candidates.', 'duration': 284.056, 'highlights': ['The chapter discusses combinatorics as the study of finite and discreet structures, different from calculus, and the importance of complexity analysis in practical applications, such as disease control and computational efficiency. Combinatorics is described as the study of finite and discreet structures, contrasting it with calculus, and the significance of complexity analysis is highlighted in practical applications such as disease control and computational efficiency.', 'The chapter explores the voting tree data structure as an abstract question in math and its application in elections with multiple candidates. The discussion delves into the voting tree data structure as an abstract question in math, particularly focusing on its application in elections with multiple candidates.', 'The significance of linear time complexity is emphasized in practical applications, with a specific focus on its importance in disease control and computational efficiency. The importance of linear time complexity is emphasized in practical applications, particularly in disease control and computational efficiency.']}], 'duration': 1169.903, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ5213108.jpg', 'highlights': ['The teacher live-solves math competition problems on YouTube to teach middle and high school students math problem-solving.', 'The middle school is a crucial time for students to develop a sophisticated understanding of mathematics and start doing interesting things.', 'Encourages student participation and showcases the process of invention and critical thinking.', 'Emphasis on the visual nature of geometry and its role in visual proofs and invention, showcasing the power of proofs and love for mathematics.', 'Recommendation of math competition problems for developing critical thinking skills, promotion of Daily Challenge with Po Hsuan Lo for fostering thinking skills and invention.', 'Advocacy for continuous learning and skill development, incorporating the use of Anki for memorization and daily contemplation on various topics to build the thinking muscle.', 'The chapter discusses combinatorics as the study of finite and discreet structures, contrasting it with calculus, and the significance of complexity analysis is highlighted in practical applications such as disease control and computational efficiency.', 'The importance of linear time complexity is emphasized in practical applications, particularly in disease control and computational efficiency.', 'The chapter explores the voting tree data structure as an abstract question in math, particularly focusing on its application in elections with multiple candidates.']}, {'end': 7507.732, 'segs': [{'end': 6482.992, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 6394.433, 'weight': 0.77, 'content': [{'end': 6395.914, 'text': 'right?. This is a general question of.', 'start': 6394.433, 'duration': 1.481}, {'end': 6402.275, 'text': 'could I make a big circuit board to feed an election into? Like, maybe one nice outcome would be whoever wins, at least is.', 'start': 6395.914, 'duration': 6.361}, {'end': 6404.756, 'text': 'preferred over a lot of people.', 'start': 6403.095, 'duration': 1.661}, {'end': 6414.184, 'text': 'yes, so, for example, if you ran in 1024 candidates, ideally we would like a guarantee that says that the winner beats a lot of people.', 'start': 6404.756, 'duration': 9.428}, {'end': 6422.911, 'text': "actually, in any uh system where there are 1024 candidates, there's always a candidate who beats at least 512 of the others.", 'start': 6414.184, 'duration': 8.727}, {'end': 6427.795, 'text': "this is a mathematical fact that there's actually always a person who beats at least half of the other people.", 'start': 6422.911, 'duration': 4.884}, {'end': 6432.788, 'text': "I'm trying to make sense of that mathematical fact.", 'start': 6429.687, 'duration': 3.101}, {'end': 6436.289, 'text': 'Is this supposed to be obvious? No, but I can explain it.', 'start': 6433.448, 'duration': 2.841}, {'end': 6437.569, 'text': "No, no, I can't.", 'start': 6437.049, 'duration': 0.52}, {'end': 6440.87, 'text': 'The way it works is that, think of it this way.', 'start': 6438.009, 'duration': 2.861}, {'end': 6448.792, 'text': 'Every time, imagine I have all these candidates and everyone is competing, everyone is like compared with everyone else at some point.', 'start': 6441.49, 'duration': 7.302}, {'end': 6450.612, 'text': 'Well, think of it this way.', 'start': 6449.272, 'duration': 1.34}, {'end': 6453.273, 'text': "Whenever there's a comparison, somebody gets a point.", 'start': 6450.672, 'duration': 2.601}, {'end': 6456.334, 'text': "That's the one who is better than the other one.", 'start': 6454.253, 'duration': 2.081}, {'end': 6462.388, 'text': "My claim is there's somebody whose score is at least half of how many other people there are.", 'start': 6457.074, 'duration': 5.314}, {'end': 6468.444, 'text': "Yeah, I'm just trying to, like, my intuition is very close to that being true, but it's beautiful.", 'start': 6462.921, 'duration': 5.523}, {'end': 6471.906, 'text': "I didn't at first, that's not an obvious fact.", 'start': 6468.764, 'duration': 3.142}, {'end': 6472.887, 'text': "No, it's not.", 'start': 6472.326, 'duration': 0.561}, {'end': 6475.748, 'text': 'And it feels like a beautiful fact.', 'start': 6473.227, 'duration': 2.521}, {'end': 6476.869, 'text': 'Well, let me explain it this way.', 'start': 6475.768, 'duration': 1.101}, {'end': 6482.992, 'text': "Imagine that for every match, you didn't give one point, but you gave two points.", 'start': 6477.309, 'duration': 5.683}], 'summary': 'Mathematically, there is always a candidate who beats at least half of the other candidates, ensuring a preferred winner in elections.', 'duration': 88.559, 'max_score': 6394.433, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ6394433.jpg'}, {'end': 6573.049, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 6542.558, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 6546.88, 'text': 'the average number of points per person is going to be half of how many other people there are.', 'start': 6542.558, 'duration': 4.322}, {'end': 6549.721, 'text': 'And somebody is gonna be above average.', 'start': 6547.2, 'duration': 2.521}, {'end': 6550.561, 'text': 'At least average.', 'start': 6549.741, 'duration': 0.82}, {'end': 6555.723, 'text': 'Yeah, this is this notion of expected value that if I have a random variable which has an expected value,', 'start': 6550.801, 'duration': 4.922}, {'end': 6561.611, 'text': "there's going to be some possibility in the probability space where you're at least as big as the expected value.", 'start': 6556.243, 'duration': 5.368}, {'end': 6563.754, 'text': "Yeah, when you describe it like that, it's obvious,", 'start': 6561.631, 'duration': 2.123}, {'end': 6573.049, 'text': "but when you are first saying in this little circuit that there's going to be one candidate better than half, That's not obvious.", 'start': 6563.754, 'duration': 9.295}], 'summary': 'The average points per person will be half the number of other people, with at least one person being above average.', 'duration': 30.491, 'max_score': 6542.558, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ6542558.jpg'}, {'end': 6656.501, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 6619.745, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 6626.468, 'text': 'The best known circuit when we started thinking about this was the circuit called candidate one plays against candidate two,', 'start': 6619.745, 'duration': 6.723}, {'end': 6629.949, 'text': 'candidate three plays against four, and then the winners play against each other.', 'start': 6626.468, 'duration': 3.481}, {'end': 6634.671, 'text': 'And then by the way, five plays against six, seven against eight, the winners play against each other.', 'start': 6630.55, 'duration': 4.121}, {'end': 6636.272, 'text': "You understand, it's like a giant binary tree.", 'start': 6634.691, 'duration': 1.581}, {'end': 6638.953, 'text': "Where you- Yeah, it's a binary, like a balanced binary tree? Yeah.", 'start': 6636.472, 'duration': 2.481}, {'end': 6640.693, 'text': "Okay It's a balanced binary tree.", 'start': 6639.093, 'duration': 1.6}, {'end': 6644.035, 'text': 'One, two, three, four, up to 1,024, everyone going up to find the winner.', 'start': 6640.874, 'duration': 3.161}, {'end': 6645.175, 'text': 'Beautiful. Well, you know what?', 'start': 6644.135, 'duration': 1.04}, {'end': 6656.501, 'text': "There's a system in the world where it could just be that there's a candidate called number one that just beats, like 10 other people,", 'start': 6645.615, 'duration': 10.886}], 'summary': 'A balanced binary tree system with 1,024 candidates competing in pairs to find a winner.', 'duration': 36.756, 'max_score': 6619.745, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ6619745.jpg'}, {'end': 7054.302, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 7027.643, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 7031.426, 'text': "And the beautiful thing is, since everyone's doing stuff in parallel,", 'start': 7027.643, 'duration': 3.783}, {'end': 7039.031, 'text': 'the amount of time it takes to get the total sum is actually just the number of layers in the tree, which is 10..', 'start': 7031.426, 'duration': 7.605}, {'end': 7043.454, 'text': "So now that's logarithmic time to add up the number of hours that people slept today.", 'start': 7039.031, 'duration': 4.423}, {'end': 7044.715, 'text': 'Sounds fantastic.', 'start': 7043.854, 'duration': 0.861}, {'end': 7046.096, 'text': "There's only one problem.", 'start': 7045.275, 'duration': 0.821}, {'end': 7050.019, 'text': "How do you decide who's person number one and person number two? Yes.", 'start': 7046.456, 'duration': 3.563}, {'end': 7054.302, 'text': 'So if, for example, you just went out into downtown and said, hey, get these thousand people, go.', 'start': 7050.259, 'duration': 4.043}], 'summary': 'Parallel processing reduces time to get total sum, 10 layers in tree, logarithmic time, 1000 people.', 'duration': 26.659, 'max_score': 7027.643, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ7027643.jpg'}, {'end': 7507.732, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 7458.41, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 7463.313, 'text': "It feels like there's a lot of room for layers of representation to form organically from the bottom up.", 'start': 7458.41, 'duration': 4.903}, {'end': 7465.155, 'text': 'I wonder if there are systems like that.', 'start': 7463.894, 'duration': 1.261}, {'end': 7469.617, 'text': "This is the cool thing about the internet and the digital space where we're so well connected.", 'start': 7465.395, 'duration': 4.222}, {'end': 7479.384, 'text': 'just like with the Novid app to distribute information about the spread of the disease, we can the same way, in a distributed sense,', 'start': 7469.617, 'duration': 9.767}, {'end': 7487.87, 'text': 'form anything like any kind of knowledge bases that are formed in a decentralized way.', 'start': 7479.384, 'duration': 8.486}, {'end': 7501.345, 'text': "and in a hierarchical way, as opposed to sort of old way where there's no mechanism for large scale, fast, like distributed transactional information.", 'start': 7488.991, 'duration': 12.354}, {'end': 7502.566, 'text': 'This is really interesting.', 'start': 7501.785, 'duration': 0.781}, {'end': 7507.732, 'text': 'This is where almost like network graph theory becomes practical.', 'start': 7502.606, 'duration': 5.126}], 'summary': 'The internet enables decentralized knowledge bases, like the novid app, for fast, distributed information.', 'duration': 49.322, 'max_score': 7458.41, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ7458410.jpg'}], 'start': 6383.531, 'title': 'Circuit board and mathematical facts', 'summary': 'Discusses using a circuit board for candidate selection to ensure the winner beats at least half of the other candidates, and explores mathematical facts related to competition scores distribution and distributed algorithms for adding numbers.', 'chapters': [{'end': 6427.795, 'start': 6383.531, 'title': 'Circuit board for candidate selection', 'summary': "Discusses the idea of using a circuit board to conduct candidate selection, aiming for a system where the winner beats at least half of the other candidates, as it is a mathematical fact that in any system with 1024 candidates, there's always a candidate who beats at least 512 others.", 'duration': 44.264, 'highlights': ["In any system with 1024 candidates, there's always a candidate who beats at least 512 others, providing a mathematical guarantee for candidate selection.", 'The discussion revolves around creating a circuit board to facilitate candidate selection and ensuring that the winner is preferred over a significant number of people.']}, {'end': 6723.825, 'start': 6429.687, 'title': 'Mathematical fact: half the scores', 'summary': 'Discusses a mathematical fact regarding the distribution of scores in a competition, demonstrating that at least one participant has a score of at least half the total number of participants, aiming to optimize a voting circuit with the goal of ensuring the winner has beaten a significant number of participants, with the improvement achieved only up to the square root of n.', 'duration': 294.138, 'highlights': ['The chapter discusses a mathematical fact regarding the distribution of scores in a competition, demonstrating that at least one participant has a score of at least half the total number of participants.', 'The conversation delves into the optimization of a voting circuit, aiming to ensure the winner has beaten a significant number of participants.', 'The improvement achieved for the voting circuit is only up to the square root of n, falling short of the desired goal of n over two.']}, {'end': 7507.732, 'start': 6724.662, 'title': 'Distributed algorithms and representation systems', 'summary': 'Discusses a distributed algorithm for adding numbers in a logarithmic time complexity, the emergence of representative networks in voting systems, and the practical applications of network graph theory in decentralized knowledge bases.', 'duration': 783.07, 'highlights': ['The process of adding up numbers using a distributed algorithm takes logarithmic time due to parallel processing, with each layer in the tree representing a time complexity of 10. The algorithm for adding up numbers in a distributed manner takes logarithmic time due to parallel processing, where each layer in the tree represents a time complexity of 10.', 'The discussion on a distributed algorithm for adding numbers reveals the challenge of deciding the order of individuals in a decentralized manner, emphasizing the need for a distributed solution. The challenge of deciding the order of individuals in a decentralized manner is highlighted, emphasizing the need for a distributed solution in the context of a distributed algorithm for adding numbers.', 'The emergence of representative networks in voting systems is discussed, highlighting the potential for constructing organic layers of representation from the bottom up. The emergence of representative networks in voting systems is discussed, emphasizing the potential for constructing organic layers of representation from the bottom up, as opposed to a tree of height one.', 'The practical applications of network graph theory in decentralized knowledge bases are explored, highlighting the potential for forming hierarchical knowledge structures in a distributed and decentralized manner. The practical applications of network graph theory in decentralized knowledge bases are explored, emphasizing the potential for forming hierarchical knowledge structures in a distributed and decentralized manner, leveraging the well-connected nature of the internet and digital space.']}], 'duration': 1124.201, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ6383531.jpg', 'highlights': ["In any system with 1024 candidates, there's always a candidate who beats at least 512 others, providing a mathematical guarantee for candidate selection.", 'The process of adding up numbers using a distributed algorithm takes logarithmic time due to parallel processing, with each layer in the tree representing a time complexity of 10.', 'The discussion revolves around creating a circuit board to facilitate candidate selection and ensuring that the winner is preferred over a significant number of people.', 'The chapter discusses a mathematical fact regarding the distribution of scores in a competition, demonstrating that at least one participant has a score of at least half the total number of participants.', 'The conversation delves into the optimization of a voting circuit, aiming to ensure the winner has beaten a significant number of participants.', 'The emergence of representative networks in voting systems is discussed, highlighting the potential for constructing organic layers of representation from the bottom up.', 'The practical applications of network graph theory in decentralized knowledge bases are explored, emphasizing the potential for forming hierarchical knowledge structures in a distributed and decentralized manner.']}, {'end': 8406.106, 'segs': [{'end': 7571.06, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 7538.416, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 7539.236, 'text': 'For security purposes.', 'start': 7538.416, 'duration': 0.82}, {'end': 7542.677, 'text': 'And most computer scientists, we should say, believe that P equals NP.', 'start': 7539.296, 'duration': 3.381}, {'end': 7546.958, 'text': 'My question almost like, this is back to our aliens discussion.', 'start': 7543.877, 'duration': 3.081}, {'end': 7550.659, 'text': 'You want to think outside the box, the low probability event?', 'start': 7546.998, 'duration': 3.661}, {'end': 7560.889, 'text': 'what kind of discoveries would lead us to prove that P does not equal to NP?', 'start': 7554.122, 'duration': 6.767}, {'end': 7571.06, 'text': 'Like there could be giant misunderstandings or gaps in our knowledge about computer science, about theoretical computer science, about computation,', 'start': 7561.77, 'duration': 9.29}], 'summary': 'Computer scientists believe p equals np for security, but exploring low probability events to prove otherwise.', 'duration': 32.644, 'max_score': 7538.416, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ7538416.jpg'}, {'end': 7729.324, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 7684.322, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 7688.444, 'text': "And then like now 42 is now part of his humor that he doesn't shut up about.", 'start': 7684.322, 'duration': 4.122}, {'end': 7689.845, 'text': "He's constantly joking about it.", 'start': 7688.464, 'duration': 1.381}, {'end': 7691.986, 'text': 'And that humor is spreading through our minds.', 'start': 7689.865, 'duration': 2.121}, {'end': 7694.808, 'text': 'And somehow this like silly number just had an effect.', 'start': 7692.367, 'duration': 2.441}, {'end': 7700.551, 'text': "In that same way, after Scott told me like the 3% chance, it's stuck in my head.", 'start': 7695.208, 'duration': 5.343}, {'end': 7703.273, 'text': "And I think it's been having a ripple effect in everybody else.", 'start': 7700.771, 'duration': 2.502}, {'end': 7715.523, 'text': "Believing that P is not equal to NP, Scott almost as a joke saying it's 3%, is actually motivating a large number of researchers to work on it.", 'start': 7704.394, 'duration': 11.129}, {'end': 7716.804, 'text': '3% is high.', 'start': 7715.543, 'duration': 1.261}, {'end': 7717.665, 'text': "It's very high.", 'start': 7717.144, 'duration': 0.521}, {'end': 7720.147, 'text': 'Because for the potential impact that that would have.', 'start': 7717.685, 'duration': 2.462}, {'end': 7726.34, 'text': "But then 3% is not that high because it's only, you know, it's like, we're not very good.", 'start': 7721.294, 'duration': 5.046}, {'end': 7729.324, 'text': 'I feel like humans are only able to really think about like 1%, 50%.', 'start': 7726.36, 'duration': 2.964}], 'summary': "Scott's joke about 3% chance is motivating researchers to work on p vs np problem.", 'duration': 45.002, 'max_score': 7684.322, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ7684322.jpg'}, {'end': 7945.689, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 7920.621, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 7929.206, 'text': 'Is there more general advice you would give about how to succeed in life, how to learn for high school students, for college students,', 'start': 7920.621, 'duration': 8.585}, {'end': 7930.326, 'text': 'career or life in general?', 'start': 7929.206, 'duration': 1.12}, {'end': 7938.271, 'text': "So I think the first one would be to make sure that you're learning to invent and to make sure you're not just learning how to mimic.", 'start': 7930.627, 'duration': 7.644}, {'end': 7945.689, 'text': 'because a lot of times you learn how to do X by watching somebody do X and then repeating X many times with different inputs.', 'start': 7939.144, 'duration': 6.545}], 'summary': 'To succeed in life, learn to invent and avoid simply mimicking others, as mimicking can limit creativity.', 'duration': 25.068, 'max_score': 7920.621, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ7920621.jpg'}, {'end': 8085.426, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 8056.928, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 8067.67, 'text': 'So I mean my thing is, I guess I personally just wanted to maximize a certain score, which was for how many person,', 'start': 8056.928, 'duration': 10.742}, {'end': 8072.894, 'text': "years after I'm no longer here anymore, did what I do mattered?", 'start': 8067.67, 'duration': 5.224}, {'end': 8076.418, 'text': "And it didn't matter if it's necessarily attributed to me.", 'start': 8073.955, 'duration': 2.463}, {'end': 8079.881, 'text': "It's just like, did it matter? And so that's what I wanted.", 'start': 8076.518, 'duration': 3.363}, {'end': 8085.426, 'text': 'I guess that is very inspired by how scientists work.', 'start': 8081.862, 'duration': 3.564}], 'summary': "Maximize impact for person-years after i'm gone, inspired by scientists.", 'duration': 28.498, 'max_score': 8056.928, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ8056928.jpg'}, {'end': 8321.063, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 8292.09, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 8293.271, 'text': 'And that was what inspired me.', 'start': 8292.09, 'duration': 1.181}, {'end': 8295.153, 'text': "And that's just how I choose what problems to work on.", 'start': 8293.411, 'duration': 1.742}, {'end': 8304.059, 'text': "And that's a kind of immortality is ideas that you've invented living on long after you in the minds of others.", 'start': 8295.713, 'duration': 8.346}, {'end': 8313.552, 'text': 'And humans are ultimately not, are like meat vehicles that carry ideas for brief, for just a few years.', 'start': 8304.921, 'duration': 8.631}, {'end': 8314.853, 'text': 'It may not be the important thing.', 'start': 8313.572, 'duration': 1.281}, {'end': 8318.499, 'text': 'It might be the ideas that we carry with us and invent new ones.', 'start': 8314.894, 'duration': 3.605}, {'end': 8321.063, 'text': 'Like we get a bunch of baby ideas in our head.', 'start': 8318.699, 'duration': 2.364}], 'summary': 'Choosing problems to work on, immortality of ideas, human as idea carriers.', 'duration': 28.973, 'max_score': 8292.09, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ8292090.jpg'}], 'start': 7509.394, 'title': "P vs np problem probability and po-shen lo's insights", 'summary': "Discusses the probability of p not equaling np, estimated at 3% by scott aronson, motivating researchers despite its low probability. it also explores po-shen lo's insights on life, learning, and impact, emphasizing the importance of inventing, aiming for challenging goals, and seeking to leave a lasting, positive influence on the world.", 'chapters': [{'end': 7759.613, 'start': 7509.394, 'title': 'P vs np problem probability', 'summary': 'Discusses the p vs np problem and the probability of p not equaling np, with scott aronson estimating it at 3%, which is motivating researchers despite its low probability and potential high impact.', 'duration': 250.219, 'highlights': ['Scott Aronson estimates the probability of P not equals to NP at 3%, motivating researchers to work on it despite its low probability and potential high impact. Scott Aronson puts the probability of P not equals to NP at 3%, which is considered motivating for researchers despite its low probability and potential high impact.', 'The discussion delves into the potential impact of proving P not equals to NP and the low probability event, with humans having difficulty comprehending probabilities beyond 50%. The conversation explores the potential impact of proving P not equals to NP and the challenge of comprehending probabilities beyond 50% for humans.', "The chapter also highlights the influence of humor and psychology in shaping beliefs, citing the example of the number 42's impact on human perception and the ripple effect of Scott Aronson's 3% estimation. It emphasizes the influence of humor and psychology in shaping beliefs, exemplifying the impact of the number 42 on human perception and the ripple effect of Scott Aronson's 3% estimation."]}, {'end': 8406.106, 'start': 7760.194, 'title': 'Po-shen lo: insights on life and learning', 'summary': "Delves into po-shen lo's insights on life, learning, and impact, emphasizing the importance of inventing, aiming for challenging goals, and seeking to leave a lasting, positive influence on the world.", 'duration': 645.912, 'highlights': ['The importance of inventing and avoiding mere mimicry is emphasized as a core skill for success, encouraging individuals to aim for meaningful, impactful goals. Emphasizes the importance of inventing over mimicking to achieve success. Encourages aiming for meaningful, impactful goals.', 'The significance of seeking to leave a lasting, positive influence on the world through meaningful contributions is highlighted, with a focus on impact and immortality of ideas. Emphasizes seeking to leave a lasting, positive influence on the world. Focuses on the impact and immortality of ideas.', "Po-Shen Lo's personal goal of maximizing the impact of his contributions by focusing on the lasting influence of his work is revealed, with a shift in metric from person years to hours of impact. Po-Shen Lo's personal goal of maximizing the impact of his contributions. Shift in metric from person years to hours of impact."]}], 'duration': 896.712, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/6z1JwZbX4dQ/pics/6z1JwZbX4dQ7509394.jpg', 'highlights': ['Scott Aronson estimates the probability of P not equals to NP at 3%, motivating researchers to work on it despite its low probability and potential high impact.', 'The discussion delves into the potential impact of proving P not equals to NP and the low probability event, with humans having difficulty comprehending probabilities beyond 50%.', "The chapter also highlights the influence of humor and psychology in shaping beliefs, citing the example of the number 42's impact on human perception and the ripple effect of Scott Aronson's 3% estimation.", 'The importance of inventing and avoiding mere mimicry is emphasized as a core skill for success, encouraging individuals to aim for meaningful, impactful goals.', 'The significance of seeking to leave a lasting, positive influence on the world through meaningful contributions is highlighted, with a focus on impact and immortality of ideas.', "Po-Shen Lo's personal goal of maximizing the impact of his contributions by focusing on the lasting influence of his work is revealed, with a shift in metric from person years to hours of impact."]}], 'highlights': ['Po Shen Lo developed an app for anonymous contact tracing providing statistical information about COVID cases in physical networks, emphasizing privacy and informed decisions.', 'The app creates a physical network based on Bluetooth proximity, enabling decentralized optimization through selfish behavior (e.g., game theory).', 'Empowering individuals to make decisions can lower the R naught of infection spreading below one.', 'The network-based approach creates a positive feedback loop for disease tracking.', 'The role of mathematics in exploring dimensions and surfaces outside of our natural day-to-day experiences, offering hope for understanding intelligence beyond human limitations.', "In any system with 1024 candidates, there's always a candidate who beats at least 512 others, providing a mathematical guarantee for candidate selection.", 'Scott Aronson estimates the probability of P not equals to NP at 3%, motivating researchers to work on it despite its low probability and potential high impact.', 'The approach to education emphasizes invention and problem-solving skills, promoting long-term impact and the ability to step up in future catastrophes.', 'The teacher live-solves math competition problems on YouTube to teach middle and high school students math problem-solving.', 'The importance of seeking to leave a lasting, positive influence on the world through meaningful contributions is highlighted, with a focus on impact and immortality of ideas.']}