title

Stephen Wolfram: Complexity and the Fabric of Reality | Lex Fridman Podcast #234

description

Stephen Wolfram is a computer scientist, mathematician, and theoretical physicist. Please support this podcast by checking out our sponsors:
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EPISODE LINKS:
Stephen's Twitter: https://twitter.com/stephen_wolfram
Stephen's Blog: https://writings.stephenwolfram.com
Wolfram Physics Project: https://www.wolframphysics.org
A New Kind of Science (book): https://amzn.to/30XoEun
Fundamental Theory of Physics (book): https://amzn.to/30XbAoT
PODCAST INFO:
Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/podcast
Apple Podcasts: https://apple.co/2lwqZIr
Spotify: https://spoti.fi/2nEwCF8
RSS: https://lexfridman.com/feed/podcast/
Full episodes playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLrAXtmErZgOdP_8GztsuKi9nrraNbKKp4
Clips playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLrAXtmErZgOeciFP3CBCIEElOJeitOr41
OUTLINE:
0:00 - Introduction
0:57 - What is complexity
13:58 - Randomness in the universe
18:19 - The Wolfram Physics Project
30:21 - Space and time are discrete
42:26 - Quantum mechanics and hypergraphs
51:40 - What is intelligence
1:02:23 - Computational equivalence
1:10:43 - What it is like to be a cellular automata
1:25:07 - Making prediction vs explanations
1:38:27 - Why does the universe exist
1:44:08 - The universe and rulial space
1:52:51 - Does an atom have consciousness
2:03:17 - Why does our universe exist
2:11:48 - What is outside the ruliad
2:22:22 - Automated proof systems
2:38:17 - Multicomputation for biology
2:56:48 - Cardano NFT collaboration with Wolfram Alpha
3:03:48 - Global theory of economics
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detail

{'title': 'Stephen Wolfram: Complexity and the Fabric of Reality | Lex Fridman Podcast #234', 'heatmap': [{'end': 7876.774, 'start': 7743.149, 'weight': 0.752}], 'summary': 'Stephen wolfram discusses complexity, randomness, gravitational microscopy, quantum mechanics, consciousness, computational equivalence, mathematical physics, rullial space, metamathematics, and multi-computation in physics, mathematics, and economics, spanning various chapters of the podcast.', 'chapters': [{'end': 571.298, 'segs': [{'end': 27.829, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 0.129, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 4.533, 'text': 'The following is a conversation with Stephen Wolfram, his third time on the podcast.', 'start': 0.129, 'duration': 4.404}, {'end': 14.682, 'text': "He's a computer scientist, mathematician, theoretical physicist and the founder of Wolfram Research, a company behind Mathematica, Wolfram Alpha,", 'start': 5.034, 'duration': 9.648}, {'end': 18.005, 'text': 'Wolfram Language and the new Wolfram Physics Project.', 'start': 14.682, 'duration': 3.323}, {'end': 27.829, 'text': 'This conversation is a wild technical rollercoaster ride through topics of complexity, mathematics, physics, computing, and consciousness.', 'start': 18.726, 'duration': 9.103}], 'summary': 'Stephen wolfram, a polymath, discusses complexity, mathematics, physics, computing, and consciousness.', 'duration': 27.7, 'max_score': 0.129, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c129.jpg'}, {'end': 71.997, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 42.013, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 46.454, 'text': 'and some are just what the comedian Tim Dillon calls fun.', 'start': 42.013, 'duration': 4.441}, {'end': 49.662, 'text': 'This is the Lex Friedman Podcast.', 'start': 47.861, 'duration': 1.801}, {'end': 52.504, 'text': 'To support it, please check out the sponsors in the description.', 'start': 49.862, 'duration': 2.642}, {'end': 56.507, 'text': "And now here's my conversation with Stephen Wolfram.", 'start': 52.984, 'duration': 3.523}, {'end': 67.134, 'text': 'Almost 20 years ago, you published a new kind of science where you presented a study of complexity and an approach for modeling of complex systems.', 'start': 57.828, 'duration': 9.306}, {'end': 71.997, 'text': 'So let us return again to the core idea of complexity.', 'start': 67.594, 'duration': 4.403}], 'summary': 'Stephen wolfram discusses complexity and modeling complex systems in his conversation with lex friedman.', 'duration': 29.984, 'max_score': 42.013, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c42013.jpg'}, {'end': 121.989, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 93.023, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 97.527, 'text': 'And I got interested in that question like 50 years ago, which is really embarrassingly long time ago.', 'start': 93.023, 'duration': 4.504}, {'end': 103.192, 'text': 'And I was how does snowflakes get to have complicated forms??', 'start': 98.187, 'duration': 5.005}, {'end': 105.414, 'text': 'How do galaxies get to have complicated shapes??', 'start': 103.272, 'duration': 2.142}, {'end': 108.336, 'text': 'How do living systems get produced?', 'start': 105.474, 'duration': 2.862}, {'end': 108.977, 'text': 'Things like that.', 'start': 108.396, 'duration': 0.581}, {'end': 113.981, 'text': "And the question is what's the sort of underlying scientific basis for those kinds of things?", 'start': 109.477, 'duration': 4.504}, {'end': 121.989, 'text': "And the thing that I was at first very surprised by, because I'd been doing physics and particle physics and fancy mathematical physics and so on.", 'start': 114.722, 'duration': 7.267}], 'summary': 'Seeking scientific basis for complex natural phenomena over 50 years.', 'duration': 28.966, 'max_score': 93.023, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c93023.jpg'}, {'end': 183.089, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 154.368, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 161.194, 'text': 'The question is what secret does nature have that lets it make all this complexity that we, in doing engineering, for example,', 'start': 154.368, 'duration': 6.826}, {'end': 162.755, 'text': "don't naturally seem to have?", 'start': 161.194, 'duration': 1.561}, {'end': 165.477, 'text': 'And so that was the kind of the thing that I got interested in.', 'start': 163.175, 'duration': 2.302}, {'end': 171.663, 'text': "And then the question was, you know, could I understand that with things like mathematical physics? Well, it didn't work very well.", 'start': 165.998, 'duration': 5.665}, {'end': 176.245, 'text': 'So then I got to thinking about okay, is there some other way to try to understand this?', 'start': 172.203, 'duration': 4.042}, {'end': 183.089, 'text': "And then the question was if you're going to look at some system in nature, how do you make a model for that system, for what that system does?", 'start': 176.906, 'duration': 6.183}], 'summary': "Exploring nature's complexity and seeking models through mathematical physics.", 'duration': 28.721, 'max_score': 154.368, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c154368.jpg'}, {'end': 277.111, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 251.251, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 257.596, 'text': "And we're used to programs that you write for some particular purpose, and it's a big, long piece of code and it does some specific thing.", 'start': 251.251, 'duration': 6.345}, {'end': 260.639, 'text': 'But what I got interested in was okay.', 'start': 258.117, 'duration': 2.522}, {'end': 267.925, 'text': 'if you just go out into the sort of computational universe of possible programs, you say take the simplest program, you can imagine what does it do?', 'start': 260.639, 'duration': 7.286}, {'end': 271.948, 'text': 'And so I started studying these things called cellular automata.', 'start': 268.786, 'duration': 3.162}, {'end': 277.111, 'text': "Actually, I didn't know at first they were called cellular automata, but I found that out subsequently.", 'start': 271.968, 'duration': 5.143}], 'summary': 'Studying cellular automata in computational universe of possible programs.', 'duration': 25.86, 'max_score': 251.251, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c251251.jpg'}, {'end': 358.299, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 336.224, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 346.871, 'text': 'But the big thing is, even with very simple rules of that type, the minimal tiniest program, the one-line program or something,', 'start': 336.224, 'duration': 10.647}, {'end': 349.213, 'text': "it's possible to get very complicated behavior.", 'start': 346.871, 'duration': 2.342}, {'end': 354.096, 'text': 'My favorite example is this thing called Rule 30, which is a particular cellular automaton rule.', 'start': 349.473, 'duration': 4.623}, {'end': 358.299, 'text': 'You just start it off in one black cell, and it makes this really complicated pattern.', 'start': 354.136, 'duration': 4.163}], 'summary': "Simple rules can produce complex behavior, such as rule 30's intricate pattern from a single black cell.", 'duration': 22.075, 'max_score': 336.224, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c336224.jpg'}, {'end': 494.618, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 467.552, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 474.694, 'text': "But, you know, that in the end, the sort of the the what is complexity is, well, you can't easily tell what it's going to do.", 'start': 467.552, 'duration': 7.142}, {'end': 477.535, 'text': 'You could just run the rule and see what happens.', 'start': 475.094, 'duration': 2.441}, {'end': 480.935, 'text': "But you can't just say, oh, Show me the rule.", 'start': 477.935, 'duration': 3}, {'end': 483.816, 'text': "Great Now I know what's going to happen.", 'start': 481.335, 'duration': 2.481}, {'end': 485.516, 'text': 'The key phenomenon around.', 'start': 484.016, 'duration': 1.5}, {'end': 488.737, 'text': 'that is this thing I call computational irreducibility.', 'start': 485.516, 'duration': 3.221}, {'end': 494.618, 'text': "this fact that in something like Rule 30, you might say well, what's it going to do after a million steps?", 'start': 488.737, 'duration': 5.881}], 'summary': 'Computational irreducibility in rule 30 yields unpredictable behavior.', 'duration': 27.066, 'max_score': 467.552, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c467552.jpg'}, {'end': 586.964, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 550.881, 'weight': 7, 'content': [{'end': 555.305, 'text': "We know they don't, because it was proved in the 1800s that pi is not a rational number.", 'start': 550.881, 'duration': 4.424}, {'end': 559.128, 'text': 'So that means only rational numbers have digit sequences that repeat.', 'start': 555.805, 'duration': 3.323}, {'end': 561.17, 'text': "So we know the digits of Pi don't repeat.", 'start': 559.508, 'duration': 1.662}, {'end': 565.153, 'text': 'So now the question is does 0, 1, 2, 3 or whatever?', 'start': 561.63, 'duration': 3.523}, {'end': 569.977, 'text': 'do all the digits base 10 or base 2, or however you work it out, do they all occur with equal frequency??', 'start': 565.153, 'duration': 4.824}, {'end': 571.298, 'text': 'Nobody knows.', 'start': 570.778, 'duration': 0.52}, {'end': 575.58, 'text': "That's far away from what can be understood mathematically at this point.", 'start': 572.219, 'duration': 3.361}, {'end': 586.964, 'text': "But I'm even looking for step one, which is prove that the center column doesn't repeat and then prove other things about it,", 'start': 576.8, 'duration': 10.164}], 'summary': 'Pi is proven irrational, digit frequency unknown in base 10 or base 2.', 'duration': 36.083, 'max_score': 550.881, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c550881.jpg'}], 'start': 0.129, 'title': "Stephen wolfram's journey and complexity in nature", 'summary': "Delves into stephen wolfram's technical journey, covering topics of complexity, mathematics, physics, computing, and consciousness. it also discusses the emergence of complexity in nature, highlighting the use of programs and cellular automata as models and the unpredictability of sequences like the digits of pi.", 'chapters': [{'end': 67.134, 'start': 0.129, 'title': "Stephen wolfram's wild technical journey", 'summary': 'Delves into a wild technical rollercoaster ride through topics of complexity, mathematics, physics, computing, and consciousness with stephen wolfram, the founder of wolfram research, covering his publications and approach for modeling complex systems.', 'duration': 67.005, 'highlights': ['Stephen Wolfram is a computer scientist, mathematician, theoretical physicist, and the founder of Wolfram Research, behind Mathematica, Wolfram Alpha, Wolfram Language, and the new Wolfram Physics Project.', "The conversation covers a study of complexity and an approach for modeling complex systems, as outlined in Stephen Wolfram's publication 'A New Kind of Science' almost 20 years ago.", 'The podcast encompasses a wide range of topics including physics, robots, war, power, human condition, search for meaning, and fun, reflecting the diverse nature of the conversation.']}, {'end': 293.081, 'start': 67.594, 'title': 'Complexity in nature', 'summary': 'Discusses the quest to understand the emergence of complexity in nature, spanning from the study of snowflakes and galaxies to the use of programs and cellular automata as models, highlighting the shift from traditional mathematical physics to computational primitives as a means of modeling natural systems.', 'duration': 225.487, 'highlights': ['The quest to understand complexity in nature, including the formation of snowflakes, galaxies, and living systems, began around 50 years ago, prompting the exploration of the underlying scientific basis for such phenomena.', 'The shift from traditional mathematical physics to using programs as a source of raw material for making models of natural systems, exemplified by the development of a symbolic manipulation program and the subsequent exploration of cellular automata as a means of studying simplicity and complexity in nature.', 'The exploration of cellular automata as a model for natural systems, particularly studying the behavior of the simplest programs in the computational universe, leading to the discovery of intricate patterns and behaviors in a seemingly simple setup.', 'The realization that nature possesses a secret enabling the creation of complexity not naturally present in engineered systems, prompting the investigation of alternative methods, ultimately leading to the use of computational primitives to model natural phenomena.']}, {'end': 571.298, 'start': 293.702, 'title': 'Discovering complexity in simple rules', 'summary': 'Explores how simple rules can lead to complex behavior, as demonstrated by rule 30 in the cellular automaton, and delves into the concept of computational irreducibility and the unpredictability of sequences like the digits of pi.', 'duration': 277.596, 'highlights': ["Rule 30 in cellular automaton exhibits unexpectedly complex behavior from very simple rules. The author highlights that even with very simple rules, such as the one-line program of Rule 30 in cellular automaton, it's possible to get very complicated behavior.", 'The concept of computational irreducibility is explained, emphasizing the inability to easily predict the behavior of systems like Rule 30 after a certain number of steps. The chapter discusses the concept of computational irreducibility, exemplified by the difficulty in predicting the behavior of Rule 30 after a million steps, highlighting the challenge of reducing or compressing such computations.', 'The unpredictability of sequences like the digits of pi and the uncertainty regarding the frequency of occurrence of each digit are discussed. The chapter touches upon the unpredictability of sequences like the digits of pi, emphasizing the uncertainty around the frequency of occurrence of each digit, both in base 10 and base 2.']}], 'duration': 571.169, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c129.jpg', 'highlights': ['Stephen Wolfram is a computer scientist, mathematician, theoretical physicist, and the founder of Wolfram Research, behind Mathematica, Wolfram Alpha, Wolfram Language, and the new Wolfram Physics Project.', 'The quest to understand complexity in nature, including the formation of snowflakes, galaxies, and living systems, began around 50 years ago, prompting the exploration of the underlying scientific basis for such phenomena.', "The conversation covers a study of complexity and an approach for modeling complex systems, as outlined in Stephen Wolfram's publication 'A New Kind of Science' almost 20 years ago.", 'The exploration of cellular automata as a model for natural systems, particularly studying the behavior of the simplest programs in the computational universe, leading to the discovery of intricate patterns and behaviors in a seemingly simple setup.', 'The realization that nature possesses a secret enabling the creation of complexity not naturally present in engineered systems, prompting the investigation of alternative methods, ultimately leading to the use of computational primitives to model natural phenomena.', "Rule 30 in cellular automaton exhibits unexpectedly complex behavior from very simple rules. The author highlights that even with very simple rules, such as the one-line program of Rule 30 in cellular automaton, it's possible to get very complicated behavior.", 'The concept of computational irreducibility is explained, emphasizing the inability to easily predict the behavior of systems like Rule 30 after a certain number of steps. The chapter discusses the concept of computational irreducibility, exemplified by the difficulty in predicting the behavior of Rule 30 after a million steps, highlighting the challenge of reducing or compressing such computations.', 'The unpredictability of sequences like the digits of pi and the uncertainty regarding the frequency of occurrence of each digit are discussed. The chapter touches upon the unpredictability of sequences like the digits of pi, emphasizing the uncertainty around the frequency of occurrence of each digit, both in base 10 and base 2.', 'The shift from traditional mathematical physics to using programs as a source of raw material for making models of natural systems, exemplified by the development of a symbolic manipulation program and the subsequent exploration of cellular automata as a means of studying simplicity and complexity in nature.']}, {'end': 1728.356, 'segs': [{'end': 718.2, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 690.28, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 694.384, 'text': 'An example of what people study there a lot and its popular version is chaos theory.', 'start': 690.28, 'duration': 4.104}, {'end': 704.331, 'text': 'An example of what people study a lot is the shift map, which is basically taking 2x mod 1, the fractional part of 2x,', 'start': 695.224, 'duration': 9.107}, {'end': 708.313, 'text': 'which is basically just taking digits in binary and shifting them to the left.', 'start': 704.331, 'duration': 3.982}, {'end': 712.997, 'text': 'So at every step you get to see if you say how big is this number that I got out?', 'start': 708.814, 'duration': 4.183}, {'end': 718.2, 'text': 'Well, the most important digit in that number is whatever ended up at the left-hand end.', 'start': 713.617, 'duration': 4.583}], 'summary': 'Study of chaos theory and shift map, like 2x mod 1 in binary, is popular.', 'duration': 27.92, 'max_score': 690.28, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c690280.jpg'}, {'end': 788.628, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 758.092, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 762.595, 'text': "which is far below the point at which you're hitting sizes of molecules and things like that.", 'start': 758.092, 'duration': 4.503}, {'end': 767.559, 'text': "So it's kind of almost explaining if that phenomenon is an important thing.", 'start': 763.016, 'duration': 4.543}, {'end': 774.063, 'text': "It's kind of telling you that the fluid dynamics, which describes fluids as continuous media and so on, isn't really right.", 'start': 767.839, 'duration': 6.224}, {'end': 781.546, 'text': "It's a tricky thing because as soon as you put randomness in,", 'start': 777.705, 'duration': 3.841}, {'end': 788.628, 'text': "you have to know how much of what's coming out is what you put in versus how much is actually something that's being generated.", 'start': 781.546, 'duration': 7.082}], 'summary': 'Fluid dynamics may not accurately describe phenomena with randomness, impacting generation of output.', 'duration': 30.536, 'max_score': 758.092, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c758092.jpg'}, {'end': 969.044, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 939.902, 'weight': 7, 'content': [{'end': 940.842, 'text': "I've not thought it through.", 'start': 939.902, 'duration': 0.94}, {'end': 949.689, 'text': 'I kind of have a suspicion that that explanation will eventually show you that In no meaningful sense can there be randomness underneath the universe.', 'start': 941.203, 'duration': 8.486}, {'end': 957.315, 'text': "That is that if there is, it's something that is necessarily irrelevant to our perception of the universe.", 'start': 950.209, 'duration': 7.106}, {'end': 964.56, 'text': "That is that it could be there, but it doesn't matter, because, in a sense, whatever it would do,", 'start': 957.895, 'duration': 6.665}, {'end': 969.044, 'text': "whatever extra thing it would add is not relevant to our perception of what's going on.", 'start': 964.56, 'duration': 4.484}], 'summary': 'Randomness may be irrelevant to our perception of the universe.', 'duration': 29.142, 'max_score': 939.902, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c939902.jpg'}, {'end': 1105.991, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1074.594, 'weight': 8, 'content': [{'end': 1080.38, 'text': "So, in a sense, if we say what do we know about what's going on in the universe?", 'start': 1074.594, 'duration': 5.786}, {'end': 1085.686, 'text': "Well, what we know is what our consciousness records about what's going on in the universe.", 'start': 1080.42, 'duration': 5.266}, {'end': 1089.911, 'text': "And consciousness is part of the fabric of the universe, so we're in it.", 'start': 1086.387, 'duration': 3.524}, {'end': 1091.117, 'text': "Yes, we're in it.", 'start': 1090.296, 'duration': 0.821}, {'end': 1096.402, 'text': 'And maybe I should start off by saying something about the consciousness story.', 'start': 1092.038, 'duration': 4.364}, {'end': 1105.991, 'text': 'Maybe we should begin even before that at the very base layer of the Wolfram Physics Project.', 'start': 1099.665, 'duration': 6.326}], 'summary': 'Consciousness is part of the universe, and we are in it.', 'duration': 31.397, 'max_score': 1074.594, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c1074594.jpg'}, {'end': 1180.149, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1148.294, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 1152.435, 'text': "we've got this model for physics, but it turns out it's a foundational kind of model.", 'start': 1148.294, 'duration': 4.141}, {'end': 1158.056, 'text': "that's a different kind of computation-like model that I'm kind of calling the sort of multi-computational model.", 'start': 1152.435, 'duration': 5.621}, {'end': 1165.518, 'text': 'And that kind of model is applicable not only to physics, but also to lots of other kinds of things.', 'start': 1159.256, 'duration': 6.262}, {'end': 1170.481, 'text': "And one reason that's extremely powerful is because physics has been very successful.", 'start': 1166.258, 'duration': 4.223}, {'end': 1173.644, 'text': 'So we know a lot based on what we figured out in physics.', 'start': 1170.842, 'duration': 2.802}, {'end': 1180.149, 'text': "And if we know that the same model governs physics and governs I don't know economics, linguistics, immunology,", 'start': 1173.824, 'duration': 6.325}], 'summary': 'A multi-computational model applicable to various fields, leveraging the success of physics.', 'duration': 31.855, 'max_score': 1148.294, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c1148294.jpg'}, {'end': 1221.212, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1190.797, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 1194, 'text': "And that's pretty exciting and very surprising to me.", 'start': 1190.797, 'duration': 3.203}, {'end': 1198.822, 'text': "And in fact it's kind of like in the original story of sort of.", 'start': 1194.88, 'duration': 3.942}, {'end': 1202.904, 'text': 'you go and you explain why is there complexity in the natural world?', 'start': 1198.822, 'duration': 4.082}, {'end': 1207.406, 'text': "then you realize well, there's all this complexity, there's all this computational irreducibility.", 'start': 1202.904, 'duration': 4.502}, {'end': 1209.787, 'text': "there's a lot we can't know about what's going to happen.", 'start': 1207.406, 'duration': 2.381}, {'end': 1215.389, 'text': "It's kind of a very confusing thing for people who say, science has nailed everything down.", 'start': 1210.007, 'duration': 5.382}, {'end': 1216.99, 'text': 'Based on science, we can know everything.', 'start': 1215.509, 'duration': 1.481}, {'end': 1221.212, 'text': "Well, actually, there's this computational irreducibility thing right in the middle of that.", 'start': 1217.37, 'duration': 3.842}], 'summary': 'Exploring computational irreducibility in natural complexity, challenging the idea of complete scientific knowledge.', 'duration': 30.415, 'max_score': 1190.797, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c1190797.jpg'}, {'end': 1297.658, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1266.448, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 1272.691, 'text': "but they're also things that potentially give us what amount to sort of physics-like laws in all these other areas.", 'start': 1266.448, 'duration': 6.243}, {'end': 1275.532, 'text': "So that's been sort of an exciting thing.", 'start': 1273.131, 'duration': 2.401}, {'end': 1282.034, 'text': "But I would say that in general for our project, it's been going spectacularly well.", 'start': 1275.612, 'duration': 6.422}, {'end': 1286.235, 'text': "Honestly, it wasn't something I expected to happen in my lifetime.", 'start': 1282.314, 'duration': 3.921}, {'end': 1297.658, 'text': "In fact, one of the things about it, some of the things that we've discovered are things where I was pretty sure that wasn't how things worked.", 'start': 1287.555, 'duration': 10.103}], 'summary': 'Exciting progress in project, unexpected discoveries, going spectacularly well.', 'duration': 31.21, 'max_score': 1266.448, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c1266448.jpg'}, {'end': 1485.742, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1455.922, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 1459.925, 'text': "And the starting point of our physics project is that's what our universe is.", 'start': 1455.922, 'duration': 4.003}, {'end': 1462.707, 'text': "It's a giant friend network of the atoms of space.", 'start': 1460.385, 'duration': 2.322}, {'end': 1467.03, 'text': 'And so how can that possibly represent our universe?', 'start': 1463.467, 'duration': 3.563}, {'end': 1474.074, 'text': "Well, it's like in something like water there are molecules bouncing around, but on a large scale.", 'start': 1467.15, 'duration': 6.924}, {'end': 1477.857, 'text': 'that produces fluid flow, and we have fluid vortices,', 'start': 1474.074, 'duration': 3.783}, {'end': 1485.742, 'text': 'and we have all of these phenomena that are the emergent phenomena from that underlying collection of molecules bouncing around.', 'start': 1477.857, 'duration': 7.885}], 'summary': 'Our universe is like a giant network of atoms producing emergent phenomena.', 'duration': 29.82, 'max_score': 1455.922, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c1455922.jpg'}, {'end': 1649.008, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1620.231, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 1625.434, 'text': "We know the speed of light, we know the gravitational constant, we know Planck's constant in quantum mechanics.", 'start': 1620.231, 'duration': 5.203}, {'end': 1627.155, 'text': 'Those are the three important ones.', 'start': 1625.834, 'duration': 1.321}, {'end': 1629.596, 'text': 'And we actually know some other things.', 'start': 1627.815, 'duration': 1.781}, {'end': 1633.439, 'text': 'We know things like the size of the universe, the Hubble constant, things like that.', 'start': 1629.616, 'duration': 3.823}, {'end': 1641.243, 'text': 'And essentially, this calculation of the elementary length comes from looking at the combination of those..', 'start': 1634.199, 'duration': 7.044}, {'end': 1649.008, 'text': 'Okay, so the most obvious thing people have assumed that quantum gravity happens at this thing the Planck scale 10 to the minus 34 meters,', 'start': 1641.243, 'duration': 7.765}], 'summary': 'Calculation of elementary length comes from known constants and assumptions like planck scale 10^-34 meters.', 'duration': 28.777, 'max_score': 1620.231, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c1620231.jpg'}], 'start': 572.219, 'title': 'Physics and randomness', 'summary': 'Explores the irrelevance of randomness in the universe, the development of a multi-computational model in physics, and the concept of space as a giant friend network of atoms, proposing an elementary length of 10^-100 meters.', 'chapters': [{'end': 1148.294, 'start': 572.219, 'title': 'Irrelevance of randomness in the universe', 'summary': "Discusses the irrelevance of randomness in the universe, touching upon concepts like equidistribution, thermodynamic-like randomness, chaos theory, and the relevance of randomness in understanding the universe's existence and consciousness.", 'duration': 576.075, 'highlights': ["The irrelevance of randomness in understanding the universe's existence and consciousness The chapter discusses the potential irrelevance of randomness in understanding the existence of the universe and consciousness, suggesting that it may not be necessary for comprehending the universe's fundamental nature.", 'Discussion of equidistribution and thermodynamic-like randomness The transcript includes a discussion about proving the equidistribution of equal numbers of zeros and ones and the presence of thermodynamic-like randomness, indicating the exploration of these concepts within the context of the universe.', 'Exploration of chaos theory and shift maps The chapter delves into chaos theory and shift maps, specifically mentioning the study of chaos theory in dynamical systems and the application of shift maps, providing insights into the deterministic nature of seemingly random outputs.', 'Relevance of randomness in fluid mechanics and fundamental physics The relevance of randomness in fluid mechanics and fundamental physics is considered, highlighting the potential impact of randomness on the equations describing continuous media and the understanding of fundamental physical phenomena.', "Implications for understanding the universe's existence The chapter touches upon the implications of understanding the universe's existence, indicating that it may be closely related to the concepts explored in fundamental physics, consciousness, and the nature of the universe."]}, {'end': 1316.796, 'start': 1148.294, 'title': 'Multi-computational model in physics', 'summary': 'Discusses the development of a multi-computational model applicable to various fields, leveraging insights from physics, and the implications of computational irreducibility on predicting natural phenomena, with surprising outcomes and unexpected discoveries.', 'duration': 168.502, 'highlights': ['The development of a multi-computational model applicable to various fields is discussed, leveraging insights from successful discoveries in physics. The model is not only applicable to physics but also to other fields, allowing successful discoveries in physics to be applied in other areas.', 'The implications of computational irreducibility on predicting natural phenomena are explored, revealing surprising outcomes and unexpected discoveries. The presence of computational irreducibility challenges the belief that science can predict everything, leading to surprising discoveries and implications for understanding the natural world.', 'The project has been going spectacularly well, resulting in unexpected outcomes and discoveries. The project has exceeded expectations, leading to unexpected outcomes and discoveries, even challenging long-held beliefs in areas like metamathematics.']}, {'end': 1728.356, 'start': 1316.877, 'title': 'Physics project and elementary length', 'summary': 'Explains the fundamental concept of space as a giant friend network of atoms connected in a hypergraph, leading to emergent phenomena and computational irreducibility, with a proposed elementary length of 10^-100 meters based on fundamental constants.', 'duration': 411.479, 'highlights': ['The universe is proposed to be a giant friend network of atoms of space, leading to emergent phenomena and computational irreducibility. The starting point of the physics project is the proposal that the universe is a giant friend network of atoms of space, similar to how molecules bouncing around in water produce fluid flow and emergent phenomena, all governed by computational irreducibility.', "The proposed elementary length is around 10^-100 meters, based on fundamental constants such as the speed of light and Planck's constant. The proposed elementary length of space is around 10^-100 meters, derived from fundamental constants such as the speed of light, Planck's constant, and the number of simultaneous threads of execution of the universe, potentially explaining the mystery of the Planck units in physics."]}], 'duration': 1156.137, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c572219.jpg', 'highlights': ["The proposed elementary length is around 10^-100 meters, based on fundamental constants such as the speed of light and Planck's constant.", 'The universe is proposed to be a giant friend network of atoms of space, leading to emergent phenomena and computational irreducibility.', 'The development of a multi-computational model applicable to various fields is discussed, leveraging insights from successful discoveries in physics.', 'The implications of computational irreducibility on predicting natural phenomena are explored, revealing surprising outcomes and unexpected discoveries.', 'The project has been going spectacularly well, resulting in unexpected outcomes and discoveries.', "Exploration of chaos theory and shift maps in the context of the universe's fundamental nature.", 'Relevance of randomness in fluid mechanics and fundamental physics, impacting the understanding of fundamental physical phenomena.', "Discussion of equidistribution and thermodynamic-like randomness within the context of the universe's existence and consciousness.", "Implications for understanding the universe's existence related to fundamental physics, consciousness, and the nature of the universe."]}, {'end': 2559.302, 'segs': [{'end': 1928.282, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1900.173, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 1904.835, 'text': 'but you can have these triplets of of friends or whatever else.', 'start': 1900.173, 'duration': 4.662}, {'end': 1910.577, 'text': "That's just the relations between atoms of space are the hyper-edges of the hypergraph.", 'start': 1905.655, 'duration': 4.922}, {'end': 1920.74, 'text': "We've got some big collection of these atoms of space, maybe 10 to the 400 or something in our universe, and that's the structure of space.", 'start': 1911.077, 'duration': 9.663}, {'end': 1928.282, 'text': 'Every feature of what we experience in the world is a feature of that hypergraph, that spatial hypergraph.', 'start': 1920.84, 'duration': 7.442}], 'summary': 'Space is structured as a hypergraph with around 10^400 atoms, influencing our world.', 'duration': 28.109, 'max_score': 1900.173, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c1900173.jpg'}, {'end': 2044.218, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2017.78, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 2022.063, 'text': 'Right Well, I think that this is part of the story of consciousness.', 'start': 2017.78, 'duration': 4.283}, {'end': 2031.73, 'text': 'I think the key aspect of consciousness that is important for parsing the universe is this point that we have a single thread of experience.', 'start': 2022.844, 'duration': 8.886}, {'end': 2034.331, 'text': 'We have a memory of what happened in the past.', 'start': 2032.41, 'duration': 1.921}, {'end': 2038.454, 'text': "We can say something, predict something about the future, but there's a single thread of experience.", 'start': 2034.431, 'duration': 4.023}, {'end': 2040.255, 'text': "And it's not obvious it should work that way.", 'start': 2038.514, 'duration': 1.741}, {'end': 2044.218, 'text': "I mean, we've got 100 billion neurons in our brains and they're all firing in all kinds of different ways.", 'start': 2040.275, 'duration': 3.943}], 'summary': 'Consciousness involves a single thread of experience, despite 100 billion neurons firing in the brain.', 'duration': 26.438, 'max_score': 2017.78, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c2017780.jpg'}, {'end': 2109.883, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2077.492, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 2081.893, 'text': "they're getting, these little clumps of atoms of space are getting turned into other clumps of atoms of space,", 'start': 2077.492, 'duration': 4.401}, {'end': 2084.234, 'text': "and that's happening everywhere in the universe all the time.", 'start': 2081.893, 'duration': 2.341}, {'end': 2090.856, 'text': "And so one thing that's a little bit weird is there's nothing permanent in the universe The universe is getting rewritten everywhere all the time.", 'start': 2084.654, 'duration': 6.202}, {'end': 2094.357, 'text': "And if it wasn't getting rewritten, space wouldn't be knitted together.", 'start': 2091.275, 'duration': 3.082}, {'end': 2096.438, 'text': 'That is, space would just fall apart.', 'start': 2094.817, 'duration': 1.621}, {'end': 2100.779, 'text': "There wouldn't be any way in which we could say this part of space is next to this part of space.", 'start': 2096.538, 'duration': 4.241}, {'end': 2109.883, 'text': 'One of the things that people were confused about back in antiquity the ancient Greek philosophers and so on is how does motion work?', 'start': 2101.6, 'duration': 8.283}], 'summary': 'In the universe, atoms of space constantly transform, ensuring spatial cohesion and motion.', 'duration': 32.391, 'max_score': 2077.492, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c2077492.jpg'}], 'start': 1729.016, 'title': 'Gravitational microscope and discreteness of space', 'summary': 'Explores the potential of creating a gravitational microscope to observe the discrete structure of spacetime, discussing the concept of atoms of space, hypergraphs, computational irreducibility of time, and the impact on our understanding of relativity and consciousness.', 'chapters': [{'end': 2559.302, 'start': 1729.016, 'title': 'Gravitational microscope and discreteness of space', 'summary': 'Explores the potential of creating a gravitational microscope to observe the discrete structure of spacetime, discussing the concept of atoms of space, hypergraphs, computational irreducibility of time, and the impact on our understanding of relativity and consciousness.', 'duration': 830.286, 'highlights': ['The concept of atoms of space and their connections can be visualized as a hypergraph, with the relations between atoms of space being the hyper-edges of the hypergraph, forming the structure of space. The hypergraph represents the structure of space, comprising possibly 10 to the power of 400 atoms, and every feature experienced in the world is a feature of that spatial hypergraph.', 'Time is described as a computationally irreducible process, where the rewriting of the hypergraph occurs everywhere in the universe all the time, leading to the absence of anything permanent in the universe. The continuous rewriting of space leads to the absence of permanent entities and necessitates the continual recreation of space, challenging traditional concepts of motion and permanence.', "The computational process of time leads to the emergence of a single thread of experience, consciousness, and the perception of a sequential and synchronous universe. The single thread of experience in consciousness is highlighted as a consequence of the continuous rewriting of space and the computational irreducibility of time, challenging traditional perceptions of the universe's laws and structure."]}], 'duration': 830.286, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c1729016.jpg', 'highlights': ['The hypergraph represents the structure of space, comprising possibly 10^400 atoms.', 'The continuous rewriting of space leads to the absence of permanent entities.', 'The computational process of time leads to the emergence of a single thread of experience, consciousness.']}, {'end': 3693.87, 'segs': [{'end': 2631.979, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2600.766, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 2605.129, 'text': "right? The key story of quantum mechanics is there aren't definite answers to where does the ball go.", 'start': 2600.766, 'duration': 4.363}, {'end': 2608.71, 'text': "There's kind of this whole sort of bundle of possible paths.", 'start': 2605.149, 'duration': 3.561}, {'end': 2615.074, 'text': 'And all we say we know from quantum mechanics is certain probabilities for where the ball will end up.', 'start': 2609.211, 'duration': 5.863}, {'end': 2618.255, 'text': "So that's kind of the core idea of quantum mechanics.", 'start': 2615.874, 'duration': 2.381}, {'end': 2624.037, 'text': 'So in our models, quantum mechanics is not some kind of plug-in add-on type thing.', 'start': 2618.535, 'duration': 5.502}, {'end': 2631.979, 'text': "You absolutely cannot get away from quantum mechanics because, as you think about updating this hypergraph, there isn't just one sequence of things,", 'start': 2624.517, 'duration': 7.462}], 'summary': 'Quantum mechanics: uncertain ball paths, certain probabilities for endpoint. core idea.', 'duration': 31.213, 'max_score': 2600.766, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c2600766.jpg'}, {'end': 2730.298, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2700.282, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 2702.804, 'text': "Why don't we notice that the universe is branching and merging??", 'start': 2700.282, 'duration': 2.522}, {'end': 2706.786, 'text': 'Why is it the case that we just think a definite set of things happen??', 'start': 2703.444, 'duration': 3.342}, {'end': 2712.83, 'text': 'Well, the answer is we are embedded in that universe and our brains are branching and merging too.', 'start': 2707.387, 'duration': 5.443}, {'end': 2719.633, 'text': 'And so what quantum mechanics becomes a story of is how does a branching brain perceive a branching universe?', 'start': 2713.65, 'duration': 5.983}, {'end': 2726.377, 'text': 'And the key thing is as soon as you say, I think definite things happen in the universe,', 'start': 2720.554, 'duration': 5.823}, {'end': 2730.298, 'text': 'that means you are essentially conflating lots of different parts of history.', 'start': 2726.377, 'duration': 3.921}], 'summary': 'Quantum mechanics explores how branching brains perceive a branching universe.', 'duration': 30.016, 'max_score': 2700.282, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c2700282.jpg'}, {'end': 2960.581, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2932.016, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 2935.959, 'text': 'And so one key feature of us is that we are computationally bounded.', 'start': 2932.016, 'duration': 3.943}, {'end': 2945.507, 'text': 'And that when you are looking at a universe which is full of computation and doing huge amounts of computation, but we are computationally bounded,', 'start': 2936.619, 'duration': 8.888}, {'end': 2948.55, 'text': "there's only certain things about that universe that we're going to be sensitive to.", 'start': 2945.507, 'duration': 3.043}, {'end': 2953.214, 'text': "We're not going to be figuring out what all the atoms of space are doing,", 'start': 2948.95, 'duration': 4.264}, {'end': 2960.581, 'text': "because we're just computationally bounded observers and we are only sampling these small set of features.", 'start': 2953.214, 'duration': 7.367}], 'summary': 'Computational boundedness limits our observation to a small set of features in a universe full of computation.', 'duration': 28.565, 'max_score': 2932.016, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c2932016.jpg'}, {'end': 3063.924, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 2997.13, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 3003.272, 'text': "Similarly for intelligence, we know the human definition of intelligence, but what is intelligence abstractly? We don't really know.", 'start': 2997.13, 'duration': 6.142}, {'end': 3010.734, 'text': "And so what I've long believed is that the abstract definition of intelligence is just computational sophistication.", 'start': 3003.892, 'duration': 6.842}, {'end': 3019.199, 'text': "That is that as soon as you can be computationally sophisticated, that's kind of the abstract version, the generalized version of intelligence.", 'start': 3011.314, 'duration': 7.885}, {'end': 3026.924, 'text': 'So then the question is, what about consciousness? And what I sort of realized is that consciousness is actually a step down from intelligence.', 'start': 3019.86, 'duration': 7.064}, {'end': 3033.769, 'text': 'That is that you might think, oh, consciousness is the top of the pile.', 'start': 3027.565, 'duration': 6.204}, {'end': 3035.35, 'text': "But actually, I don't think it is.", 'start': 3034.369, 'duration': 0.981}, {'end': 3040.792, 'text': "I think that there's this notion of computational sophistication, which is the generalized intelligence.", 'start': 3035.79, 'duration': 5.002}, {'end': 3044.354, 'text': 'But consciousness has two limitations, I think.', 'start': 3041.473, 'duration': 2.881}, {'end': 3046.535, 'text': 'One of them is computational boundedness.', 'start': 3044.955, 'duration': 1.58}, {'end': 3052.178, 'text': "That is that we're only perceiving a computationally bounded view of the universe.", 'start': 3047.196, 'duration': 4.982}, {'end': 3054.94, 'text': 'And the other is this idea of a single thread of time.', 'start': 3052.719, 'duration': 2.221}, {'end': 3063.924, 'text': 'That is, in fact, we know neurophysiologically our brains go to some trouble to give us this one thread of attention, so to speak.', 'start': 3055.64, 'duration': 8.284}], 'summary': 'Abstractly, intelligence is computational sophistication. consciousness is a step down from intelligence, with limitations in computational boundedness and a single thread of time.', 'duration': 66.794, 'max_score': 2997.13, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c2997130.jpg'}, {'end': 3306.836, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3275.914, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 3283.717, 'text': 'Now the fact that we have this experience of the world that has a single thread of time and computational boundedness.', 'start': 3275.914, 'duration': 7.803}, {'end': 3296.144, 'text': "the thing that I realized is it's that that causes us to deduce from this irreducible mess of what's going on in the physical world the laws of physics that we think exist.", 'start': 3283.717, 'duration': 12.427}, {'end': 3306.836, 'text': "So, in other words, if we say why do we believe that there is continuous space, let's say why do we believe that gravity works the way it does??", 'start': 3296.845, 'duration': 9.991}], 'summary': 'Our experience of time and computational boundedness leads to our deduction of physical laws like continuous space and gravity.', 'duration': 30.922, 'max_score': 3275.914, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c3275914.jpg'}, {'end': 3521.131, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3493.9, 'weight': 8, 'content': [{'end': 3499.304, 'text': 'If we were the size of planets or something, we would have a different perception because the speed of light would be much more important to us.', 'start': 3493.9, 'duration': 5.404}, {'end': 3505.869, 'text': "We wouldn't have this perception that things happen progressively in time everywhere in space.", 'start': 3499.805, 'duration': 6.064}, {'end': 3508.753, 'text': "And so that's an important kind of constraint.", 'start': 3506.91, 'duration': 1.843}, {'end': 3514.602, 'text': 'And the reason that we kind of parse the universe in the way that causes us to say gravity works.', 'start': 3509.214, 'duration': 5.388}, {'end': 3521.131, 'text': "the way it does is because we're doing things like deciding that we can say the universe exists.", 'start': 3514.602, 'duration': 6.529}], 'summary': 'Perception of time and space would change if we were the size of planets, impacting our understanding of the universe.', 'duration': 27.231, 'max_score': 3493.9, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c3493900.jpg'}], 'start': 2560.023, 'title': 'Quantum mechanics, consciousness, and computation', 'summary': 'Explores the core idea of quantum mechanics, including the branching and merging of possible quantum histories, its relation to consciousness and perception, limitations of perception as computationally bounded observers, the relationship between intelligence and consciousness, and the influence of computational boundedness on consciousness and perception of the laws of physics, with implications for storytelling and perception of time.', 'chapters': [{'end': 2886.99, 'start': 2560.023, 'title': 'Quantum mechanics and branching universe', 'summary': 'Discusses the core idea of quantum mechanics, the branching and merging of possible quantum histories, and how branching brains perceive the branching universe, ultimately leading to a story of quantum mechanics and its relation to consciousness and perception.', 'duration': 326.967, 'highlights': ["The core idea of quantum mechanics is the absence of definite answers to where objects will end up, with only certain probabilities known, representing a bundle of possible paths. Quantum mechanics challenges the concept of definite answers in standard physics, introducing the idea of a bundle of possible paths with only known probabilities for an object's position, creating a fundamental shift in understanding.", 'The universe is constantly branching and merging, with different possible update sequences corresponding to quantum histories, and the process of branching and merging is critical and non-trivial for hypergraphs. The constant branching and merging in the universe leads to different possible update sequences and quantum histories, emphasizing the critical nature of branching and merging and its impact on hypergraphs and the universe.', 'Branching brains perceive the branching universe, and the perception of definite events leads to the conflation of different parts of history, which is a consequence of causal invariance, leading to little quantum effects. The perception of definite events by branching brains conflates different parts of history, influenced by causal invariance, resulting in the occurrence of little quantum effects, providing insights into the relationship between perception, causal invariance, and quantum effects.']}, {'end': 3204.629, 'start': 2887.511, 'title': 'Consciousness and computation', 'summary': 'Discusses the limitations of our perception as computationally bounded observers, the relationship between intelligence and consciousness, and the broad definition of intelligence as computational sophistication.', 'duration': 317.118, 'highlights': ['The limitations of our perception as computationally bounded observers We are only able to sample a small set of features in a universe full of computation, due to our computational boundedness.', 'The relationship between intelligence and consciousness Intelligence is considered a generalized version of computational sophistication, while consciousness operates under computational constraints and a single thread of time.', 'The broad definition of intelligence as computational sophistication The notion of intelligence is discussed as a generalized concept beyond human and AI boundaries, emphasizing the capacity to perform computation in various contexts.']}, {'end': 3693.87, 'start': 3204.669, 'title': 'Consciousness and computational boundedness', 'summary': 'Discusses how computational boundedness and a single thread of time lead to our perception of the laws of physics, and how consciousness is influenced by the scale of existence, with implications for storytelling and perception of time.', 'duration': 489.201, 'highlights': ['The perception of the laws of physics arises from computational boundedness and a single thread of time, leading to our deduction of the laws of physics. The discussion highlights how our computational boundedness and single thread of time lead us to deduce the laws of physics, such as general relativity, and how this influences our perception of the universe.', 'Consciousness is influenced by the scale of existence, with implications for storytelling and perception of time, as different scales of existence would yield different perceptions. The chapter explores how consciousness is influenced by the scale of existence, suggesting that consciousness is constrained by the scale at which it exists, with implications for storytelling and perception of time.', "The perception of time and storytelling is influenced by the scale of existence, with the example of how a photon's perception of time dramatically differs from our own. The discussion delves into the implications of scale on the perception of time and storytelling, using the example of a photon's perception of time to illustrate how different scales of existence yield vastly different perceptions."]}], 'duration': 1133.847, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c2560023.jpg', 'highlights': ['The core idea of quantum mechanics challenges definite answers in standard physics, introducing a fundamental shift in understanding.', 'The universe constantly branches and merges, leading to different possible update sequences and quantum histories, emphasizing the critical nature of branching and merging.', 'Branching brains perceive the branching universe, influenced by causal invariance, resulting in little quantum effects, providing insights into the relationship between perception, causal invariance, and quantum effects.', 'The limitations of our perception as computationally bounded observers restrict our ability to sample features in a universe full of computation.', 'The relationship between intelligence and consciousness is discussed, with intelligence considered a generalized version of computational sophistication.', 'The notion of intelligence is discussed as a generalized concept beyond human and AI boundaries, emphasizing the capacity to perform computation in various contexts.', 'The perception of the laws of physics arises from computational boundedness and a single thread of time, leading to our deduction of the laws of physics.', 'Consciousness is influenced by the scale of existence, suggesting that consciousness is constrained by the scale at which it exists, with implications for storytelling and perception of time.', 'The perception of time and storytelling is influenced by the scale of existence, with different scales yielding vastly different perceptions.']}, {'end': 4838.424, 'segs': [{'end': 3857.56, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3832.323, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 3839.93, 'text': "And so the question of principle of computational equivalence is, well, actually, you don't need to build those custom servers.", 'start': 3832.323, 'duration': 7.607}, {'end': 3848.137, 'text': 'Actually, you can just use natural computation to compute things, so to speak.', 'start': 3840.47, 'duration': 7.667}, {'end': 3849.757, 'text': 'You can use nature to compute.', 'start': 3848.157, 'duration': 1.6}, {'end': 3852.538, 'text': "You don't need to have done all that engineering.", 'start': 3850.137, 'duration': 2.401}, {'end': 3857.56, 'text': "It feels a little disappointing that you say, we're going to build all these servers.", 'start': 3853.558, 'duration': 4.002}], 'summary': 'Natural computation eliminates need for custom servers, reducing engineering efforts.', 'duration': 25.237, 'max_score': 3832.323, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c3832323.jpg'}, {'end': 3986.62, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 3963.447, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 3971.252, 'text': "But actually, that's not really right because the extraterrestrials could have a completely different way of parsing the universe.", 'start': 3963.447, 'duration': 7.805}, {'end': 3978.777, 'text': "So it's as if there could be, for all we know, right here in this room, in the details of the motion of these gas molecules,", 'start': 3971.292, 'duration': 7.485}, {'end': 3980.939, 'text': 'there could be an amazing intelligence.', 'start': 3978.777, 'duration': 2.162}, {'end': 3986.62, 'text': "that we were like, but we're not parsing the universe in the same way.", 'start': 3981.559, 'duration': 5.061}], 'summary': 'Extraterrestrials could have a different way of parsing the universe, potentially containing amazing intelligence.', 'duration': 23.173, 'max_score': 3963.447, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c3963447.jpg'}, {'end': 4280.255, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4250.314, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 4258.66, 'text': "what's it like to be a cellular automata in the way that's equivalent to what is it like to be a conscious human being?", 'start': 4250.314, 'duration': 8.346}, {'end': 4262.302, 'text': 'How do you approach that?', 'start': 4261.281, 'duration': 1.021}, {'end': 4274.35, 'text': 'So is it looking at some subset of the cellular automata, asking questions of that subset, like how the world is perceived, how you, as that subset,', 'start': 4262.362, 'duration': 11.988}, {'end': 4280.255, 'text': 'Like for that local pocket of computation, what are you able to say about the broader?', 'start': 4275.253, 'duration': 5.002}], 'summary': "Exploring the experience of being a cellular automaton compared to a conscious human being, and approaching it by examining a subset's perception and its implications on the broader context.", 'duration': 29.941, 'max_score': 4250.314, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c4250314.jpg'}, {'end': 4721.883, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4699.872, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 4708.855, 'text': 'But time dilation is a story of the fact that as you kind of are recreating yourself as you move, you are using up some of your computation.', 'start': 4699.872, 'duration': 8.983}, {'end': 4714.619, 'text': "And so you don't have as much computation left over to actually work out what happens progressively with time.", 'start': 4709.275, 'duration': 5.344}, {'end': 4721.883, 'text': "So that means that time is running more slowly for you because you're using up your computation.", 'start': 4715.139, 'duration': 6.744}], 'summary': 'Time dilation uses up computation, slowing time for you.', 'duration': 22.011, 'max_score': 4699.872, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c4699872.jpg'}], 'start': 3694.33, 'title': 'Principles of computational equivalence, consciousness, and quantum mechanics', 'summary': 'Delves into the principle of computational equivalence, its implications for computation and intelligence, understanding consciousness and computational language, and the impact of quantum mechanics and relativity on computation with examples of time dilation.', 'chapters': [{'end': 4002.863, 'start': 3694.33, 'title': 'Principle of computational equivalence', 'summary': "Discusses the earth being consumed and saved by the principle of computational equivalence, a core scientific idea, and delves into the concept's implications for computation and intelligence, including the potential for extraterrestrial intelligence and the nature of consciousness.", 'duration': 308.533, 'highlights': ['The Earth is saved by the principle of computational equivalence, a core scientific idea, which implies that rule 30, our brains, and other things in physics are ultimately equivalent in the computations they can do. The principle of computational equivalence saves the Earth by implying that rule 30, our brains, and other physical phenomena are ultimately equivalent in the computations they can perform.', 'The concept implies that nature can be used for computation, eliminating the need for custom servers and engineering, and suggests that there may not be a fundamental difference between the future of human consciousness and a rock, according to the principle of computational equivalence. The principle of computational equivalence implies that nature can be utilized for computation, removing the necessity for custom servers and engineering, and indicates that there may not be a fundamental difference between the future of human consciousness and a rock.', 'The discussion explores the potential relationship between extraterrestrial intelligence and the concept of parsing the universe, pondering the idea that extraterrestrials may have a completely different way of parsing the universe, leading to the possibility of amazing intelligence existing around us, but being unrecognized due to our particular way of parsing the universe. The chapter delves into the potential relationship between extraterrestrial intelligence and the concept of parsing the universe, suggesting that extraterrestrials may parse the universe differently, leading to the possibility of incredible intelligence existing around us but being unrecognized due to our specific way of parsing the universe.']}, {'end': 4485.278, 'start': 4002.883, 'title': 'Understanding consciousness and computational language', 'summary': 'Explores the concept of consciousness, bridging the gap between human understanding and computational systems, with a focus on the possibilities of understanding and immersing in cellular automata and alien intelligence.', 'duration': 482.395, 'highlights': ['The chapter delves into the concept of consciousness and the possibility of understanding and immersing in cellular automata and alien intelligence. The chapter discusses the exploration of consciousness and the potential to immerse in cellular automata and alien intelligence, aiming to bridge the gap between human understanding and computational systems.', 'The discussion revolves around the challenge of bridging human understanding with the functioning of the universe and the development of computational language. The chapter explores the challenge of bridging human understanding with the functioning of the universe and the development of computational language, particularly focusing on making computational systems understandable to humans.', 'The possibility of creating a brain simulator as a computational system to understand the experience of being a cellular automaton is contemplated. The chapter contemplates the creation of a brain simulator as a computational system to comprehend the experience of being a cellular automaton, suggesting that both are computational systems operating in a similar manner.', 'The concept of immersion and the potential for humans to merge with cellular automata are discussed, raising questions about the limitations and possibilities of such an experience. The chapter explores the concept of immersion and the potential for humans to merge with cellular automata, raising questions about the limitations and possibilities of such an experience, particularly in the context of virtual reality and computational systems.']}, {'end': 4838.424, 'start': 4485.278, 'title': 'Quantum mechanics and relativity', 'summary': 'Discusses the concept of branchial space in quantum mechanics and explains time dilation in relativity, emphasizing how motion affects the use of computation and leads to time slowing down, with an example of a clock in a spacecraft moving at a significant fraction of the speed of light aging much less than a stationary clock on earth.', 'duration': 353.146, 'highlights': ['The concept of branchial space in quantum mechanics and its association with phase, leading to destructive interference observed in quantum mechanics. The discussion on branchial space in quantum mechanics reveals its association with phase, explaining destructive interference where two photons end up at different ends of branchial space, making it impossible for observers to knit them together to tell a consistent story.', 'Explanation of time dilation in relativity, detailing how motion affects the use of computation, leading to time slowing down. The explanation of time dilation in relativity involves the concept of motion affecting the use of computation, where the act of recreating oneself during motion uses up computation, resulting in time running more slowly, exemplified by the scenario of a clock in a spacecraft moving at a significant fraction of the speed of light aging much less than a stationary clock on Earth.', "Discussion on the notion of ruleal space and its association with the space of rules, providing insights into the existence of the universe. The notion of ruleal space is discussed in connection with the space of rules, offering insights into the existence of the universe and its association with questions about the universe's existence."]}], 'duration': 1144.094, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c3694330.jpg', 'highlights': ['The principle of computational equivalence implies nature can be used for computation, eliminating the need for custom servers and engineering.', 'The discussion explores the potential relationship between extraterrestrial intelligence and the concept of parsing the universe.', 'The chapter delves into the concept of consciousness and the possibility of understanding and immersing in cellular automata and alien intelligence.', 'The explanation of time dilation in relativity involves the concept of motion affecting the use of computation, where the act of recreating oneself during motion uses up computation, resulting in time running more slowly.']}, {'end': 6198.509, 'segs': [{'end': 4864.241, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4840.425, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 4848.549, 'text': "Obviously there's a mathematical version of it that relates to how it actually works in relativity, but to me that was exciting,", 'start': 4840.425, 'duration': 8.124}, {'end': 4852.851, 'text': "that it's possible to have a really mechanically explainable story there.", 'start': 4848.549, 'duration': 4.302}, {'end': 4859.376, 'text': 'Similarly, in quantum mechanics, this notion of branching brains, perceiving branching universes.', 'start': 4854.912, 'duration': 4.464}, {'end': 4864.241, 'text': "to me that's getting towards a sort of mechanically explainable version of what happens in quantum mechanics,", 'start': 4859.376, 'duration': 4.865}], 'summary': 'Exciting potential for mechanically explainable stories in relativity and quantum mechanics.', 'duration': 23.816, 'max_score': 4840.425, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c4840425.jpg'}, {'end': 5000.169, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 4969.429, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 4972.552, 'text': 'But when we deal with large numbers of particles, all bets are off.', 'start': 4969.429, 'duration': 3.123}, {'end': 4974.534, 'text': "It's too complicated to deal with quantum mechanics.", 'start': 4972.612, 'duration': 1.922}, {'end': 4989.723, 'text': 'And so what ends up happening is this question about maximum entanglement speed and things like that may actually play in the story of many-body quantum mechanics and even have some suspicions about things that might happen.', 'start': 4975.174, 'duration': 14.549}, {'end': 4994.746, 'text': "One of the things I realized I'd never understood and it's kind of embarrassing,", 'start': 4991.103, 'duration': 3.643}, {'end': 5000.169, 'text': 'but I think I now understand a little better is when you have chemistry and you have quantum mechanics.', 'start': 4994.746, 'duration': 5.423}], 'summary': 'Challenges arise with large particle numbers in quantum mechanics, impacting entanglement speed and many-body quantum mechanics.', 'duration': 30.74, 'max_score': 4969.429, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c4969429.jpg'}, {'end': 5188.932, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5141.742, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 5151.931, 'text': 'And this thing about actually getting it to a definite prediction, about definite thing you can say about chemistry or something like this.', 'start': 5141.742, 'duration': 10.189}, {'end': 5152.692, 'text': "that's just a lot of work.", 'start': 5151.931, 'duration': 0.761}, {'end': 5153.613, 'text': "So I'll give you an example.", 'start': 5152.732, 'duration': 0.881}, {'end': 5156.535, 'text': "there's a thing called the quantum Zeno effect.", 'start': 5154.013, 'duration': 2.522}, {'end': 5165.92, 'text': "The idea is quantum stuff happens, but then if you make a measurement, you're freezing time in quantum mechanics.", 'start': 5157.135, 'duration': 8.785}, {'end': 5167.942, 'text': "It looks like there's a possibility that,", 'start': 5166, 'duration': 1.942}, {'end': 5174.005, 'text': 'with the relationship between the quantum Zeno effect and the way that many body quantum mechanics works and so on,', 'start': 5167.942, 'duration': 6.063}, {'end': 5181.41, 'text': 'maybe just conceivably it may be possible to actually figure out a way to measure the maximum entanglement speed.', 'start': 5174.005, 'duration': 7.405}, {'end': 5188.932, 'text': "The reason we can potentially do that is because the systems we deal with in terms of atoms and things, they're pretty big.", 'start': 5181.95, 'duration': 6.982}], 'summary': 'Possibility of measuring maximum entanglement speed using quantum zeno effect in many-body quantum mechanics due to the size of systems.', 'duration': 47.19, 'max_score': 5141.742, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c5141742.jpg'}, {'end': 5311.829, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5286.349, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 5294.456, 'text': 'And so one of the things we suspect is that the very early universe was essentially infinite dimensional and that as the universe expanded,', 'start': 5286.349, 'duration': 8.107}, {'end': 5296.098, 'text': 'it became lower dimensional.', 'start': 5294.456, 'duration': 1.642}, {'end': 5305.164, 'text': 'And so one of the things that is another little sort of point where we think there might be a way to actually measure some things is dimension fluctuations in the early universe.', 'start': 5296.658, 'duration': 8.506}, {'end': 5311.829, 'text': 'That is, is there leftover dimension fluctuation of at the time of the cosmic microwave background,', 'start': 5305.684, 'duration': 6.145}], 'summary': 'Early universe may have been infinite dimensional, with potential for measuring dimension fluctuations.', 'duration': 25.48, 'max_score': 5286.349, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c5286349.jpg'}, {'end': 5557.55, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5533.356, 'weight': 7, 'content': [{'end': 5540.76, 'text': "but what we need to have to understand these fractional dimensional spaces which don't work like well,", 'start': 5533.356, 'duration': 7.404}, {'end': 5545.643, 'text': "they're spaces where the effective dimension is not an integer.", 'start': 5540.76, 'duration': 4.883}, {'end': 5551.186, 'text': "So you can't apply the tools of calculus naturally and easily to fractional dimensions.", 'start': 5545.863, 'duration': 5.323}, {'end': 5553.848, 'text': 'No And so somebody has to figure out how to do that.', 'start': 5551.527, 'duration': 2.321}, {'end': 5555.709, 'text': "Yeah, we're trying to figure this out.", 'start': 5554.088, 'duration': 1.621}, {'end': 5557.55, 'text': "I mean, it's very interesting.", 'start': 5555.749, 'duration': 1.801}], 'summary': 'Understanding fractional dimensional spaces with non-integer effective dimensions poses challenges for applying calculus tools.', 'duration': 24.194, 'max_score': 5533.356, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c5533356.jpg'}, {'end': 5648.23, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5620.33, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 5630.054, 'text': "I mean there are things that in black hole mergers it's possible that there will be effects of maximum entanglement speed in large black hole mergers.", 'start': 5620.33, 'duration': 9.724}, {'end': 5632.655, 'text': "That's another possible thing.", 'start': 5630.874, 'duration': 1.781}, {'end': 5639.742, 'text': 'And all of that is detected through like what? Do you have a hope for LIGO type of situation like this gravitational waves? Yeah.', 'start': 5633.115, 'duration': 6.627}, {'end': 5648.23, 'text': "Or alternatively, I mean, I think it's, you know, look, figuring out experiments is like figuring out technology inventions.", 'start': 5640.042, 'duration': 8.188}], 'summary': 'Possible effects of maximum entanglement speed in large black hole mergers detected through ligo type of situation.', 'duration': 27.9, 'max_score': 5620.33, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c5620330.jpg'}, {'end': 5880.052, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 5852.351, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 5857.314, 'text': 'of how you can take really interesting things that have been done in mathematical physics and connect them.', 'start': 5852.351, 'duration': 4.963}, {'end': 5866.72, 'text': "And it's really kind of beautiful, because the abstract models we have just seem to plug into all these different, very interesting,", 'start': 5857.334, 'duration': 9.386}, {'end': 5874.407, 'text': "very elegant abstract ideas, but we're now giving a reason for one to care.", 'start': 5866.72, 'duration': 7.687}, {'end': 5880.052, 'text': "It's like saying you can think about computation abstractly.", 'start': 5875.208, 'duration': 4.844}], 'summary': 'Connecting mathematical physics to abstract models for computational understanding.', 'duration': 27.701, 'max_score': 5852.351, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c5852351.jpg'}, {'end': 6059.063, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 6028.798, 'weight': 8, 'content': [{'end': 6030.139, 'text': "Then you're applying these different rules.", 'start': 6028.798, 'duration': 1.341}, {'end': 6034.164, 'text': 'Well, some of those rules can end up with the same state.', 'start': 6030.859, 'duration': 3.305}, {'end': 6037.068, 'text': "So it isn't the case that you can just get from anywhere to anywhere.", 'start': 6034.644, 'duration': 2.424}, {'end': 6042.875, 'text': "There's this whole entangled structure of what can lead to what, and there's a definite structure that's produced.", 'start': 6037.368, 'duration': 5.507}, {'end': 6045.98, 'text': "I think I'm going to call that definite structure the RULIAD.", 'start': 6043.596, 'duration': 2.384}, {'end': 6052.101, 'text': 'the limits of all possible rules being applied in all possible ways.', 'start': 6046.4, 'duration': 5.701}, {'end': 6059.063, 'text': "And you're saying that structure is finite, so that somehow connects to maybe a similar kind of thing as causal invariance.", 'start': 6052.181, 'duration': 6.882}], 'summary': 'The ruliad represents the finite structure of all possible rules and their applications, connecting to causal invariance.', 'duration': 30.265, 'max_score': 6028.798, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c6028798.jpg'}, {'end': 6162.401, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 6137.024, 'weight': 9, 'content': [{'end': 6141.967, 'text': 'Grothendieck had a thing called the infinity groupoid, which is closely related to this Rulliad object.', 'start': 6137.024, 'duration': 4.943}, {'end': 6148.312, 'text': "Although the details of the relationship, I don't fully understand yet.", 'start': 6143.128, 'duration': 5.184}, {'end': 6153.815, 'text': "But I think that what's interesting is this thing that is sort of this very limiting object.", 'start': 6149.332, 'duration': 4.483}, {'end': 6162.401, 'text': 'Okay, so a way to think about this that, again, will take us into another direction, which is the equivalence between physics and mathematics.', 'start': 6153.895, 'duration': 8.506}], 'summary': "Grothendieck's infinity groupoid is related to the rulliad object, illustrating the equivalence between physics and mathematics.", 'duration': 25.377, 'max_score': 6137.024, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c6137024.jpg'}], 'start': 4840.425, 'title': 'Quantum mechanics and mathematical physics', 'summary': 'Explores mechanically explainable stories in quantum mechanics, branchial space, measuring dimension fluctuations in the universe, and unifying abstract models with mathematical physics, with implications for cosmology, quantum entanglement, and black hole mergers.', 'chapters': [{'end': 4876.992, 'start': 4840.425, 'title': 'Mechanical explanations in quantum mechanics', 'summary': 'Discusses the exciting possibility of mechanically explainable stories in relativity and quantum mechanics, including the notion of branching universes, and the exploration of circumstances for successfully knitting together different threads of history.', 'duration': 36.567, 'highlights': ['The possibility of a mechanically explainable story in relativity and quantum mechanics is discussed, including branching universes.', 'Exploring the circumstances for successfully knitting together different threads of history is highlighted.']}, {'end': 5214.927, 'start': 4877.392, 'title': 'Branchial space and quantum mechanics', 'summary': 'Discusses the concept of branchial space and its analogy to physical space, including the maximum speed of quantum entanglement, its potential impact on many-body quantum mechanics, and the challenges in making definite predictions in chemistry and quantum mechanics.', 'duration': 337.535, 'highlights': ['The maximum speed of quantum entanglement is the analog of the speed of light in branchial space, potentially observable in atomic physics. The speed of light in physical space has an analog in branchial space as the maximum speed of quantum entanglement, which may be observable in atomic physics.', 'The concept of maximum entanglement speed may impact many-body quantum mechanics, potentially leading to measurable effects. The concept of maximum entanglement speed could have implications for many-body quantum mechanics, potentially leading to measurable effects.', 'Challenges exist in making definite predictions in chemistry and quantum mechanics due to the nature of quantum states and measurements. The nature of quantum states and measurements presents challenges in making definite predictions in chemistry and quantum mechanics.', 'The relationship between the quantum Zeno effect and many-body quantum mechanics may provide insights into measuring the maximum entanglement speed. The relationship between the quantum Zeno effect and many-body quantum mechanics may offer insights into measuring the maximum entanglement speed.']}, {'end': 5639.742, 'start': 5215.447, 'title': 'Measuring dimension fluctuations in the universe', 'summary': 'Discusses the potential to measure dimension fluctuations in the universe, the concept of maximum entanglement speed, and the challenges of understanding change in fractional dimensional spaces, with implications for cosmology and black hole mergers.', 'duration': 424.295, 'highlights': ['The potential to measure dimension fluctuations in the early universe is discussed, with the detection of dimension fluctuations being a significant indication of the validity of the hypergraph model. Detection of dimension fluctuations in the early universe.', 'The concept of maximum entanglement speed is mentioned as a potential indicator, with the possibility of effects in large black hole mergers. Potential effects of maximum entanglement speed in large black hole mergers.', 'Challenges in understanding change in fractional dimensional spaces are highlighted, emphasizing the difficulty in applying the tools of calculus to fractional dimensions. Challenges in applying calculus to fractional dimensions.']}, {'end': 6198.509, 'start': 5640.042, 'title': 'Unifying mathematical physics and abstract models', 'summary': "Discusses the integration of abstract models with mathematical physics, exemplified by the connection between causal set theory and the underlying model, leading to a cambrian explosion of physicists and a new understanding of the ruliad object with connections to higher category theory and grothendieck's work.", 'duration': 558.467, 'highlights': ['The connection between abstract models and mathematical physics, exemplified by the integration of causal set theory and the underlying model, leading to a Cambrian explosion of physicists. The chapter discusses the integration of abstract models with mathematical physics, exemplified by the connection between causal set theory and the underlying model, leading to a Cambrian explosion of physicists.', "The new understanding of the RULIAD object with connections to higher category theory and Grothendieck's work. The chapter explores the RULIAD object, revealing its connections to higher category theory and Grothendieck's work, presenting a new understanding of this limiting object.", 'The concept of ruleal multi-way graph resulting from running all possible rules in all possible ways, leading to a finite structure known as the RULIAD. The chapter delves into the concept of a ruleal multi-way graph resulting from running all possible rules in all possible ways, leading to a finite structure known as the RULIAD.', 'The integration of the underlying model with various areas of sophisticated mathematical physics, providing a reason to care about abstract ideas. It discusses the integration of the underlying model with various areas of sophisticated mathematical physics, providing a reason to care about abstract ideas and connecting them in a meaningful way.']}], 'duration': 1358.084, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c4840425.jpg', 'highlights': ['Detection of dimension fluctuations in the early universe', 'Potential effects of maximum entanglement speed in large black hole mergers', 'The integration of abstract models with mathematical physics', 'The concept of maximum entanglement speed may impact many-body quantum mechanics', 'The relationship between the quantum Zeno effect and many-body quantum mechanics may offer insights into measuring the maximum entanglement speed', 'The possibility of a mechanically explainable story in relativity and quantum mechanics is discussed, including branching universes', 'Challenges in making definite predictions in chemistry and quantum mechanics due to the nature of quantum states and measurements', 'Challenges in understanding change in fractional dimensional spaces are highlighted, emphasizing the difficulty in applying the tools of calculus to fractional dimensions', 'The concept of ruleal multi-way graph resulting from running all possible rules in all possible ways, leading to a finite structure known as the RULIAD', "The new understanding of the RULIAD object with connections to higher category theory and Grothendieck's work"]}, {'end': 6869.382, 'segs': [{'end': 6405.553, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 6372.594, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 6381.998, 'text': "So wait, what's the interpretation? So ruleal space and we, I'm confused by the we and the interpretation and the universe.", 'start': 6372.594, 'duration': 9.404}, {'end': 6388.701, 'text': 'I thought moving about in ruleal space changes the way the universe is.', 'start': 6382.498, 'duration': 6.203}, {'end': 6392.182, 'text': 'The way we would perceive it.', 'start': 6388.721, 'duration': 3.461}, {'end': 6395.343, 'text': 'So it ultimately has to do with the perception.', 'start': 6392.202, 'duration': 3.141}, {'end': 6396.144, 'text': 'So ruleal space is not..', 'start': 6395.363, 'duration': 0.781}, {'end': 6405.553, 'text': 'somehow changing, like branching into another universe or something like that.', 'start': 6399.867, 'duration': 5.686}], 'summary': 'Discussion on the impact of ruleal space on universe perception.', 'duration': 32.959, 'max_score': 6372.594, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c6372594.jpg'}, {'end': 6612.1, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 6584.269, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 6592.334, 'text': "But it is not obvious, I think, with this kind of realization that there's these very different ways to interpret what's going on in the universe.", 'start': 6584.269, 'duration': 8.065}, {'end': 6597.117, 'text': "It doesn't help me to understand that different interpretation,", 'start': 6593.035, 'duration': 4.082}, {'end': 6601.22, 'text': 'but it gives me at least more respect for the possibility that there will be other interpretations.', 'start': 6597.117, 'duration': 4.103}, {'end': 6605.247, 'text': 'yeah, it humbles you to the possibility that, like what is it?', 'start': 6601.48, 'duration': 3.767}, {'end': 6612.1, 'text': 'reincarnation or all all these, like, uh, eternal recurrence with nisha, like just these ideas, Yeah.', 'start': 6605.247, 'duration': 6.853}], 'summary': 'Realization leads to respect for different universe interpretations.', 'duration': 27.831, 'max_score': 6584.269, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c6584269.jpg'}, {'end': 6755.754, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 6713.248, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 6720.296, 'text': 'and that the only thing that one knows about the monads is sort of how they relate to each other, which sounds awfully like hypergraphs, right?', 'start': 6713.248, 'duration': 7.048}, {'end': 6723.72, 'text': 'But Leibniz had really lost me at the following thing', 'start': 6720.676, 'duration': 3.044}, {'end': 6728.465, 'text': 'He said, each of these monads has a soul, and each of them has a consciousness.', 'start': 6724.16, 'duration': 4.305}, {'end': 6730.606, 'text': "And it's like, okay, I'm out of here.", 'start': 6729.286, 'duration': 1.32}, {'end': 6731.847, 'text': "I don't understand this at all.", 'start': 6730.646, 'duration': 1.201}, {'end': 6732.947, 'text': "I don't know what's going on.", 'start': 6732.187, 'duration': 0.76}, {'end': 6741.65, 'text': 'But I realized recently that in his day, the concept that a thing could do something could spontaneously do something.', 'start': 6732.987, 'duration': 8.663}, {'end': 6743.33, 'text': 'that was his only way of describing that.', 'start': 6741.65, 'duration': 1.68}, {'end': 6747.731, 'text': "And so what I would now say is, well, there's this abstract rule that runs.", 'start': 6743.97, 'duration': 3.761}, {'end': 6755.754, 'text': 'To Leibniz, that would have been in 1690 or whatever, that would have been kind of, well, it has a soul, it has a consciousness.', 'start': 6748.212, 'duration': 7.542}], 'summary': "Leibniz's monads related like hypergraphs, each with soul and consciousness, representing abstract rules.", 'duration': 42.506, 'max_score': 6713.248, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c6713248.jpg'}, {'end': 6854.852, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 6828.568, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 6835.852, 'text': 'could there be sort of conscious entities that exist at the level of atoms of space, and what would that be like?', 'start': 6828.568, 'duration': 7.284}, {'end': 6840.637, 'text': "I think that comes back to this question of what's it like to be a cellular automaton type thing?", 'start': 6836.312, 'duration': 4.325}, {'end': 6842.139, 'text': "I'm not yet there.", 'start': 6841.378, 'duration': 0.761}, {'end': 6842.88, 'text': "I don't know.", 'start': 6842.159, 'duration': 0.721}, {'end': 6854.852, 'text': "I don't even know yet quite how to think about this in the sense that I was considering.", 'start': 6842.9, 'duration': 11.952}], 'summary': 'Discussion on the potential existence of conscious entities at the level of atoms of space.', 'duration': 26.284, 'max_score': 6828.568, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c6828568.jpg'}], 'start': 6198.929, 'title': 'Rullial space and consciousness', 'summary': "Explains rullial space as the space of all possible rules in the universe, influencing our perception. it also explores consciousness at the level of fundamental particles and atoms of space, drawing parallels with leibniz's monads.", 'chapters': [{'end': 6665.117, 'start': 6198.929, 'title': 'Understanding rullial space', 'summary': 'Explains the concept of rullial space as the space of all possible rules that the universe can follow, and how our perception of the universe is determined by our position in rullial space, leading to the realization of the potential for vastly different interpretations of the universe.', 'duration': 466.188, 'highlights': ['Rullial space is the space of all possible rules that the universe can follow, and our perception of the universe is determined by our position in this space. The concept of Rullial space is explained as the space containing all possible rules that the universe can follow, and our perception of the universe is determined by our position in this space.', 'The realization that the universe can be perceived in vastly different ways leads to a humbling respect for the possibility of other interpretations of the universe. The chapter highlights the humbling realization that the universe can be perceived in vastly different ways, leading to a respect for the possibility of other interpretations of the universe.', 'The concept of Rullial space challenges traditional understandings of the universe, leading to a broader perspective on different interpretations of the universe. The discussion challenges traditional understandings of the universe and presents a broader perspective on different interpretations of the universe.']}, {'end': 6869.382, 'start': 6665.977, 'title': 'Exploring consciousness and fundamental particles', 'summary': "Explores the concept of consciousness at the level of fundamental particles, drawing parallels with leibniz's monads and discussing the possibility of consciousness at the level of atoms of space.", 'duration': 203.405, 'highlights': ["The concept of consciousness at the level of fundamental particles is discussed, drawing parallels with Leibniz's monads. The discussion delves into the idea that the basic atom of space could have consciousness, drawing parallels with Leibniz's concept of monads.", 'The question of whether consciousness could exist at the level of atoms of space is explored, raising the possibility of conscious entities at this fundamental level. The exploration considers the potential existence of conscious entities at the level of atoms of space, prompting a discussion on what that experience might be like.', "The chapter touches on the idea of an abstract rule that governs the behavior of fundamental particles, likened to the concept of consciousness attributed by Leibniz to monads. There is a discussion on an abstract rule that governs the behavior of fundamental particles, drawing a comparison to Leibniz's attribution of consciousness to monads."]}], 'duration': 670.453, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c6198929.jpg', 'highlights': ['Rullial space is the space of all possible rules that the universe can follow, and our perception of the universe is determined by our position in this space.', "The concept of consciousness at the level of fundamental particles is discussed, drawing parallels with Leibniz's monads.", 'The realization that the universe can be perceived in vastly different ways leads to a humbling respect for the possibility of other interpretations of the universe.', 'The concept of Rullial space challenges traditional understandings of the universe, leading to a broader perspective on different interpretations of the universe.', 'The question of whether consciousness could exist at the level of atoms of space is explored, raising the possibility of conscious entities at this fundamental level.', 'The chapter touches on the idea of an abstract rule that governs the behavior of fundamental particles, likened to the concept of consciousness attributed by Leibniz to monads.']}, {'end': 8555.996, 'segs': [{'end': 6948.114, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 6921.447, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 6930.809, 'text': 'If you take some subset of a cellular automata, you could start talking about what does that subset feel.', 'start': 6921.447, 'duration': 9.362}, {'end': 6935.23, 'text': 'But then you can, I think you could just take arbitrary numbers of subsets.', 'start': 6930.829, 'duration': 4.401}, {'end': 6945.693, 'text': 'Like to me, like you and I, individually our consciousnesses, but you could also say the two of us together is a singular consciousness.', 'start': 6935.27, 'duration': 10.423}, {'end': 6946.974, 'text': 'Maybe, maybe.', 'start': 6945.793, 'duration': 1.181}, {'end': 6948.114, 'text': "I'm not so sure about that.", 'start': 6947.074, 'duration': 1.04}], 'summary': 'Discussion on subsets of cellular automata and the concept of consciousness.', 'duration': 26.667, 'max_score': 6921.447, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c6921447.jpg'}, {'end': 7048.182, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 6995.902, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 7005.424, 'text': "Maybe the only medium in which we can describe that is something like fiction, where it's kind of like you're telling the life story in that setting.", 'start': 6995.902, 'duration': 9.522}, {'end': 7009.625, 'text': "But this is beyond what I've yet understood how to do.", 'start': 7005.444, 'duration': 4.181}, {'end': 7013.406, 'text': 'Yeah, but it does seem so like with human consciousness.', 'start': 7009.645, 'duration': 3.761}, {'end': 7023.728, 'text': "we're made up of cells and there's a bunch of systems that are networked, that work together, that, at the human level,", 'start': 7013.406, 'duration': 10.322}, {'end': 7026.724, 'text': 'feel like a singular consciousness when you take.', 'start': 7024.642, 'duration': 2.082}, {'end': 7030.887, 'text': 'And so maybe like an ant colony is just too low level.', 'start': 7027.765, 'duration': 3.122}, {'end': 7033.77, 'text': 'Sorry, an ant is too low level.', 'start': 7031.508, 'duration': 2.262}, {'end': 7035.651, 'text': 'Maybe you have to look at the ant colony.', 'start': 7034.03, 'duration': 1.621}, {'end': 7040.175, 'text': "There's some level at which it's a conscious being.", 'start': 7036.852, 'duration': 3.323}, {'end': 7043.938, 'text': "And then if you go to the planetary scale, then maybe that's going too far.", 'start': 7040.195, 'duration': 3.743}, {'end': 7046.76, 'text': "So there's a nice sweet spot for consciousness.", 'start': 7043.998, 'duration': 2.762}, {'end': 7047.561, 'text': 'I mean.', 'start': 7047.081, 'duration': 0.48}, {'end': 7048.182, 'text': 'I agree.', 'start': 7047.881, 'duration': 0.301}], 'summary': 'Human consciousness as a networked system, a sweet spot for consciousness exists.', 'duration': 52.28, 'max_score': 6995.902, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c6995902.jpg'}, {'end': 7240.598, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 7210.524, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 7216.569, 'text': "So the thing to realize with this, the thing about the Rulliad, is it's an inevitable.", 'start': 7210.524, 'duration': 6.045}, {'end': 7220.672, 'text': 'it is the entangled running of all possible rules.', 'start': 7216.569, 'duration': 4.103}, {'end': 7228.234, 'text': "So you don't get to say, it's not like you're saying, which ruley ad are you picking? Because it's all possible formal rules.", 'start': 7221.292, 'duration': 6.942}, {'end': 7233.516, 'text': "It's not like it's just, you know, well, actually, it's only footnote.", 'start': 7228.775, 'duration': 4.741}, {'end': 7240.598, 'text': "The only footnote, it's an important footnote, is it's all possible computational rules, not hypercomputational rules.", 'start': 7233.716, 'duration': 6.882}], 'summary': 'Rulliad encompasses all possible formal computational rules, not hypercomputational rules.', 'duration': 30.074, 'max_score': 7210.524, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c7210524.jpg'}, {'end': 7573.023, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 7546.825, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 7552.569, 'text': "That's one of the coordinates that define our existence, right? Well, okay.", 'start': 7546.825, 'duration': 5.744}, {'end': 7557.953, 'text': 'So yes, but this rulead is the set of all possible ruleal coordinates.', 'start': 7552.649, 'duration': 5.304}, {'end': 7562.215, 'text': "So what we're saying is it contains that.", 'start': 7558.453, 'duration': 3.762}, {'end': 7573.023, 'text': "So our perception of what's going on is we're at a particular place in this rulead and we are concluding certain things about how the universe works based on that.", 'start': 7563.216, 'duration': 9.807}], 'summary': 'The rulead contains all coordinates, defining our perception and conclusions about the universe.', 'duration': 26.198, 'max_score': 7546.825, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c7546825.jpg'}, {'end': 7723.519, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 7685.261, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 7696.124, 'text': 'So you need to have it if you want to formalize the relation between entities, but why do you need to have relations? Okay, okay.', 'start': 7685.261, 'duration': 10.863}, {'end': 7697.084, 'text': "So let's say you say..", 'start': 7696.304, 'duration': 0.78}, {'end': 7708.712, 'text': "It's like, why does math have to exist? Okay, fair question.", 'start': 7702.449, 'duration': 6.263}, {'end': 7710.773, 'text': "Let's see.", 'start': 7710.353, 'duration': 0.42}, {'end': 7720.218, 'text': 'I think the thing to think about is the existence of mathematics is something where, given a definition of terms,', 'start': 7711.173, 'duration': 9.045}, {'end': 7723.519, 'text': 'what follows from that definition inevitably follows', 'start': 7720.218, 'duration': 3.301}], 'summary': 'Formalizing relations between entities is crucial for defining mathematics and its inevitable outcomes.', 'duration': 38.258, 'max_score': 7685.261, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c7685261.jpg'}, {'end': 7876.774, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 7743.149, 'weight': 0.752, 'content': [{'end': 7744.11, 'text': "They're not very concrete.", 'start': 7743.149, 'duration': 0.961}, {'end': 7749.956, 'text': "I mean, they're just things like logical ore.", 'start': 7744.37, 'duration': 5.586}, {'end': 7752.258, 'text': "Right, but that's a thing.", 'start': 7750.656, 'duration': 1.602}, {'end': 7754.02, 'text': "That's a powerful thing.", 'start': 7752.798, 'duration': 1.222}, {'end': 7755.741, 'text': 'Well, yes, okay.', 'start': 7754.06, 'duration': 1.681}, {'end': 7759.805, 'text': 'But the point is that it is not a thing of a..', 'start': 7755.761, 'duration': 4.044}, {'end': 7765.671, 'text': "People imagine there is, I don't know, an elephant or something.", 'start': 7759.805, 'duration': 5.866}, {'end': 7767.072, 'text': 'or the..', 'start': 7765.851, 'duration': 1.221}, {'end': 7771.154, 'text': 'Elephants are presumably not necessary objects.', 'start': 7767.072, 'duration': 4.082}, {'end': 7776.298, 'text': 'They happen to exist as a result of biological evolution and whatever else.', 'start': 7771.274, 'duration': 5.024}, {'end': 7789.426, 'text': "But the thing is that in some sense, it is a different kind of thing to say, does plus exist? It's not like an elephant.", 'start': 7777.158, 'duration': 12.268}, {'end': 7793.728, 'text': 'So a plus seems more fundamental, more basic than an elephant, yes.', 'start': 7789.666, 'duration': 4.062}, {'end': 7800.821, 'text': 'But You can imagine a world without plus or anything like it?', 'start': 7794.249, 'duration': 6.572}, {'end': 7808.646, 'text': 'Why do formal things that are discrete, that can be used to reason, have to exist??', 'start': 7801.101, 'duration': 7.545}, {'end': 7815.591, 'text': 'Well, okay, so then the question is, but the whole point is computation.', 'start': 7809.487, 'duration': 6.104}, {'end': 7818.292, 'text': 'we can certainly imagine computation.', 'start': 7815.591, 'duration': 2.701}, {'end': 7826.018, 'text': 'That is, we can certainly say there is a formal system that we can construct abstractly in our minds that is computation.', 'start': 7818.533, 'duration': 7.485}, {'end': 7831.405, 'text': 'and we can imagine it.', 'start': 7826.878, 'duration': 4.527}, {'end': 7842.46, 'text': "Now the question is, it is that formal system, once we exist as observers embedded in that formal system, that's enough.", 'start': 7832.206, 'duration': 10.254}, {'end': 7844.803, 'text': 'have something which is like our universe.', 'start': 7843.181, 'duration': 1.622}, {'end': 7847.725, 'text': 'The point is we definitely can imagine it.', 'start': 7844.823, 'duration': 2.902}, {'end': 7851.929, 'text': "It's inevitable that that is a thing that we can imagine.", 'start': 7847.745, 'duration': 4.184}, {'end': 7869.064, 'text': "We don't have to ask, does it exist? It is definitely something we can imagine.", 'start': 7852.469, 'duration': 16.595}, {'end': 7876.774, 'text': 'Then we have this thing that is a formally constructable thing that we can imagine.', 'start': 7870.366, 'duration': 6.408}], 'summary': 'Discussion on the nature of existence and imagination in formal systems and computation.', 'duration': 133.625, 'max_score': 7743.149, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c7743149.jpg'}, {'end': 7976.334, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 7944.685, 'weight': 9, 'content': [{'end': 7952.77, 'text': "But the whole point is that by the time it's all possible formal systems, it's like it is all things you can imagine.", 'start': 7944.685, 'duration': 8.085}, {'end': 7958.073, 'text': "No, all computations you can imagine, but we don't..", 'start': 7952.79, 'duration': 5.283}, {'end': 7963.787, 'text': "Well, so the issue is, can we encode? Okay, so that's a fair question.", 'start': 7959.164, 'duration': 4.623}, {'end': 7967.429, 'text': 'Is it possible to encode all..', 'start': 7964.307, 'duration': 3.122}, {'end': 7976.334, 'text': "I mean, is there something that isn't what we can represent formally? That is, is there something that..", 'start': 7967.429, 'duration': 8.905}], 'summary': 'Exploring the possibility of encoding all computations and formal systems.', 'duration': 31.649, 'max_score': 7944.685, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c7944685.jpg'}, {'end': 8348.656, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 8321.696, 'weight': 7, 'content': [{'end': 8329.362, 'text': 'and they are picking a reference frame in metamathematical space and they are computationally bounded observers of metamathematical space,', 'start': 8321.696, 'duration': 7.666}, {'end': 8337.45, 'text': 'which is causing them to deduce that the laws of metamathematics and the laws of mathematics, like the laws of fluid mechanics,', 'start': 8329.362, 'duration': 8.088}, {'end': 8341.173, 'text': 'are much more understandable than this underlying molecular dynamics.', 'start': 8337.45, 'duration': 3.723}, {'end': 8348.656, 'text': 'And so what gets really bizarre is thinking about kind of the analogy between metamathematics.', 'start': 8341.894, 'duration': 6.762}], 'summary': 'Computational observers find metamathematics and mathematics laws more understandable than molecular dynamics.', 'duration': 26.96, 'max_score': 8321.696, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c8321696.jpg'}, {'end': 8442.803, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 8412.599, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 8415.581, 'text': 'like we as observers of the physical universe.', 'start': 8412.599, 'duration': 2.982}, {'end': 8421.387, 'text': 'we have these limitations associated with computational boundedness, single thread of time, consciousness limitations.', 'start': 8415.581, 'duration': 5.806}, {'end': 8426.532, 'text': 'basically that the same thing is true of mathematicians perceiving sort of metamathematical space.', 'start': 8421.387, 'duration': 5.145}, {'end': 8434.577, 'text': "And so what's happening is that if you look at one of these formalized mathematics systems, something like Pythagoras' theorem,", 'start': 8426.612, 'duration': 7.965}, {'end': 8442.803, 'text': "it'll take maybe 10,000 individual little steps to prove Pythagoras' theorem.", 'start': 8434.577, 'duration': 8.226}], 'summary': "Observers and mathematicians face limitations in computational boundedness and consciousness, needing 10,000 steps to prove pythagoras' theorem.", 'duration': 30.204, 'max_score': 8412.599, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c8412599.jpg'}], 'start': 6869.402, 'title': 'Exploring consciousness and mathematical structures', 'summary': 'Delves into consciousness, discussing singular versus collective consciousness, the challenges of describing such experiences in mathematics and physics, and the inevitable existence of formal rules and mathematical structures. it also explores the concept of rulliad and its implication on the existence of the universe and the limitations of human consciousness in comprehending metamathematical space.', 'chapters': [{'end': 7048.182, 'start': 6869.402, 'title': 'Exploring consciousness and identity', 'summary': 'Explores the concept of consciousness and identity, discussing the idea of singular versus collective consciousness and the challenges of describing such experiences in mathematics and physics, suggesting that fiction might be the only medium to convey the human narrative of consciousness.', 'duration': 178.78, 'highlights': ['The challenge of describing consciousness in mathematics and physics is discussed, suggesting that fiction might be the only medium to convey the human narrative of consciousness.', 'The concept of singular versus collective consciousness is explored, including the idea of individual and collective experiences and their entanglement.', "The potential existence of a conscious being at a certain level, such as in an ant colony, is considered, highlighting the idea of a 'sweet spot for consciousness'.", 'The comparison between human consciousness and the networked systems of cells is made, suggesting that at a certain level, they feel like a singular consciousness.']}, {'end': 7638.45, 'start': 7048.362, 'title': 'Understanding the rulliad and the universe', 'summary': 'Discusses the concept of rulliad, a collection of all possible formal systems, and its implication on the existence of the universe, exploring the necessity of its existence and its impact on understanding the universe.', 'duration': 590.088, 'highlights': ['The Rulliad is the entangled running of all possible rules, representing an inevitable collection of formal systems, including computational rules accessible to a Turing machine. The Rulliad encompasses all possible formal systems, including computational rules accessible to a Turing machine, leading to the inevitable existence of a collection of formal systems.', 'The Rulliad is a necessary object, a purely formal object similar to the concept of two plus two equals four, signifying the existence of formal relations and the necessity of its existence. The Rulliad is a necessary object, representing a purely formal object like the concept of two plus two equals four, demonstrating the necessity of its existence based on formal relations.', 'The Rulliad contains all possible ruleal coordinates, representing the set of all possible formal systems, implicating its influence on understanding the universe and the necessity of its functionality. The Rulliad includes all possible ruleal coordinates, reflecting the set of all possible formal systems and its impact on the understanding of the universe and the necessity of its functionality.']}, {'end': 8003.052, 'start': 7638.45, 'title': 'Existence of formal rules and mathematical structures', 'summary': 'Explores the inevitable existence of formal rules and mathematical structures, and their entangled nature, raising questions about their necessity and implications for our perception of the world.', 'duration': 364.602, 'highlights': ['Formal rules produce entangled structures with definite structure, raising questions about their necessity and implications for our perception of the world. The combination of all possible formal rules produces entangled structures with a definite structure, prompting questions about their necessity and implications for our perception of the world.', 'Existence of mathematics is inevitable given a definition of terms, leading to the question of why formal things that are discrete and can be used to reason have to exist. The existence of mathematics is inevitable given a definition of terms, leading to the question of why formal things that are discrete and can be used to reason have to exist.', 'The chapter delves into the idea of all possible formal systems and computations, questioning their representability and exploring implications for our understanding of existence. The chapter explores the idea of all possible formal systems and computations, questioning their representability and exploring implications for our understanding of existence.']}, {'end': 8555.996, 'start': 8003.052, 'title': 'The existence of the universe and the nature of mathematics', 'summary': "Explores the concept of the universe's existence and its connection to mathematics, delving into the limitations of human consciousness in comprehending metamathematical space and the implications of different formalized mathematics systems.", 'duration': 552.944, 'highlights': ['The existence of the universe is intricately linked to the existence of mathematics, with different formalized mathematics systems having varying axioms but still being able to prove the same theorems, akin to the fluid dynamics of different molecular structures (e.g., air and water molecules).', 'The limitations of human consciousness, particularly computational boundedness, play a pivotal role in comprehending metamathematical space, leading mathematicians to perceive mathematics as having integrity and lack of undecidability, similar to observers of the physical universe experiencing limitations associated with computational boundedness and consciousness.', 'The formalized mathematics systems represent the molecular dynamics of mathematics, accessible through automated theorem proving and proof assistance, while mathematicians serve as computationally bounded observers of metamathematical space, deducing laws of metamathematics and mathematics akin to laws of fluid mechanics, perceiving a certain level of understanding due to their limitations.', 'The concept of multiple proofs in mathematics mirrors the quantum mechanics model, with a single proof representing a single path in metamathematical space and multiple proofs potentially exhibiting destructive interference, which could inform the engineering of automated proof systems.', "The late 1800s saw a shift towards formalizing mathematics and breaking it down into symbolic axioms, akin to breaking down a gas into molecules, but the notion of a machine grinding out all true theorems of mathematics was dispelled by GĂ¶del's theorem, highlighting computational irreducibility."]}], 'duration': 1686.594, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c6869402.jpg', 'highlights': ['The Rulliad encompasses all possible formal systems, including computational rules accessible to a Turing machine, leading to the inevitable existence of a collection of formal systems.', 'The concept of singular versus collective consciousness is explored, including the idea of individual and collective experiences and their entanglement.', 'The limitations of human consciousness, particularly computational boundedness, play a pivotal role in comprehending metamathematical space, leading mathematicians to perceive mathematics as having integrity and lack of undecidability.', 'The comparison between human consciousness and the networked systems of cells is made, suggesting that at a certain level, they feel like a singular consciousness.', 'The challenge of describing consciousness in mathematics and physics is discussed, suggesting that fiction might be the only medium to convey the human narrative of consciousness.', 'The Rulliad contains all possible ruleal coordinates, reflecting the set of all possible formal systems and its impact on the understanding of the universe and the necessity of its functionality.', 'The existence of mathematics is inevitable given a definition of terms, leading to the question of why formal things that are discrete and can be used to reason have to exist.', 'The formalized mathematics systems represent the molecular dynamics of mathematics, accessible through automated theorem proving and proof assistance, while mathematicians serve as computationally bounded observers of metamathematical space, deducing laws of metamathematics and mathematics akin to laws of fluid mechanics, perceiving a certain level of understanding due to their limitations.', "The potential existence of a conscious being at a certain level, such as in an ant colony, is considered, highlighting the idea of a 'sweet spot for consciousness.'", 'The chapter explores the idea of all possible formal systems and computations, questioning their representability and exploring implications for our understanding of existence.']}, {'end': 9125.714, 'segs': [{'end': 8604.168, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 8579.357, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 8586.724, 'text': 'And I mean, the thing that gets interesting about this is the way that one can sort of have the interplay between, for example, a black hole.', 'start': 8579.357, 'duration': 7.367}, {'end': 8588.406, 'text': 'What is a black hole in metamathematics?', 'start': 8586.745, 'duration': 1.661}, {'end': 8591.711, 'text': 'So the answer is what is black hole in physics?', 'start': 8589.187, 'duration': 2.524}, {'end': 8596.337, 'text': 'A black hole in physics is where, in the simplest form of black hole, time ends.', 'start': 8591.791, 'duration': 4.546}, {'end': 8604.168, 'text': 'That is, everything is crunched down to the spacetime singularity and everything just ends up at that singularity.', 'start': 8597.018, 'duration': 7.15}], 'summary': 'Black holes in physics crunch everything down to a spacetime singularity, where time ends.', 'duration': 24.811, 'max_score': 8579.357, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c8579357.jpg'}, {'end': 8701.936, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 8652.137, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 8658.262, 'text': "Satisfiability might be hard, but it's still a bounded number of steps to answer any satisfiability problem.", 'start': 8652.137, 'duration': 6.125}, {'end': 8663.366, 'text': "And so that's the notion of a black hole in physics where time stops.", 'start': 8658.663, 'duration': 4.703}, {'end': 8669.151, 'text': "That's analogous to in mathematics where there aren't infinite length proofs.", 'start': 8664.087, 'duration': 5.064}, {'end': 8675.396, 'text': "When in physics, you can wander around the universe forever if you don't run into a black hole.", 'start': 8669.732, 'duration': 5.664}, {'end': 8678.217, 'text': "If you run into a black hole and time stops, you're done.", 'start': 8675.416, 'duration': 2.801}, {'end': 8683.081, 'text': "And it's the same thing in mathematics between decidable theories and undecidable theories.", 'start': 8678.237, 'duration': 4.844}, {'end': 8684.422, 'text': "That's an example.", 'start': 8683.121, 'duration': 1.301}, {'end': 8686.963, 'text': 'So another question is what is the generativity of metamathematics??', 'start': 8684.442, 'duration': 2.521}, {'end': 8688.464, 'text': 'What is the bulk theory of metamathematics??', 'start': 8687.003, 'duration': 1.461}, {'end': 8701.936, 'text': 'So in the literature of mathematics there are about 3 million theorems that people have published.', 'start': 8697.45, 'duration': 4.486}], 'summary': 'In mathematics, there are about 3 million published theorems, with a connection drawn between satisfiability and black holes in physics.', 'duration': 49.799, 'max_score': 8652.137, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c8652137.jpg'}, {'end': 8791.448, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 8746.489, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 8755.336, 'text': "that's quite interesting is that a lot of theories in one area of mathematics algebraic geometry or something they play into another area of mathematics.", 'start': 8746.489, 'duration': 8.847}, {'end': 8761.861, 'text': 'The same kind of fundamental construct seem to occur in very different areas of mathematics.', 'start': 8756.096, 'duration': 5.765}, {'end': 8765.423, 'text': "And that's structurally captured a bit with category theory and things like that.", 'start': 8762.341, 'duration': 3.082}, {'end': 8774.971, 'text': "But I think that there's probably an understanding of this metamathematical space that will explain why different areas of mathematics ultimately sort of map into the same thing.", 'start': 8765.924, 'duration': 9.047}, {'end': 8781.476, 'text': "And I mean my little challenge to myself is what's time dilation in metamathematics?", 'start': 8775.391, 'duration': 6.085}, {'end': 8791.448, 'text': 'In other words, basically, as you move around in this mathematical space of possible statements, how does that moving around?', 'start': 8782.076, 'duration': 9.372}], 'summary': 'The interconnectedness of different mathematical areas is captured by category theory, aiming to understand the metamathematical space and its implications.', 'duration': 44.959, 'max_score': 8746.489, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c8746489.jpg'}, {'end': 9106.15, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 9077.235, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 9082.258, 'text': 'Okay, this has to do with how do you make models of things?', 'start': 9077.235, 'duration': 5.023}, {'end': 9095.045, 'text': "I've sort of claimed that there have been sort of four epochs in the history of making models of things, and this multi-computation thing is.", 'start': 9083.218, 'duration': 11.827}, {'end': 9096.466, 'text': 'the fourth is a new epoch.', 'start': 9095.045, 'duration': 1.421}, {'end': 9097.287, 'text': 'What are the first three?', 'start': 9096.486, 'duration': 0.801}, {'end': 9102.63, 'text': 'The first one is back in antiquity, ancient Greek times.', 'start': 9098.069, 'duration': 4.561}, {'end': 9104.39, 'text': "people were like what's the universe made of?", 'start': 9102.63, 'duration': 1.76}, {'end': 9105.93, 'text': "Oh, it's made of.", 'start': 9104.59, 'duration': 1.34}, {'end': 9106.15, 'text': 'you know.', 'start': 9105.93, 'duration': 0.22}], 'summary': 'Four epochs in history of making models, first in ancient greek times.', 'duration': 28.915, 'max_score': 9077.235, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c9077235.jpg'}], 'start': 8555.996, 'title': 'Physics, mathematics, and metamathematics', 'summary': 'Explores the interplay between physics and mathematics, highlighting the analogy of black holes in physics to undecidable theories in mathematics, and the underlying space in metamathematics with 3 million published theorems. it also discusses metamathematics and the exploration of mathematical space, emphasizing the observation of fundamental constructs occurring in different areas of mathematics, and introduces the concept of time dilation in mathematical space, along with the new epoch of multi-computation in making models of things.', 'chapters': [{'end': 8726.516, 'start': 8555.996, 'title': 'Physics and mathematics interplay', 'summary': 'Explores the interplay between physics and mathematics, highlighting the analogy of black holes in physics to undecidable theories in mathematics, and the underlying space in metamathematics with 3 million published theorems.', 'duration': 170.52, 'highlights': ['The interplay between black holes in physics and undecidable theories in mathematics is highlighted, where the concept of time stopping in a black hole is analogous to the absence of infinite length proofs in undecidable theories, providing a tangible comparison between the two fields.', 'The underlying space in metamathematics, with its 3 million published theorems, is likened to the Earth being roughly spherical, emphasizing the existence of an underlying structure beyond the individual theorems, highlighting the complexity and depth of the field.', 'The analogy of black holes in physics, where time stops upon encountering one, is used to illustrate the distinction between decidable and undecidable theories in mathematics, providing a clear and relatable comparison between the two domains.']}, {'end': 9125.714, 'start': 8727.016, 'title': 'Metamathematics and multi-computation', 'summary': 'Discusses metamathematics and the exploration of mathematical space, emphasizing the observation of fundamental constructs occurring in different areas of mathematics, and introduces the concept of time dilation in mathematical space. it also introduces the new epoch of multi-computation in making models of things.', 'duration': 398.698, 'highlights': ['The concept of time dilation in mathematical space is explored, where moving around in the space of mathematical statements results in slower proving of the same theorem due to translation, akin to time dilation in physics. N/A', 'The observation of fundamental constructs occurring in different areas of mathematics is discussed, emphasizing the role of category theory in capturing the structural similarities among theories in various mathematical areas. N/A', 'Introduction of the concept of multi-computation as a new epoch in making models of things, with reference to the historical epochs of modeling the universe from ancient Greek times to the present. N/A']}], 'duration': 569.718, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c8555996.jpg', 'highlights': ['The underlying space in metamathematics has 3 million published theorems, emphasizing the complexity and depth of the field.', 'The interplay between black holes in physics and undecidable theories in mathematics is highlighted, providing a tangible comparison between the two fields.', 'The analogy of black holes in physics is used to illustrate the distinction between decidable and undecidable theories in mathematics, providing a clear and relatable comparison between the two domains.', 'The observation of fundamental constructs occurring in different areas of mathematics is discussed, emphasizing the role of category theory in capturing the structural similarities among theories in various mathematical areas.', 'The concept of time dilation in mathematical space is explored, where moving around in the space of mathematical statements results in slower proving of the same theorem due to translation, akin to time dilation in physics.', 'Introduction of the concept of multi-computation as a new epoch in making models of things, with reference to the historical epochs of modeling the universe from ancient Greek times to the present.']}, {'end': 10762.875, 'segs': [{'end': 9241.24, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 9216.467, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 9223.25, 'text': 'although it actually feeds back even into relativity and things like that that there are these multiple threads of time.', 'start': 9216.467, 'duration': 6.783}, {'end': 9230.294, 'text': 'And so, in this multi-computation paradigm, the kind of idea is, instead of there being this single thread of time,', 'start': 9223.87, 'duration': 6.424}, {'end': 9234.276, 'text': 'there are these kind of distributed, asynchronous threads of time that are happening.', 'start': 9230.294, 'duration': 3.982}, {'end': 9241.24, 'text': "And the thing that's sort of different there is, if you want to know what happened, if you say what happened in the system,", 'start': 9234.676, 'duration': 6.564}], 'summary': 'Multiple threads of time create a distributed, asynchronous paradigm in the system.', 'duration': 24.773, 'max_score': 9216.467, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c9216467.jpg'}, {'end': 9374.31, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 9346.062, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 9353.784, 'text': "But the thing that is notable is that when you're an observer embedded in this thing, et cetera, et cetera, et cetera,", 'start': 9346.062, 'duration': 7.722}, {'end': 9356.345, 'text': 'with various other footnotes and so on,', 'start': 9353.784, 'duration': 2.561}, {'end': 9363.407, 'text': 'it is inevitable that the thing that you parse out of the system looks like general relativity and quantum mechanics.', 'start': 9356.345, 'duration': 7.062}, {'end': 9374.31, 'text': 'In other words, that just by the very structure of this multi-computational setup, It inevitably is the case that you have certain emergent laws.', 'start': 9364.327, 'duration': 9.983}], 'summary': 'Observer embedded in multi-computational setup yields emergent laws resembling general relativity and quantum mechanics.', 'duration': 28.248, 'max_score': 9346.062, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c9346062.jpg'}, {'end': 10001.259, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 9970.457, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 9971.398, 'text': "We're going to see what came out.", 'start': 9970.457, 'duration': 0.941}, {'end': 9972.82, 'text': "We're going to see what molecule came out.", 'start': 9971.438, 'duration': 1.382}, {'end': 9975.782, 'text': "This is saying that's not the only thing you can do.", 'start': 9973.54, 'duration': 2.242}, {'end': 9983.189, 'text': 'There is a different kind of chemical observer that you can imagine constructing, which is somehow sensitive to this dynamic network.', 'start': 9976.303, 'duration': 6.886}, {'end': 9987.871, 'text': "Exactly how that works, how we make that measurement, I don't know, but I have a few ideas.", 'start': 9983.729, 'duration': 4.142}, {'end': 9991.173, 'text': "But that's what's important, so to speak.", 'start': 9988.212, 'duration': 2.961}, {'end': 9994.735, 'text': 'And that means, and by the way, you can do the same thing even for Turing machines.', 'start': 9991.594, 'duration': 3.141}, {'end': 10001.259, 'text': 'You can say if you have a multi-way Turing machine, you can say how do you compute with a multi-way Turing machine?', 'start': 9995.216, 'duration': 6.043}], 'summary': 'Exploring sensitive chemical observer for dynamic network analysis.', 'duration': 30.802, 'max_score': 9970.457, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c9970457.jpg'}, {'end': 10038.404, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 10008.263, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 10013.929, 'text': "And so then you say, well, what does it even mean to be a universal multi-way Turing machine? I don't fully know the answer to that.", 'start': 10008.263, 'duration': 5.666}, {'end': 10015.571, 'text': "It's an interesting idea.", 'start': 10014.43, 'duration': 1.141}, {'end': 10017.513, 'text': 'It would freak Turing out for sure.', 'start': 10015.591, 'duration': 1.922}, {'end': 10022.419, 'text': 'Because then the dynamics of the trajectory of the computation matters.', 'start': 10017.533, 'duration': 4.886}, {'end': 10024.293, 'text': 'Yes, yes.', 'start': 10022.952, 'duration': 1.341}, {'end': 10029.477, 'text': "This is again a story of what's the observer, so to speak.", 'start': 10024.333, 'duration': 5.144}, {'end': 10038.404, 'text': "In chemistry, what's the observer there? Now, to give an example of where that might matter, a present-day example is in immunology.", 'start': 10029.557, 'duration': 8.847}], 'summary': 'Discussion on universal multi-way turing machine and its impact on computation dynamics, with mention of relevance to immunology.', 'duration': 30.141, 'max_score': 10008.263, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c10008263.jpg'}, {'end': 10102.176, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 10076.144, 'weight': 7, 'content': [{'end': 10082.548, 'text': 'various other things kind of had this network theory of the immune system where it would be like well, we produce antibodies,', 'start': 10076.144, 'duration': 6.404}, {'end': 10085.189, 'text': 'but then we produce antibodies to the antibodies,', 'start': 10082.548, 'duration': 2.641}, {'end': 10092.474, 'text': 'anti-antibodies and we produce anti-anti-antibodies and we get this whole dynamic network of interactions between different immune system cells.', 'start': 10085.189, 'duration': 7.285}, {'end': 10097.575, 'text': 'And that was kind of a qualitative theory at that time.', 'start': 10093.254, 'duration': 4.321}, {'end': 10102.176, 'text': "And I've been a little disappointed because I've been studying immunology a bit recently.", 'start': 10098.175, 'duration': 4.001}], 'summary': 'Immune system operates as a dynamic network of interactions between cells.', 'duration': 26.032, 'max_score': 10076.144, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c10076144.jpg'}, {'end': 10139.836, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 10113.68, 'weight': 9, 'content': [{'end': 10121.631, 'text': "And then I look at the books now, and they're very thick, because there's just a ton known about immunology and all these different pathways,", 'start': 10113.68, 'duration': 7.951}, {'end': 10123.313, 'text': 'all these different details and so on.', 'start': 10121.631, 'duration': 1.682}, {'end': 10125.896, 'text': 'But the theoretical sections seem to have shrunk.', 'start': 10123.834, 'duration': 2.062}, {'end': 10132.866, 'text': 'And so the question is, For example, immune memory.', 'start': 10127.519, 'duration': 5.347}, {'end': 10135.029, 'text': 'Where does the immune memory reside?', 'start': 10133.247, 'duration': 1.782}, {'end': 10139.836, 'text': 'Is it actually some cell sitting in our bone marrow that is living for the whole of our lives?', 'start': 10135.069, 'duration': 4.767}], 'summary': 'Immunology books contain vast knowledge, with theoretical sections shrinking, posing questions about immune memory.', 'duration': 26.156, 'max_score': 10113.68, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c10113680.jpg'}, {'end': 10291.85, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 10263.331, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 10268.833, 'text': "If you have one of these dynamic theories, it's like you poke into shape space by having, let's say,", 'start': 10263.331, 'duration': 5.502}, {'end': 10272.754, 'text': 'a vaccine or something that has a particular configuration in shape space.', 'start': 10268.833, 'duration': 3.921}, {'end': 10276.937, 'text': 'how quickly as this dynamic network spreads out?', 'start': 10273.775, 'duration': 3.162}, {'end': 10282.182, 'text': 'how quickly do you get sort of other antibodies in different places in shape space, things like that?', 'start': 10276.937, 'duration': 5.245}, {'end': 10285.525, 'text': 'When you say shape space, you mean the shape of the molecules?', 'start': 10282.362, 'duration': 3.163}, {'end': 10291.85, 'text': 'So this could be deeply connected to the protein and multi-protein folding, all of that kind of stuff.', 'start': 10285.885, 'duration': 5.965}], 'summary': 'Dynamic theories explore spreading of antibodies in shape space, connected to protein folding.', 'duration': 28.519, 'max_score': 10263.331, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c10263331.jpg'}, {'end': 10392.431, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 10370.751, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 10380.56, 'text': 'where and the place where that gets important is Maybe molecular biology is doing molecular computing by using some dynamic process.', 'start': 10370.751, 'duration': 9.809}, {'end': 10384.344, 'text': 'that is something where it is very happily saying oh, I just got a result.', 'start': 10380.56, 'duration': 3.784}, {'end': 10386.426, 'text': "It's in the dynamic structure of this network.", 'start': 10384.764, 'duration': 1.662}, {'end': 10390.029, 'text': "Now I'm going to go and do some other thing based on that result, for example.", 'start': 10386.486, 'duration': 3.543}, {'end': 10392.431, 'text': "But we're like, oh, I don't know what's going on.", 'start': 10390.349, 'duration': 2.082}], 'summary': 'Molecular biology may utilize dynamic processes for molecular computing, enabling efficient result-driven actions.', 'duration': 21.68, 'max_score': 10370.751, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c10370751.jpg'}, {'end': 10501.529, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 10469.47, 'weight': 8, 'content': [{'end': 10473.872, 'text': 'Physics is a much more successful global theory area.', 'start': 10469.47, 'duration': 4.402}, {'end': 10478.894, 'text': 'Biology, what are the global theories of biology? Pretty much Darwinian evolution.', 'start': 10474.532, 'duration': 4.362}, {'end': 10480.695, 'text': "That's the only global theory of biology.", 'start': 10479.054, 'duration': 1.641}, {'end': 10486.922, 'text': 'Any other theory is just a, well, the kidneys work this way, this thing works this way, and so on.', 'start': 10481.756, 'duration': 5.166}, {'end': 10490.967, 'text': 'I suppose another global theory is digital information in DNA.', 'start': 10486.982, 'duration': 3.985}, {'end': 10493.23, 'text': "That's another sort of global fact about biology.", 'start': 10491.007, 'duration': 2.223}, {'end': 10501.529, 'text': 'But the difficult thing to do is to match something you have a model of in the hypergraph to the actual like.', 'start': 10493.25, 'duration': 8.279}], 'summary': 'Physics and biology have global theories, such as darwinian evolution and digital information in dna.', 'duration': 32.059, 'max_score': 10469.47, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c10469470.jpg'}, {'end': 10656.673, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 10628.454, 'weight': 10, 'content': [{'end': 10633.696, 'text': "What's the nature of the collaboration between Cardano and the whole space of blockchain?", 'start': 10628.454, 'duration': 5.242}, {'end': 10636.737, 'text': 'and Wolfram, Wolfram, Alpha, Wolfram, Blockchain, all that kind of stuff?', 'start': 10633.696, 'duration': 3.041}, {'end': 10642.424, 'text': "Well, okay, we're segueing to a slightly different world.", 'start': 10637.421, 'duration': 5.003}, {'end': 10645.046, 'text': 'Although not completely unconnected.', 'start': 10643.285, 'duration': 1.761}, {'end': 10647.628, 'text': 'The whole thing is somehow connected.', 'start': 10645.546, 'duration': 2.082}, {'end': 10649.689, 'text': 'I know.', 'start': 10647.928, 'duration': 1.761}, {'end': 10656.673, 'text': "The strange thing in my life is I've sort of alternated between doing basic science and doing technology about five times in my life so far.", 'start': 10649.749, 'duration': 6.924}], 'summary': 'Discussion on collaboration between cardano and blockchain, wolfram, and technology.', 'duration': 28.219, 'max_score': 10628.454, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c10628454.jpg'}, {'end': 10697.967, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 10665.439, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 10672.203, 'text': "And like I thought for this physics project, I thought, we're doing fundamental theory of physics, maybe it'll have an application in 200 years.", 'start': 10665.439, 'duration': 6.764}, {'end': 10679.067, 'text': "But now I've realized actually this multi-computation idea is applicable here and now.", 'start': 10673.324, 'duration': 5.743}, {'end': 10685.451, 'text': "And in fact, it's also giving us this way, I'll just mention one other thing and then we can talk about blockchain.", 'start': 10679.988, 'duration': 5.463}, {'end': 10697.967, 'text': 'The question of actually, that relates to several different things, but one of the things about okay so our Wolfram language,', 'start': 10688.021, 'duration': 9.946}], 'summary': 'Multi-computation idea applicable now, with potential implications for blockchain', 'duration': 32.528, 'max_score': 10665.439, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c10665439.jpg'}], 'start': 9126.553, 'title': 'Evolution of physics and multi-computation', 'summary': 'Discusses the evolution of physics, introduction of computational models, and the concept of multi-computation in the 1980s, leading to the observation of laws like general relativity and quantum mechanics by an embedded observer, and the shift from mathematical to computational models.', 'chapters': [{'end': 9659.97, 'start': 9126.553, 'title': 'Evolution of physics and multi-computation', 'summary': 'Discusses the evolution of physics and the introduction of computational models, leading to the concept of multi-computation in the 1980s, highlighting the shift from mathematical models to computational models and the emergence of multiple threads of time in physics, ultimately leading to the inevitable observation of laws like general relativity and quantum mechanics by an embedded observer.', 'duration': 533.417, 'highlights': ['The shift from mathematical models to computational models and the emergence of multiple threads of time in physics The introduction of computational models in the 1980s led to a shift from mathematical models to computational models, bringing about the concept of multiple threads of time in physics.', 'The inevitable observation of laws like general relativity and quantum mechanics by an embedded observer The embedded observer in a multi-computational system inevitably observes laws like general relativity and quantum mechanics due to the core structure of multi-computation, leading to the observation of comparatively simple laws.', 'The concept of multi-computation in various fields of science and its potential impact The discussion explores the potential impact of multi-computation in fields such as economics, linguistics, molecular biology, and chemistry, highlighting its relevance and potential for providing physics-like laws in these domains.']}, {'end': 10029.477, 'start': 9659.99, 'title': 'Chemical observers in molecular dynamics', 'summary': 'Discusses the concept of chemical observers in molecular dynamics and its potential relevance to molecular biology and computing, exploring the idea of dynamic network storing information and the implications for molecular computation and universal multi-way turing machines.', 'duration': 369.487, 'highlights': ['The concept of chemical observers in molecular dynamics, exploring the idea of dynamic network storing information. The concept of chemical observers in molecular dynamics is discussed, emphasizing the potential relevance to molecular biology and computing, and exploring the idea of a dynamic network storing information.', 'The potential implications for molecular computation and universal multi-way Turing machines. The discussion delves into the potential implications for molecular computation and universal multi-way Turing machines, highlighting the relevance of dynamic network dynamics and the concept of chemical observers in molecular dynamics.', 'The significance of molecular biology and molecular computing in understanding the dynamics of chemical reactions and molecular processes. The significance of molecular biology and molecular computing in understanding the dynamics of chemical reactions and molecular processes is emphasized, shedding light on the relevance of chemical observers and dynamic network dynamics.']}, {'end': 10226.256, 'start': 10029.557, 'title': 'Immunology and the dynamic network theory', 'summary': 'Explores the dynamic network theory in immunology, discussing the vast variety of antibodies and t cell receptors, the shift from clonal selection theory to a network theory, and the lack of a comprehensive qualitative theory to explain the dynamics of the immune system.', 'duration': 196.699, 'highlights': ['The traditional theory of immunology is the clonal selection theory, where a vast number of different antibodies are randomly produced, with one getting amplified upon binding to an antigen. The traditional theory of immunology involves randomly producing a vast number of different antibodies, with one getting amplified upon binding to an antigen.', 'Immunologist Nils Jona proposed a network theory of the immune system, suggesting interactions between different immune system cells and a dynamic network of interactions. Immunologist Nils Jona proposed a network theory of the immune system, suggesting interactions between different immune system cells and a dynamic network of interactions.', 'The theoretical sections of immunology seem to have shrunk despite the vast knowledge about immunology, and the lack of a comprehensive qualitative theory to explain the dynamics of the immune system is apparent. The theoretical sections of immunology seem to have shrunk despite the vast knowledge about immunology, and the lack of a comprehensive qualitative theory to explain the dynamics of the immune system is apparent.']}, {'end': 10762.875, 'start': 10227.016, 'title': 'The immune system and molecular computing', 'summary': 'Explores the potential link between the immune system and general relativity, the dynamic process of vaccines in shape space, the digital aspect of molecular biology, the challenge of creating global theories in biology, and the collaboration between cardano and wolfram in the blockchain space.', 'duration': 535.859, 'highlights': ['The potential link between the immune system and general relativity is explored, with a focus on the dynamic process of vaccines in shape space and the digital aspect of molecular biology. Potential link between the immune system and general relativity, dynamic process of vaccines in shape space, digital aspect of molecular biology', 'The challenge of creating global theories in biology is discussed, with a focus on the lack of successful global theories in biology and the difficulty in matching models to validation. Challenge of creating global theories in biology, lack of successful global theories, difficulty in matching models to validation', 'The collaboration between Cardano and Wolfram in the blockchain space is mentioned, implying some degree of connection between the two. Collaboration between Cardano and Wolfram, connection between the two']}], 'duration': 1636.322, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c9126553.jpg', 'highlights': ['The shift from mathematical models to computational models and the emergence of multiple threads of time in physics', 'The concept of multi-computation in various fields of science and its potential impact', 'The inevitable observation of laws like general relativity and quantum mechanics by an embedded observer', 'The potential implications for molecular computation and universal multi-way Turing machines', 'The concept of chemical observers in molecular dynamics, exploring the idea of dynamic network storing information', 'The significance of molecular biology and molecular computing in understanding the dynamics of chemical reactions and molecular processes', 'The potential link between the immune system and general relativity is explored, with a focus on the dynamic process of vaccines in shape space and the digital aspect of molecular biology', 'Immunologist Nils Jona proposed a network theory of the immune system, suggesting interactions between different immune system cells and a dynamic network of interactions', 'The challenge of creating global theories in biology is discussed, with a focus on the lack of successful global theories in biology and the difficulty in matching models to validation', 'The theoretical sections of immunology seem to have shrunk despite the vast knowledge about immunology, and the lack of a comprehensive qualitative theory to explain the dynamics of the immune system is apparent', 'The collaboration between Cardano and Wolfram in the blockchain space is mentioned, implying some degree of connection between the two']}, {'end': 13113.703, 'segs': [{'end': 10791.073, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 10763.455, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 10770.603, 'text': "But I think that the thing that's really striking about that is that means including the whole technology stack I built around.", 'start': 10763.455, 'duration': 7.148}, {'end': 10775.408, 'text': "that's about 40 years old and that means it's a significant fraction of the total age of the computer industry.", 'start': 10770.603, 'duration': 4.805}, {'end': 10784.751, 'text': "And I think it's cool that we can still run Mathematica version one programs today and so on, and we've sort of maintained compatibility.", 'start': 10776.408, 'duration': 8.343}, {'end': 10791.073, 'text': "And we've been just building this big tower all those years of just more and more and more computational capabilities.", 'start': 10785.171, 'duration': 5.902}], 'summary': 'Maintained compatibility with 40-year-old technology stack, still running mathematica version one programs today, building more computational capabilities.', 'duration': 27.618, 'max_score': 10763.455, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c10763455.jpg'}, {'end': 10849.001, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 10823.551, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 10828.893, 'text': "But the thing that was super lucky in some sense is it's all based on one idea.", 'start': 10823.551, 'duration': 5.342}, {'end': 10834.635, 'text': "It's all based on the idea of symbolic expressions and transformation rules for symbolic expressions,", 'start': 10829.333, 'duration': 5.302}, {'end': 10840.017, 'text': 'which was kind of what I originally put into this SMP system back in 1979.', 'start': 10834.635, 'duration': 5.382}, {'end': 10842.438, 'text': 'that was a predecessor of the whole Wolfram Language stack.', 'start': 10840.017, 'duration': 2.421}, {'end': 10849.001, 'text': 'So that idea was an idea that I got from sort of trying to understand mathematical logic and so on.', 'start': 10843.078, 'duration': 5.923}], 'summary': 'The wolfram language stack is based on the idea of symbolic expressions and transformation rules, originating from the smp system in 1979.', 'duration': 25.45, 'max_score': 10823.551, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c10823551.jpg'}, {'end': 11197.068, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 11175.378, 'weight': 8, 'content': [{'end': 11184.822, 'text': 'But in fact we have an approximation to that which is, we say they each have a dollar value and we have this kind of numeraire concept of.', 'start': 11175.378, 'duration': 9.444}, {'end': 11197.068, 'text': "there's just a way of taking this whole complicated space of transactions and parsing it in something which is a kind of a simplified thing that is kind of like our parsing of physical space.", 'start': 11184.822, 'duration': 12.246}], 'summary': 'Approximation to dollar value concept simplifies complex transactions.', 'duration': 21.69, 'max_score': 11175.378, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c11175378.jpg'}, {'end': 11244.325, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 11216.775, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 11220.456, 'text': "They're just gonna parse the whole thing by saying, there's this value, it's a number.", 'start': 11216.775, 'duration': 3.681}, {'end': 11225.039, 'text': "And that's their understanding of their summary of this economic network.", 'start': 11220.976, 'duration': 4.063}, {'end': 11227.121, 'text': 'And there will be all kinds of things like.', 'start': 11225.5, 'duration': 1.621}, {'end': 11232.385, 'text': 'there are all kinds of arbitrage opportunities which are kind of like the quantum effects in this whole thing,', 'start': 11227.121, 'duration': 5.264}, {'end': 11238.49, 'text': "and places where there's sort of different paths that can be followed, and so on.", 'start': 11232.385, 'duration': 6.105}, {'end': 11244.325, 'text': 'So The question is can one make a global theory of economics?', 'start': 11238.51, 'duration': 5.815}], 'summary': 'Can a global theory of economics be created based on understanding the economic network and its arbitrage opportunities?', 'duration': 27.55, 'max_score': 11216.775, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c11216775.jpg'}, {'end': 11306.24, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 11272.576, 'weight': 9, 'content': [{'end': 11277.499, 'text': "And that's the question of is there a theory like general relativity, that is, a global theory of economics?", 'start': 11272.576, 'duration': 4.923}, {'end': 11279.681, 'text': 'And is it about something we care about?', 'start': 11278.04, 'duration': 1.641}, {'end': 11285.205, 'text': "It could be that there is a global theory, but it's about a feature of economic reality that isn't important to us.", 'start': 11280.101, 'duration': 5.104}, {'end': 11294.812, 'text': 'Now another part of the story is can one use those ideas to make essentially a distributed blockchain, a distributed generalization of blockchain,', 'start': 11285.765, 'duration': 9.047}, {'end': 11297.093, 'text': 'kind of the quantum analog of money, so to speak?', 'start': 11294.812, 'duration': 2.281}, {'end': 11306.24, 'text': "where you have, for example, you can have uncertainty relations where you're saying well, if I insist on knowing my bank account right now,", 'start': 11297.093, 'duration': 9.147}], 'summary': 'Exploring the possibility of a global theory of economics and its application to a distributed blockchain system with uncertainty relations.', 'duration': 33.664, 'max_score': 11272.576, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c11272576.jpg'}, {'end': 11478.415, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 11443.174, 'weight': 7, 'content': [{'end': 11443.835, 'text': 'we care about?', 'start': 11443.174, 'duration': 0.661}, {'end': 11463.442, 'text': 'In the economic case, one thing is this idea of using physics-like notions to construct a distributed analog of blockchain.', 'start': 11446.316, 'duration': 17.126}, {'end': 11466.743, 'text': 'The much more pragmatic thing is a different direction.', 'start': 11463.802, 'duration': 2.941}, {'end': 11471.287, 'text': 'And has to do with this computational language that we built to describe the world,', 'start': 11466.763, 'duration': 4.524}, {'end': 11478.415, 'text': 'that knows about different kinds of cookies and knows about different cities, and knows about how to compute all these kinds of things.', 'start': 11471.287, 'duration': 7.128}], 'summary': 'Using physics-like notions to construct a distributed analog of blockchain and a computational language for describing the world.', 'duration': 35.241, 'max_score': 11443.174, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c11443174.jpg'}, {'end': 11681.39, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 11656.36, 'weight': 10, 'content': [{'end': 11663.102, 'text': 'but because our technology stack, both in language and Mathematica, are very widely used in the quant finance world,', 'start': 11656.36, 'duration': 6.742}, {'end': 11673.226, 'text': "there's an immediate co-evolution there of the quant finance kind of thing and blockchain analytics.", 'start': 11663.102, 'duration': 10.124}, {'end': 11677.128, 'text': "So it's kind of the representation of blockchain in computational language.", 'start': 11673.687, 'duration': 3.441}, {'end': 11681.39, 'text': "Then ultimately it's kind of like how do you run the world with code?", 'start': 11677.648, 'duration': 3.742}], 'summary': 'Technology stack used widely in quant finance world, leading to co-evolution of quant finance and blockchain analytics, representing blockchain in computational language.', 'duration': 25.03, 'max_score': 11656.36, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c11656360.jpg'}, {'end': 11729.513, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 11701.741, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 11707.363, 'text': 'And of course, I like to always pay attention to the latest things that are going on.', 'start': 11701.741, 'duration': 5.622}, {'end': 11712.885, 'text': "And I like blockchain because it's another rethinking of computation.", 'start': 11707.443, 'duration': 5.442}, {'end': 11720.768, 'text': "It's like cloud computing was a little bit of that of persistent computational resources and so on.", 'start': 11713.385, 'duration': 7.383}, {'end': 11726.03, 'text': 'And this multi-computation is a big rethinking of what it means to compute.', 'start': 11721.308, 'duration': 4.722}, {'end': 11729.513, 'text': 'Blockchain is another bit of rethinking of what it means to compute.', 'start': 11726.61, 'duration': 2.903}], 'summary': 'Blockchain represents a significant rethinking of computation.', 'duration': 27.772, 'max_score': 11701.741, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c11701741.jpg'}, {'end': 11852.523, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 11826.406, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 11833.471, 'text': "So, in a sense, with the NFT world, it's like if you want to have something permanent, well, at least for the life of the blockchain.", 'start': 11826.406, 'duration': 7.065}, {'end': 11837.414, 'text': 'but even if the blockchain goes out of circulation, so to speak,', 'start': 11833.471, 'duration': 3.943}, {'end': 11842.178, 'text': "there's going to be enough value in that whole collection of transactions that people are going to archive the thing.", 'start': 11837.414, 'duration': 4.764}, {'end': 11847.701, 'text': "But that means that pay once, And you're kind of you're lodged in the blockchain forever.", 'start': 11842.578, 'duration': 5.123}, {'end': 11852.523, 'text': "And so we've been kind of playing around with sort of a hobby thing of mine,", 'start': 11848.161, 'duration': 4.362}], 'summary': 'Nfts offer permanent ownership on the blockchain, ensuring value and archiving of transactions.', 'duration': 26.117, 'max_score': 11826.406, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c11826406.jpg'}, {'end': 11970.716, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 11947.538, 'weight': 14, 'content': [{'end': 11956.488, 'text': "But the thing is that there's this complicated trade-off because as soon as you're really using computation, you have computational irreducibility.", 'start': 11947.538, 'duration': 8.95}, {'end': 11957.609, 'text': 'you have undecidability.', 'start': 11956.488, 'duration': 1.121}, {'end': 11960.633, 'text': 'If you want to use computation seriously,', 'start': 11958.07, 'duration': 2.563}, {'end': 11968.716, 'text': "you have to kind of let go of the idea that you're going to be able to box it in and say we're going to have just this happen and not anything else.", 'start': 11960.633, 'duration': 8.083}, {'end': 11970.716, 'text': 'I mean, this is an old fact.', 'start': 11968.856, 'duration': 1.86}], 'summary': 'Using computation leads to computational irreducibility and undecidability, requiring letting go of strict control.', 'duration': 23.178, 'max_score': 11947.538, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c11947538.jpg'}, {'end': 12387.989, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 12361.089, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 12364.911, 'text': '35 years, whatever it is, and you say what happened?', 'start': 12361.089, 'duration': 3.822}, {'end': 12370.214, 'text': 'Okay, well, now there are a thousand complexity institutes around the world, I think more or less.', 'start': 12365.491, 'duration': 4.723}, {'end': 12371.234, 'text': "We've been trying to count them.", 'start': 12370.234, 'duration': 1}, {'end': 12375.177, 'text': 'And there are 40 complexity journals, I think.', 'start': 12372.195, 'duration': 2.982}, {'end': 12380.439, 'text': "It's kind of like what actually happened in this field, right?", 'start': 12377.836, 'duration': 2.603}, {'end': 12387.989, 'text': "And I look at a lot of what happened and I'm like you know, I have to admit there's some eye rolling, so to speak,", 'start': 12381.18, 'duration': 6.809}], 'summary': '35 years later, there are approximately 1000 complexity institutes and 40 complexity journals globally.', 'duration': 26.9, 'max_score': 12361.089, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c12361089.jpg'}, {'end': 12531.935, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 12505.104, 'weight': 11, 'content': [{'end': 12509.746, 'text': "And so it works for basic science, and it's like, we can do more of this.", 'start': 12505.104, 'duration': 4.642}, {'end': 12514.268, 'text': "And so now- In biology and chemistry, it's become an institute.", 'start': 12510.406, 'duration': 3.862}, {'end': 12516.243, 'text': 'Yes, well, it needs to become an institute.', 'start': 12514.642, 'duration': 1.601}, {'end': 12518.345, 'text': 'An official institute.', 'start': 12516.283, 'duration': 2.062}, {'end': 12525.891, 'text': "Right So I was thinking about, okay, so what do we do with complexity? There are all these people who've..", 'start': 12518.405, 'duration': 7.486}, {'end': 12527.332, 'text': 'What should happen to that field?', 'start': 12525.891, 'duration': 1.441}, {'end': 12531.935, 'text': "And what I realized is there's kind of this area of foundations of complexity.", 'start': 12527.892, 'duration': 4.043}], 'summary': 'Establishing an official institute for complexity science to further research and development.', 'duration': 26.831, 'max_score': 12505.104, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c12505104.jpg'}, {'end': 12571.37, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 12544.525, 'weight': 12, 'content': [{'end': 12552.43, 'text': "So I realized recently, this is my recent kind of little innovation of a sort, a post that I'll do very soon.", 'start': 12544.525, 'duration': 7.905}, {'end': 12559.486, 'text': 'kind of the foundations of complexity.', 'start': 12556.005, 'duration': 3.481}, {'end': 12560.307, 'text': 'what really are they?', 'start': 12559.486, 'duration': 0.821}, {'end': 12566.289, 'text': "I think they're really two ideas, two conceptual ideas that I hadn't really enunciated, I think, before.", 'start': 12560.347, 'duration': 5.942}, {'end': 12569.63, 'text': 'One is what I call metamodeling, the other is ruleology.', 'start': 12566.749, 'duration': 2.881}, {'end': 12571.37, 'text': 'So what is metamodeling?', 'start': 12570.29, 'duration': 1.08}], 'summary': 'Innovation: metamodeling and ruleology are the foundations of complexity.', 'duration': 26.845, 'max_score': 12544.525, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c12544525.jpg'}, {'end': 12958.827, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 12927.79, 'weight': 13, 'content': [{'end': 12931.173, 'text': 'even as it turns out basic science projects in that kind of setting.', 'start': 12927.79, 'duration': 3.383}, {'end': 12940.081, 'text': "There are a lot of people working on, for example, our physics project distributed through the academic world, and that's working just great.", 'start': 12932.174, 'duration': 7.907}, {'end': 12948.932, 'text': "But the question is, can we have a sort of accelerator mechanism that makes use of what we've learned in R&D innovation.", 'start': 12940.581, 'duration': 8.351}, {'end': 12958.827, 'text': "But on the other hand, it's a funny thing because in a company, in the end, it's a company, it makes products, it sells things to people.", 'start': 12949.913, 'duration': 8.914}], 'summary': 'Exploring accelerator mechanism for r&d innovation in company products.', 'duration': 31.037, 'max_score': 12927.79, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c12927790.jpg'}], 'start': 10763.455, 'title': 'Evolution of wolfram language and multi-computation in economics', 'summary': 'Discusses the 40-year evolution of the wolfram language, highlighting its computational capabilities and the foundational idea of symbolic expressions and transformation rules, and explores the concept of multi-computation in economics, with a focus on distributed computing, blockchain, implications for economics, and achieving ultimate consistency.', 'chapters': [{'end': 10952.987, 'start': 10763.455, 'title': 'Evolution of wolfram language', 'summary': 'Discusses the 40-year evolution of the wolfram language, highlighting its computational capabilities and the foundational idea of symbolic expressions and transformation rules, with a focus on maintaining compatibility and addressing challenges in the evaluation model.', 'duration': 189.532, 'highlights': ["The whole technology stack built around Mathematica is about 40 years old, representing a significant fraction of the total age of the computer industry. The technology stack built around Mathematica is approximately 40 years old, constituting a substantial portion of the computer industry's total age.", 'The Wolfram Language has expanded over the years, incorporating different computational threads and capabilities, all based on the idea of symbolic expressions and transformation rules. The Wolfram Language has grown to encompass various computational threads and capabilities, all stemming from the concept of symbolic expressions and transformation rules.', 'The foundational idea of symbolic expressions and transformation rules, originating from the SMP system in 1979, has been integral to the evolution of the Wolfram Language, enabling computational transformations and addressing challenges in evaluation models. The foundational idea of symbolic expressions and transformation rules, originating from the SMP system in 1979, has been crucial to the evolution of the Wolfram Language, facilitating computational transformations and addressing challenges in evaluation models.']}, {'end': 11272.175, 'start': 10953.507, 'title': 'Multi-computation in economics', 'summary': 'Discusses the concept of multi-computation in economics, exploring its implications for distributed computing, blockchain, and the fundamental workings of economics, with a focus on achieving ultimate consistency and simplifying economic space.', 'duration': 318.668, 'highlights': ['The concept of multi-computation in economics has implications for distributed computing, blockchain, and the fundamental workings of economics. It explores the potential implications for distributed computing and blockchain, emphasizing the need for ultimate consistency and simplifying economic space.', 'The discussion delves into the idea of parsing economic space and simplifying the complex network of transactions, drawing parallels to the parsing of physical space. It emphasizes the concept of simplifying economic space and the use of a numeraire concept to parse the complex space of transactions, drawing parallels to the parsing of physical space.', 'The exploration of economic consciousness and the summary of economic networks draws parallels to quantum effects, arbitrage opportunities, and different paths in economics. It discusses how economic consciousness summarizes the economic network, drawing parallels to quantum effects and different paths in economics, highlighting arbitrage opportunities.']}, {'end': 11789.879, 'start': 11272.576, 'title': 'Economics, blockchain, and computational contracts', 'summary': 'Explores the potential of a global theory of economics, the development of a distributed analog of blockchain, and the creation of computational contracts, highlighting the application of computational language in representing the world and the co-evolution of blockchain analytics and quant finance.', 'duration': 517.303, 'highlights': ['The development of a distributed analog of blockchain, and the creation of computational contracts. The speaker discusses the potential of using physics-like notions to construct a distributed analog of blockchain and the concept of computational contracts, indicating a focus on practical applications of economic theory.', 'The potential application of computational language in representing the world and the co-evolution of blockchain analytics and quant finance. The chapter emphasizes the use of computational language to represent the world and the co-evolution of blockchain analytics and quant finance, indicating a significant impact on the financial sector.', 'The exploration of a global theory of economics and the uncertainty relations in economic transactions. The speaker delves into the concept of a global theory of economics and the incorporation of uncertainty relations in economic transactions, pointing towards a fundamental understanding of economic systems.']}, {'end': 12504.264, 'start': 11789.939, 'title': "Blockchain's permanence and computational paradigm", 'summary': 'Discusses the permanence of information on the blockchain, the challenges of automated theorem proving, and the evolution of the computational paradigm, highlighting the incentivized permanence of nfts on the blockchain, the difficulty of proving correctness in computation, and the evolution of complexity as a scientific field.', 'duration': 714.325, 'highlights': ['The incentivized permanence of NFTs on the blockchain ensures a lasting record, as individuals are motivated to keep the consistency of the blockchain alive, providing a permanent history for the life of the blockchain. The permanence of NFTs on the blockchain is incentivized, ensuring that the consistency of the blockchain is maintained, thus providing a lasting record for the life of the blockchain.', 'Challenges in proving correctness in computation arise due to computational irreducibility and undecidability, making it difficult to confine computation within defined boundaries, posing a significant trade-off in AI and computational models. The inherent challenges of proving correctness in computation stem from computational irreducibility and undecidability, leading to a trade-off in AI and computational models as it becomes difficult to confine computation within defined boundaries.', 'The evolution of complexity as a scientific field, driven by the computational paradigm, has led to the establishment of numerous complexity institutes and journals worldwide, emphasizing the interdisciplinary connection among different fields through computational modeling. The evolution of complexity as a scientific field, influenced by the computational paradigm, has resulted in the establishment of numerous complexity institutes and journals globally, emphasizing the interdisciplinary connection among different fields through computational modeling.']}, {'end': 13113.703, 'start': 12505.104, 'title': 'Foundations of complexity: metamodeling and ruleology', 'summary': 'Discusses the need for an official institute for the foundations of complexity, introducing the concepts of metamodeling and ruleology as fundamental ideas, and the challenges of driving forward progress in basic science research.', 'duration': 608.599, 'highlights': ['The need for an official institute for the foundations of complexity The transcript emphasizes the need for an official institute for the foundations of complexity within biology and chemistry.', 'Introduction of the concepts of metamodeling and ruleology The chapter introduces the fundamental concepts of metamodeling and ruleology as key ideas in the foundations of complexity.', 'Challenges of driving forward progress in basic science research The transcript discusses the challenges of driving forward progress in basic science research and the differences in mechanisms for progress between academic and commercial settings.']}], 'duration': 2350.248, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/4-SGpEInX_c/pics/4-SGpEInX_c10763455.jpg', 'highlights': ['The evolution of complexity as a scientific field, driven by the computational paradigm, has led to the establishment of numerous complexity institutes and journals worldwide, emphasizing the interdisciplinary connection among different fields through computational modeling.', 'The foundational idea of symbolic expressions and transformation rules, originating from the SMP system in 1979, has been crucial to the evolution of the Wolfram Language, facilitating computational transformations and addressing challenges in evaluation models.', 'The Wolfram Language has grown to encompass various computational threads and capabilities, all stemming from the concept of symbolic expressions and transformation rules.', 'The concept of multi-computation in economics has implications for distributed computing, blockchain, and the fundamental workings of economics. It explores the potential implications for distributed computing and blockchain, emphasizing the need for ultimate consistency and simplifying economic space.', 'The permanence of NFTs on the blockchain is incentivized, ensuring that the consistency of the blockchain is maintained, thus providing a lasting record for the life of the blockchain.', "The technology stack built around Mathematica is approximately 40 years old, constituting a substantial portion of the computer industry's total age.", 'The exploration of economic consciousness and the summary of economic networks draws parallels to quantum effects, arbitrage opportunities, and different paths in economics.', 'The development of a distributed analog of blockchain, and the creation of computational contracts. The speaker discusses the potential of using physics-like notions to construct a distributed analog of blockchain and the concept of computational contracts, indicating a focus on practical applications of economic theory.', 'The discussion delves into the idea of parsing economic space and simplifying the complex network of transactions, drawing parallels to the parsing of physical space.', 'The exploration of a global theory of economics and the uncertainty relations in economic transactions. The speaker delves into the concept of a global theory of economics and the incorporation of uncertainty relations in economic transactions, pointing towards a fundamental understanding of economic systems.', 'The potential application of computational language in representing the world and the co-evolution of blockchain analytics and quant finance. The chapter emphasizes the use of computational language to represent the world and the co-evolution of blockchain analytics and quant finance, indicating a significant impact on the financial sector.', 'The need for an official institute for the foundations of complexity The transcript emphasizes the need for an official institute for the foundations of complexity within biology and chemistry.', 'Introduction of the concepts of metamodeling and ruleology The chapter introduces the fundamental concepts of metamodeling and ruleology as key ideas in the foundations of complexity.', 'Challenges of driving forward progress in basic science research The transcript discusses the challenges of driving forward progress in basic science research and the differences in mechanisms for progress between academic and commercial settings.', 'Challenges in proving correctness in computation arise due to computational irreducibility and undecidability, making it difficult to confine computation within defined boundaries, posing a significant trade-off in AI and computational models.']}], 'highlights': ['Stephen Wolfram is a computer scientist, mathematician, and theoretical physicist, behind Mathematica, Wolfram Alpha, and the Wolfram Physics Project.', 'The quest to understand complexity in nature began around 50 years ago, prompting exploration of the scientific basis for such phenomena.', "The proposed elementary length is around 10^-100 meters, based on fundamental constants such as the speed of light and Planck's constant.", 'The universe is proposed to be a giant friend network of atoms of space, leading to emergent phenomena and computational irreducibility.', 'The hypergraph represents the structure of space, comprising possibly 10^400 atoms.', 'The core idea of quantum mechanics challenges definite answers in standard physics, introducing a fundamental shift in understanding.', 'The principle of computational equivalence implies nature can be used for computation, eliminating the need for custom servers and engineering.', 'Rullial space is the space of all possible rules that the universe can follow, and our perception of the universe is determined by our position in this space.', 'The Rulliad encompasses all possible formal systems, including computational rules accessible to a Turing machine, leading to the inevitable existence of a collection of formal systems.', 'The underlying space in metamathematics has 3 million published theorems, emphasizing the complexity and depth of the field.', 'The evolution of complexity as a scientific field, driven by the computational paradigm, has led to the establishment of numerous complexity institutes and journals worldwide.', 'The foundational idea of symbolic expressions and transformation rules, originating from the SMP system in 1979, has been crucial to the evolution of the Wolfram Language.']}