title

5.20 Splay Tree Insertion | Data structure

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In this lecture, I have described how to do insertion in splay tree with the help of an example. I have also written algorithm for insertion and for splaying operation.
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{'title': '5.20 Splay Tree Insertion | Data structure', 'heatmap': [{'end': 478.579, 'start': 430.237, 'weight': 1}, {'end': 2064.351, 'start': 2048.567, 'weight': 0.728}], 'summary': 'Discusses splay tree insertion, covering algorithms, examples, and relationships with bst operations. it emphasizes splaying operations, tree balancing, and the advantages of splaying trees in optimizing access to frequently used elements.', 'chapters': [{'end': 87.351, 'segs': [{'end': 61.855, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 0.822, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 3.624, 'text': 'So in this video, we will see insertion in splay trees.', 'start': 0.822, 'duration': 2.802}, {'end': 4.865, 'text': 'See in the previous video.', 'start': 3.904, 'duration': 0.961}, {'end': 8.887, 'text': 'we have discussed what is splay tree, advantages and drawbacks of splay trees,', 'start': 4.865, 'duration': 4.022}, {'end': 16.793, 'text': 'some applications of splay trees and how splay trees are different from other balancing binary search trees.', 'start': 8.887, 'duration': 7.906}, {'end': 19.234, 'text': 'So you can check out that video in the side button right?', 'start': 17.153, 'duration': 2.081}, {'end': 23.777, 'text': 'And in that video also we have discussed that how to perform searching operation in splay trees.', 'start': 19.575, 'duration': 4.202}, {'end': 25.879, 'text': 'What is splaying operation right?', 'start': 23.998, 'duration': 1.881}, {'end': 30.322, 'text': 'In this video we will see the insertion operation in splay trees right?', 'start': 26.399, 'duration': 3.923}, {'end': 35.644, 'text': 'after that, after this example, we will see, we will write down the code, or you can say,', 'start': 31.042, 'duration': 4.602}, {'end': 40.405, 'text': 'we will write down the algorithm for insertion operation as well as for splaying.', 'start': 35.644, 'duration': 4.761}, {'end': 43.667, 'text': 'operation means, first of all we will discuss it with the help of an example.', 'start': 40.405, 'duration': 3.262}, {'end': 52.97, 'text': 'we will create a splay tree by inserting these numbers and then we will write down the algorithm for insertion operation as well as splaying operation.', 'start': 43.667, 'duration': 9.303}, {'end': 61.855, 'text': 'right now see, as we have discussed in the previous video, all the basic operations that when we can perform in bst, like search, insert, delete,', 'start': 53.49, 'duration': 8.365}], 'summary': 'This video covers insertion in splay trees and algorithm demonstration.', 'duration': 61.033, 'max_score': 0.822, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/1HeIZNP3w4A/pics/1HeIZNP3w4A822.jpg'}], 'start': 0.822, 'title': 'Splay tree insertion', 'summary': 'Discusses the insertion operation in splay trees, covering the algorithm, example, and the relationship between basic operations in bst and splay trees, with a focus on splaying operations.', 'chapters': [{'end': 87.351, 'start': 0.822, 'title': 'Splay tree insertion operation', 'summary': 'Discusses the insertion operation in splay trees, including the algorithm, example, and the relationship between basic operations in bst and splay trees, with a focus on splaying operations.', 'duration': 86.529, 'highlights': ['The chapter explains the insertion operation in splay trees, including the algorithm and a demonstration using an example.', 'It discusses the relationship between basic operations in BST and splay trees, emphasizing the splaying operation as a key difference.', "The video also covers splay trees' advantages, drawbacks, and applications, as well as their differences from other balancing binary search trees, providing comprehensive insights into splay tree operations."]}], 'duration': 86.529, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/1HeIZNP3w4A/pics/1HeIZNP3w4A822.jpg', 'highlights': ["The video also covers splay trees' advantages, drawbacks, and applications, as well as their differences from other balancing binary search trees, providing comprehensive insights into splay tree operations.", 'It discusses the relationship between basic operations in BST and splay trees, emphasizing the splaying operation as a key difference.', 'The chapter explains the insertion operation in splay trees, including the algorithm and a demonstration using an example.']}, {'end': 540.232, 'segs': [{'end': 109.589, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 87.351, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 95.398, 'text': 'on on that element we are going to perform splaying operation means now we are going to make that inserted node, the newly inserted node,', 'start': 87.351, 'duration': 8.047}, {'end': 104.005, 'text': 'as the root of the tree, right and why we are going to make that element, the root of the tree, that we have discussed in the previous video.', 'start': 95.398, 'duration': 8.607}, {'end': 109.589, 'text': "because it's it's because the advantage of this playing tree is what, because of this step,", 'start': 104.005, 'duration': 5.584}], 'summary': 'Performing splaying operation to make the newly inserted node the root of the tree.', 'duration': 22.238, 'max_score': 87.351, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/1HeIZNP3w4A/pics/1HeIZNP3w4A87351.jpg'}, {'end': 209.458, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 156.32, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 161.264, 'text': 'we will insert 15 and we will create a node and we will simply insert the 15 in the tree.', 'start': 156.32, 'duration': 4.944}, {'end': 169.673, 'text': 'and now you do splaying, splaying on this data, on the data on which you are going to perform the operation.', 'start': 163.911, 'duration': 5.762}, {'end': 170.914, 'text': 'that is insertion operation.', 'start': 169.673, 'duration': 1.241}, {'end': 174.956, 'text': 'so 15 is the data we want to insert and 15 is the root.', 'start': 170.914, 'duration': 4.042}, {'end': 181.518, 'text': 'in splaying we will make this as a root, but this is already root, so no need to do anything right now.', 'start': 174.956, 'duration': 6.562}, {'end': 185.521, 'text': 'next is what 10 now, simple BST insertion.', 'start': 181.518, 'duration': 4.003}, {'end': 186.521, 'text': 'first of all, you will do.', 'start': 185.521, 'duration': 1}, {'end': 188.643, 'text': 'compare with this one, 10 is less than 15.', 'start': 186.521, 'duration': 2.122}, {'end': 195.808, 'text': 'so where you will insert here to the left of this 15 right now this is not done in splay tree.', 'start': 188.643, 'duration': 7.165}, {'end': 206.596, 'text': 'now you do what splaying on this data, the data you have inserted, that is 10, means now we will make this 10 as the root of the tree.', 'start': 195.808, 'duration': 10.788}, {'end': 209.458, 'text': 'how we are going to make this as a root of the tree?', 'start': 206.596, 'duration': 2.862}], 'summary': 'Insertion of 15 and 10 into splay tree with corresponding splaying operations.', 'duration': 53.138, 'max_score': 156.32, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/1HeIZNP3w4A/pics/1HeIZNP3w4A156320.jpg'}, {'end': 382.623, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 348.184, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 350.707, 'text': 'now this is the tree after insertion of 17.', 'start': 348.184, 'duration': 2.523}, {'end': 357.014, 'text': 'now, see this, you can say a zigzag situation or a zigzag rotation.', 'start': 350.707, 'duration': 6.307}, {'end': 357.835, 'text': 'sorry, right.', 'start': 357.014, 'duration': 0.821}, {'end': 362.728, 'text': 'somewhere it is written that the left rotation we have already discussed is zig rotation.', 'start': 358.925, 'duration': 3.803}, {'end': 364.349, 'text': 'the right is zig rotation.', 'start': 362.728, 'duration': 1.621}, {'end': 369.133, 'text': 'right. but somewhere both the cases are taken into one situation.', 'start': 364.349, 'duration': 4.784}, {'end': 370.954, 'text': 'that is zig zig situation.', 'start': 369.133, 'duration': 1.821}, {'end': 372.616, 'text': 'so it is what zig zig.', 'start': 370.954, 'duration': 1.662}, {'end': 374.857, 'text': 'or you can say left rotation situation.', 'start': 372.616, 'duration': 2.241}, {'end': 382.623, 'text': "fine, it's up to you how you will write either zigzag situation or zigzag left left rotation.", 'start': 374.857, 'duration': 7.766}], 'summary': 'Discussion on zigzag and zig zig rotations after inserting 17 into a tree.', 'duration': 34.439, 'max_score': 348.184, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/1HeIZNP3w4A/pics/1HeIZNP3w4A348184.jpg'}, {'end': 478.579, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 430.237, 'weight': 1, 'content': [{'end': 434.562, 'text': 'so two right rotation you need to do now.', 'start': 430.237, 'duration': 4.325}, {'end': 440.263, 'text': 'first, right rotation would be about this this one 15 grandparent of the 7.', 'start': 434.562, 'duration': 5.701}, {'end': 441.584, 'text': 'so now the tree would be 17.', 'start': 440.263, 'duration': 1.321}, {'end': 446.987, 'text': 'we will pull this 15 downward and 10 would go upward.', 'start': 441.584, 'duration': 5.403}, {'end': 449.848, 'text': 'so after first right rotation tree, something like this.', 'start': 446.987, 'duration': 2.861}, {'end': 455.011, 'text': 'now again right rotation around about this 10.', 'start': 449.848, 'duration': 5.163}, {'end': 456.031, 'text': 'so we will right rotate.', 'start': 455.011, 'duration': 1.02}, {'end': 459.413, 'text': 'this means 10 would go downward and 7 would go upward.', 'start': 456.031, 'duration': 3.382}, {'end': 465.755, 'text': 'so now here we have 7, 10, this side and this side, 15.', 'start': 459.413, 'duration': 6.342}, {'end': 469.676, 'text': 'but we are not done yet because 7 is still not root.', 'start': 465.755, 'duration': 3.921}, {'end': 471.997, 'text': 'now check which case you need to apply now.', 'start': 469.676, 'duration': 2.321}, {'end': 474.837, 'text': '7 is having the parent of 7 is root.', 'start': 471.997, 'duration': 2.84}, {'end': 478.579, 'text': 'node means this is not having any grandparent now.', 'start': 474.837, 'duration': 3.742}], 'summary': 'Performed two right rotations to restructure the tree, resulting in 17, 10, 7, and 15.', 'duration': 48.342, 'max_score': 430.237, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/1HeIZNP3w4A/pics/1HeIZNP3w4A430237.jpg'}], 'start': 87.351, 'title': 'Splaying tree insertion process', 'summary': 'Explains the splaying tree insertion process, highlighting the advantage of splaying trees in optimizing access to frequently used elements. it demonstrates node insertion, splaying operations, and resulting tree transformations.', 'chapters': [{'end': 233.093, 'start': 87.351, 'title': 'Splaying tree insertion process', 'summary': 'Explains the splaying tree insertion process, emphasizing the advantage of splaying trees in moving frequently accessed elements closer to the root, facilitating quicker access. it demonstrates the insertion of nodes with data values and the subsequent splaying operations, illustrating the transformation of newly inserted nodes into the root of the tree.', 'duration': 145.742, 'highlights': ['Splaying operation moves most frequently accessed elements closer to the root for quicker access. Splaying operation ensures that the most frequently accessed elements move closer to the root, facilitating faster access to these elements.', 'Demonstration of BST insertion and subsequent splaying process for nodes with data values 15 and 10. The process involves the insertion of nodes with data values 15 and 10, followed by splaying operations to transform the newly inserted nodes into the root of the tree.', 'Explanation of splaying operation and the transformation of newly inserted nodes into the root of the tree. The splaying operation involves transforming the newly inserted nodes into the root of the tree, demonstrating the process of making the inserted node the root of the tree.']}, {'end': 540.232, 'start': 233.093, 'title': 'Splay tree insertion', 'summary': 'Explains the process of inserting and splaying nodes in a splay tree, including right and left rotations, zigzag situations, and the final tree structure after each insertion.', 'duration': 307.139, 'highlights': ['The chapter explains the process of inserting and splaying nodes in a splay tree It covers the insertion and splaying operations of nodes in a splay tree, demonstrating the reorganization of the tree structure.', 'The final tree structure after each insertion It provides a detailed account of the resulting tree structure after the insertion and splaying of nodes, showcasing the transformation of the tree with quantifiable examples.', 'Demonstrates right and left rotations It illustrates the process of right and left rotations in the context of splay tree insertion, providing a clear understanding of the repositioning of nodes within the tree.', 'Explains zigzag situations It explains the concept of zigzag situations within the splay tree insertion process, outlining the specific scenarios and the corresponding corrective rotations required.']}], 'duration': 452.881, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/1HeIZNP3w4A/pics/1HeIZNP3w4A87351.jpg', 'highlights': ['Splaying operation moves most frequently accessed elements closer to the root for quicker access.', 'Demonstration of BST insertion and subsequent splaying process for nodes with data values 15 and 10.', 'The chapter explains the process of inserting and splaying nodes in a splay tree.', 'The final tree structure after each insertion.']}, {'end': 815.366, 'segs': [{'end': 593.892, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 565.763, 'weight': 4, 'content': [{'end': 569.026, 'text': 'now you need to check out which rotation you need to apply, left or right.', 'start': 565.763, 'duration': 3.263}, {'end': 569.867, 'text': 'first of all.', 'start': 569.026, 'duration': 0.841}, {'end': 572.799, 'text': 'see, this is the node.', 'start': 569.867, 'duration': 2.932}, {'end': 575.36, 'text': 'this is parent, or you can say this is grandparent G.', 'start': 572.799, 'duration': 2.561}, {'end': 581.784, 'text': 'you can say right now 13 is to the left of 15.', 'start': 575.36, 'duration': 6.424}, {'end': 591.85, 'text': 'first of all, if this is the case, that zigzag situation is there, then first we will perform the rotation on the parent only, not the grandparent.', 'start': 581.784, 'duration': 10.066}, {'end': 593.892, 'text': 'here we performed rotation on grandparent.', 'start': 591.85, 'duration': 2.042}], 'summary': 'Explaining rotation and addressing zigzag situations in a tree.', 'duration': 28.129, 'max_score': 565.763, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/1HeIZNP3w4A/pics/1HeIZNP3w4A565763.jpg'}, {'end': 640.734, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 613.978, 'weight': 7, 'content': [{'end': 618.681, 'text': 'now we will do left rotation, right, because it is a zigzag situation.', 'start': 613.978, 'duration': 4.703}, {'end': 622.165, 'text': 'left rotation on grandparent on g.', 'start': 618.681, 'duration': 3.484}, {'end': 627.748, 'text': 'so now the tree would be something like this left rotation means we will pull this 10 downward.', 'start': 622.165, 'duration': 5.583}, {'end': 628.888, 'text': 'so 13 would go upward.', 'start': 627.748, 'duration': 1.14}, {'end': 632.89, 'text': 'so now here we go 13, here we have 10 and here we have 15.', 'start': 628.888, 'duration': 4.002}, {'end': 640.734, 'text': 'but we are not done yet because 13 is still not root node, because we have to make this 13 as root node,', 'start': 632.89, 'duration': 7.844}], 'summary': 'Performing left rotation on grandparent g to reposition nodes 10, 13, and 15.', 'duration': 26.756, 'max_score': 613.978, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/1HeIZNP3w4A/pics/1HeIZNP3w4A613978.jpg'}, {'end': 815.366, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 665.307, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 672.451, 'text': 'so now the tree would be something like this we will rotate it something like this so 13 would go upward, 17 would go downward, and here we have 10.', 'start': 665.307, 'duration': 7.144}, {'end': 674.933, 'text': 'now see 15 is to the right of 13.', 'start': 672.451, 'duration': 2.482}, {'end': 679.475, 'text': 'so it would go right of 13 and left of 15.', 'start': 674.933, 'duration': 4.542}, {'end': 680.876, 'text': 'but we are not done yet.', 'start': 679.475, 'duration': 1.401}, {'end': 686.291, 'text': 'now zig rotation means now 13 is to the right of 7.', 'start': 680.876, 'duration': 5.415}, {'end': 690.092, 'text': 'now Z rotation means left rotation on grandparent.', 'start': 686.291, 'duration': 3.801}, {'end': 700.217, 'text': 'so now the tree would be something like this see here the left child of 13 is 10 to the left of, but to the it will go to the right of this 7 right.', 'start': 690.092, 'duration': 10.125}, {'end': 702.359, 'text': 'so now this is the tree after insertion of 13.', 'start': 700.217, 'duration': 2.142}, {'end': 706.34, 'text': 'now insert 16 in this tree, where you can insert 16.', 'start': 702.359, 'duration': 3.981}, {'end': 712.248, 'text': 'see greater than 13,, less than 17 and greater than 16..', 'start': 706.34, 'duration': 5.908}, {'end': 717.95, 'text': 'Now here you can insert 16, right? Now see which rotation you need to do.', 'start': 712.248, 'duration': 5.702}, {'end': 721.951, 'text': 'Here we have the 16 is having parent as well as grandparent.', 'start': 718.55, 'duration': 3.401}, {'end': 725.833, 'text': 'Now it is right child of this one and this is left child of this one.', 'start': 722.131, 'duration': 3.702}, {'end': 727.653, 'text': 'So both are in opposite direction.', 'start': 726.273, 'duration': 1.38}, {'end': 732.395, 'text': 'So this is also zigzag situation or here you can say this is zigzag situation.', 'start': 727.693, 'duration': 4.702}, {'end': 733.495, 'text': 'Both are correct right?', 'start': 732.435, 'duration': 1.06}, {'end': 737.428, 'text': 'now see, 16 is to the right of this 15.', 'start': 734.847, 'duration': 2.581}, {'end': 742.871, 'text': 'so we will do first of all left rotation on parent right.', 'start': 737.428, 'duration': 5.443}, {'end': 747.834, 'text': 'so now the tree would be something like this left rotation on parent.', 'start': 742.871, 'duration': 4.963}, {'end': 751.156, 'text': 'so 16 would go upward and here we got 15.', 'start': 747.834, 'duration': 3.322}, {'end': 756.49, 'text': 'now we do right rotation on 17 on the grandparent.', 'start': 751.156, 'duration': 5.334}, {'end': 758.95, 'text': 'so now the tree would be something like this.', 'start': 756.49, 'duration': 2.46}, {'end': 762.391, 'text': 'but we are not done yet because 16 is still not the root node.', 'start': 758.95, 'duration': 3.441}, {'end': 763.872, 'text': 'we have to make it root node.', 'start': 762.391, 'duration': 1.481}, {'end': 769.474, 'text': "now check, 16 is having only parent, not grandparent, because 16's parent is root node.", 'start': 763.872, 'duration': 5.602}, {'end': 772.635, 'text': 'now this is the situation of only zig rotation right now.', 'start': 769.474, 'duration': 3.161}, {'end': 775.095, 'text': 'here you need to check which left or right rotation.', 'start': 772.635, 'duration': 2.46}, {'end': 776.636, 'text': 'so 16 is right of 13.', 'start': 775.095, 'duration': 1.541}, {'end': 779.757, 'text': 'so we you need to do left rotation.', 'start': 776.636, 'duration': 3.121}, {'end': 782.798, 'text': 'or you can say here zig left rotation, or you can say a zig rotation.', 'start': 779.757, 'duration': 3.041}, {'end': 791.546, 'text': 'so now, after this rotation, the tree would be see here the 16 is left child of 16 is 15 means left child of 16.', 'start': 783.718, 'duration': 7.828}, {'end': 794.508, 'text': 'it would go to the left of 16, but here we have 13.', 'start': 791.546, 'duration': 2.962}, {'end': 796.71, 'text': 'so it would go to the right of now this 13.', 'start': 794.508, 'duration': 2.202}, {'end': 799.974, 'text': 'that is so now this is the final tree.', 'start': 796.71, 'duration': 3.264}, {'end': 802.015, 'text': 'i guess we are left with 10.', 'start': 799.974, 'duration': 2.041}, {'end': 805.498, 'text': 'see here to the right of 7, we have 10.', 'start': 802.015, 'duration': 3.483}, {'end': 806.679, 'text': 'so here you will write 10.', 'start': 805.498, 'duration': 1.181}, {'end': 811.583, 'text': 'to the right of 7 we have 10, and here, also to the right of 7, we have 10.', 'start': 806.679, 'duration': 4.904}, {'end': 812.924, 'text': 'so this is the final tree.', 'start': 811.583, 'duration': 1.341}, {'end': 815.366, 'text': 'now, after inserting of this data.', 'start': 812.924, 'duration': 2.442}], 'summary': 'Inserting and rotating nodes in a binary tree to maintain balance and structure.', 'duration': 150.059, 'max_score': 665.307, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/1HeIZNP3w4A/pics/1HeIZNP3w4A665307.jpg'}], 'start': 540.232, 'title': 'Tree rotations in binary search', 'summary': 'Covers concepts of zigzag situations, tree insertion, and zigzag rotations in binary search tree, emphasizing the importance of performing rotations on the parent first and providing examples of node insertion and corresponding rotations.', 'chapters': [{'end': 613.978, 'start': 540.232, 'title': 'Zigzag situation in rotations', 'summary': 'Explains the concept of zigzag situation in rotations and how to determine the type of rotation to apply, emphasizing the importance of performing the rotation on the parent first in this scenario.', 'duration': 73.746, 'highlights': ['Explain the concept of zigzag situation in rotations, emphasizing the opposite direction of nodes as a key point.', 'Highlight the importance of performing rotation on the parent first, instead of the grandparent, in a zigzag situation.']}, {'end': 717.95, 'start': 613.978, 'title': 'Tree insertion and rotations', 'summary': 'Explains the process of inserting nodes in a tree and performing left and right rotations to maintain the balance, involving examples of node insertion and corresponding rotations.', 'duration': 103.972, 'highlights': ['Left rotation means pulling the node downward and making its child node go upward, e.g., moving 10 downward and 13 upward.', 'Right rotation involves moving the node upward and its child downward, e.g., moving 13 upward and 17 downward.', "Detailed explanation of inserting a new node (16) and determining the required rotation based on the node's position in the tree."]}, {'end': 815.366, 'start': 718.55, 'title': 'Zigzag rotations in binary search tree', 'summary': 'Explains the process of performing zigzag rotations in a binary search tree, including left and right rotations, and the resulting tree structure.', 'duration': 96.816, 'highlights': ['Performing left rotation on parent right results in 16 moving upward and becoming the left child of 15.', 'Subsequently, performing right rotation on the grandparent leads to 16 becoming the root node.', 'Identifying the need for a left rotation due to 16 being to the right of 13, resulting in the final tree structure.', 'The insertion of the data leads to the completion of the final tree, with 10 being located to the right of 7.']}], 'duration': 275.134, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/1HeIZNP3w4A/pics/1HeIZNP3w4A540232.jpg', 'highlights': ["Detailed explanation of inserting a new node (16) and determining the required rotation based on the node's position in the tree.", 'Identifying the need for a left rotation due to 16 being to the right of 13, resulting in the final tree structure.', 'Performing left rotation on parent right results in 16 moving upward and becoming the left child of 15.', 'Subsequently, performing right rotation on the grandparent leads to 16 becoming the root node.', 'Highlight the importance of performing rotation on the parent first, instead of the grandparent, in a zigzag situation.', 'Explain the concept of zigzag situation in rotations, emphasizing the opposite direction of nodes as a key point.', 'Right rotation involves moving the node upward and its child downward, e.g., moving 13 upward and 17 downward.', 'Left rotation means pulling the node downward and making its child node go upward, e.g., moving 10 downward and 13 upward.', 'The insertion of the data leads to the completion of the final tree, with 10 being located to the right of 7.']}, {'end': 1305.752, 'segs': [{'end': 887.217, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 815.366, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 819.129, 'text': 'so now i hope you got how to do insertion in splay trees.', 'start': 815.366, 'duration': 3.763}, {'end': 826.734, 'text': 'now we will write down the algorithm for insertion operation right and then we will write down algorithm for splaying operation.', 'start': 819.129, 'duration': 7.605}, {'end': 831.208, 'text': 'fine, so now we are going to perform insert operation on the tree.', 'start': 826.734, 'duration': 4.474}, {'end': 836.475, 'text': 't and n is what n is the number or the node i want to insert.', 'start': 831.208, 'duration': 5.267}, {'end': 840.033, 'text': 'see here n is not the data that is 15.', 'start': 836.475, 'duration': 3.558}, {'end': 844.216, 'text': 'here n is what the complete node in which data part is 15.', 'start': 840.033, 'duration': 4.183}, {'end': 845.296, 'text': 'here we have left pointer.', 'start': 844.216, 'duration': 1.08}, {'end': 848.178, 'text': 'here we have right pointer, but I am not writing this thing.', 'start': 845.296, 'duration': 2.882}, {'end': 850.38, 'text': 'simply n means this node.', 'start': 848.178, 'duration': 2.202}, {'end': 853.522, 'text': 'you need to take care of this thing right here.', 'start': 850.38, 'duration': 3.142}, {'end': 858.425, 'text': 'suppose now I want to insert after the 16, I want to insert 14.', 'start': 853.522, 'duration': 4.903}, {'end': 860.487, 'text': 'so same the BST insertion process.', 'start': 858.425, 'duration': 2.062}, {'end': 861.287, 'text': 'and we are going to follow.', 'start': 860.487, 'duration': 0.8}, {'end': 862.428, 'text': 'first of all, we are comparing.', 'start': 861.287, 'duration': 1.141}, {'end': 864.71, 'text': 'we will compare with this root.', 'start': 862.428, 'duration': 2.282}, {'end': 871.595, 'text': 'if this is less than root, then we will go towards this one, the left side, and like this, if greater than then, we will go towards the right subtree,', 'start': 864.71, 'duration': 6.885}, {'end': 874.517, 'text': 'right. so this thing you will write down here.', 'start': 871.595, 'duration': 2.922}, {'end': 876.999, 'text': 'this is same as the BST insertion.', 'start': 874.517, 'duration': 2.482}, {'end': 886.316, 'text': 'so suppose I am taking a temp variable and there I am storing the root address, right t dot, root.', 'start': 876.999, 'duration': 9.317}, {'end': 887.217, 'text': 'something like this.', 'start': 886.316, 'duration': 0.901}], 'summary': 'Algorithm for insertion in splay trees is described, following bst insertion process.', 'duration': 71.851, 'max_score': 815.366, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/1HeIZNP3w4A/pics/1HeIZNP3w4A815366.jpg'}, {'end': 1032.226, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1001.341, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 1006.686, 'text': 'Temp is equal to? temp, right, else we will go to the right side.', 'start': 1001.341, 'duration': 5.345}, {'end': 1014.833, 'text': 'fine, once you reach where you want to insert the data, suppose once here i want to insert 14th, once you reach here.', 'start': 1006.686, 'duration': 8.147}, {'end': 1017.916, 'text': 'so now you, you will write down what here.', 'start': 1014.833, 'duration': 3.083}, {'end': 1026.902, 'text': 'after this while loop, after this while loop, you will write this n dot parent is equal to y.', 'start': 1017.916, 'duration': 8.986}, {'end': 1030.405, 'text': 'now see why we are writing this thing initially.', 'start': 1026.902, 'duration': 3.503}, {'end': 1032.226, 'text': 'temp is this one right.', 'start': 1030.405, 'duration': 1.821}], 'summary': 'Insert 14th into data at the right position using a while loop.', 'duration': 30.885, 'max_score': 1001.341, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/1HeIZNP3w4A/pics/1HeIZNP3w4A1001341.jpg'}, {'end': 1280.08, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1246.02, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 1249.201, 'text': 'so this n would be the left child of this y.', 'start': 1246.02, 'duration': 3.181}, {'end': 1257.423, 'text': 'so here you will set in the left pointer of y we will store the address of the newly created node.', 'start': 1249.201, 'duration': 8.222}, {'end': 1259.764, 'text': 'that is n right.', 'start': 1257.423, 'duration': 2.341}, {'end': 1266.166, 'text': 'else y of right is equal to n.', 'start': 1259.764, 'duration': 6.402}, {'end': 1272.368, 'text': 'now insertion is done and now you will call what splay on this tree,', 'start': 1266.166, 'duration': 6.202}, {'end': 1280.08, 'text': 'on which element on the data you have inserted on the node you have inserted that is n.', 'start': 1274.395, 'duration': 5.685}], 'summary': 'Insert a node into a binary tree and splay it.', 'duration': 34.06, 'max_score': 1246.02, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/1HeIZNP3w4A/pics/1HeIZNP3w4A1246020.jpg'}], 'start': 815.366, 'title': 'Tree insertion', 'summary': 'Covers the algorithm for insertion in splay trees and binary search trees, emphasizing the importance of understanding complete node insertion, using while loops and comparisons, and performing splaying operations to restructure the tree if necessary.', 'chapters': [{'end': 862.428, 'start': 815.366, 'title': 'Splay tree insertion algorithm', 'summary': 'Covers the algorithm for insertion in splay trees, emphasizing the importance of understanding the complete node in the insertion process and following the bst insertion process.', 'duration': 47.062, 'highlights': ['The importance of understanding the complete node in the insertion process, where n represents the entire node with data and pointers.', 'Emphasizing the need to follow the BST insertion process when inserting nodes into the Splay tree.']}, {'end': 1305.752, 'start': 862.428, 'title': 'Binary search tree insertion', 'summary': 'Explains the process of inserting a node in a binary search tree, using while loops and comparisons, and then performing splaying operations to restructure the tree if necessary, culminating in the insertion of a node and performing splay on the tree.', 'duration': 443.324, 'highlights': ['The process of inserting a node in a binary search tree involves comparing values with the root and navigating towards the left or right subtree based on the comparison. The algorithm involves comparing the value to be inserted with the root and traversing towards the left or right subtree accordingly.', 'Utilizing a while loop to navigate through the tree and set the parent node for the new node to be inserted. A while loop is used to traverse the tree and set the parent node for the new node to be inserted.', 'The explanation of reassigning the parent node and performing splaying operations after inserting the node. After finding the location to insert the node, the parent node is reassigned, and splaying operations are performed to restructure the tree.']}], 'duration': 490.386, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/1HeIZNP3w4A/pics/1HeIZNP3w4A815366.jpg', 'highlights': ['Emphasizing the need to follow the BST insertion process when inserting nodes into the Splay tree.', 'The process of inserting a node in a binary search tree involves comparing values with the root and navigating towards the left or right subtree based on the comparison.', 'Utilizing a while loop to navigate through the tree and set the parent node for the new node to be inserted.', 'The explanation of reassigning the parent node and performing splaying operations after inserting the node.', 'The importance of understanding the complete node in the insertion process, where n represents the entire node with data and pointers.']}, {'end': 1787.587, 'segs': [{'end': 1379.904, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1331.433, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 1333.914, 'text': 'you need to make this 14 as a root of the tree now.', 'start': 1331.433, 'duration': 2.481}, {'end': 1339.876, 'text': 'So, now this is the tree after insertion of this 14, now we will do splay on this 14 right.', 'start': 1334.654, 'duration': 5.222}, {'end': 1345.319, 'text': 'So, we will do the algorithm for the splay, splaying of this tree on the n, n node is what 14 right.', 'start': 1340.256, 'duration': 5.063}, {'end': 1349.681, 'text': 'Now we will check all the cases of splaying.', 'start': 1346.639, 'duration': 3.042}, {'end': 1351.962, 'text': 'Suppose this 14 would be the root.', 'start': 1350.341, 'duration': 1.621}, {'end': 1358.325, 'text': 'Initially if suppose we have inserted 14 only one element then 14 would be the root so no need to do anything.', 'start': 1352.362, 'duration': 5.963}, {'end': 1363.027, 'text': 'We will do splaying till this 14 becomes root.', 'start': 1358.825, 'duration': 4.202}, {'end': 1371.091, 'text': 'So we will write down a loop while n of parent is not null.', 'start': 1363.387, 'duration': 7.704}, {'end': 1376.139, 'text': 'because if the parent of this node is null, it means that would be the root node.', 'start': 1372.014, 'duration': 4.125}, {'end': 1379.904, 'text': 'because root is root, is not having any parent right.', 'start': 1376.139, 'duration': 3.765}], 'summary': 'Splaying algorithm used to make 14 the root of the tree.', 'duration': 48.471, 'max_score': 1331.433, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/1HeIZNP3w4A/pics/1HeIZNP3w4A1331433.jpg'}, {'end': 1604.061, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1572.545, 'weight': 3, 'content': [{'end': 1580.251, 'text': 'first, right rotation would be on g and second, right rotation would be on p.', 'start': 1572.545, 'duration': 7.706}, {'end': 1590.191, 'text': 'this thing you need to take care first of all on grandparent, then parent now, else, If both N and P are right child, that could also be a case.', 'start': 1580.251, 'duration': 9.94}, {'end': 1591.652, 'text': 'So now here you can write.', 'start': 1590.711, 'duration': 0.941}, {'end': 1595.395, 'text': 'In this case we will do two left rotations.', 'start': 1592.352, 'duration': 3.043}, {'end': 1601.819, 'text': 'First left rotation would be on grandparent and then on parent.', 'start': 1597.316, 'duration': 4.503}, {'end': 1604.061, 'text': 'Now third case may be.', 'start': 1602.74, 'duration': 1.321}], 'summary': 'Explanation of right and left rotations for binary search trees', 'duration': 31.516, 'max_score': 1572.545, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/1HeIZNP3w4A/pics/1HeIZNP3w4A1572545.jpg'}, {'end': 1657.622, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1630.916, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 1636.999, 'text': 'so right rotation on parent right and after that we will do left rotation on grandparent.', 'start': 1630.916, 'duration': 6.083}, {'end': 1643.323, 'text': 'so see, now, after the rotation, the tree would be something like this now again left rotation.', 'start': 1636.999, 'duration': 6.324}, {'end': 1645.984, 'text': 'you can say Zeg rotation on this grandparent.', 'start': 1643.323, 'duration': 2.661}, {'end': 1651.257, 'text': 'so now the tree would be 13 would go downward, 14 would go upward, right.', 'start': 1645.984, 'duration': 5.273}, {'end': 1657.622, 'text': 'but still we are not done, because obviously i am taking this in while loop.', 'start': 1651.257, 'duration': 6.365}], 'summary': 'Performing right and left rotations on the tree during a while loop.', 'duration': 26.706, 'max_score': 1630.916, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/1HeIZNP3w4A/pics/1HeIZNP3w4A1630916.jpg'}], 'start': 1305.752, 'title': 'Splay operations and tree balancing', 'summary': 'Covers the splay operation algorithm, tree insertion, and splaying algorithm for tree balancing, with a focus on the insertion of the number 14 and its splaying process, along with rotations for balancing involving parent and grandparent nodes.', 'chapters': [{'end': 1379.904, 'start': 1305.752, 'title': 'Splay operation algorithm and tree insertion', 'summary': 'Discusses the algorithm for the splay operation and tree insertion, including the process of making a specific node the root of the tree and the conditions for splaying, with a focus on the insertion of the number 14 and its splaying process.', 'duration': 74.152, 'highlights': ['The algorithm for the splay operation involves making a specific node, in this case 14, the root of the tree after insertion, requiring splaying on the node to restructure the tree (Relevance: 5)', 'The process of splaying involves checking various cases, such as when the inserted node 14 is already the root, and performing a loop while the parent of the node is not null to ensure the node becomes the root (Relevance: 4)']}, {'end': 1787.587, 'start': 1379.904, 'title': 'Splaying algorithm and rotations', 'summary': 'Explains the splaying algorithm for tree balancing, covering cases of zig, zag, and zigzag situations, along with the corresponding left and right rotations, involving parent and grandparent nodes.', 'duration': 407.683, 'highlights': ['The algorithm covers cases of zig, zag, and zigzag situations for tree balancing, involving parent and grandparent nodes, with corresponding left and right rotations.', 'In case of both N and P being left child, two right rotations are performed, first on the grandparent and then on the parent.', 'If both N and P are right child, two left rotations are performed, first on the grandparent and then on the parent.', 'In a zigzag situation, a right rotation is performed on the parent followed by a left rotation on the grandparent.']}], 'duration': 481.835, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/1HeIZNP3w4A/pics/1HeIZNP3w4A1305752.jpg', 'highlights': ['The algorithm for the splay operation involves making node 14 the root after insertion, requiring splaying to restructure the tree (Relevance: 5)', 'The process of splaying involves checking various cases, such as when the inserted node 14 is already the root, and performing a loop while the parent of the node is not null to ensure the node becomes the root (Relevance: 4)', 'The algorithm covers cases of zig, zag, and zigzag situations for tree balancing, involving parent and grandparent nodes, with corresponding left and right rotations', 'In case of both N and P being left child, two right rotations are performed, first on the grandparent and then on the parent', 'If both N and P are right child, two left rotations are performed, first on the grandparent and then on the parent', 'In a zigzag situation, a right rotation is performed on the parent followed by a left rotation on the grandparent']}, {'end': 2065.312, 'segs': [{'end': 1843.015, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1814.103, 'weight': 0, 'content': [{'end': 1816.584, 'text': 'i want to make the root node.', 'start': 1814.103, 'duration': 2.481}, {'end': 1819.606, 'text': 'so we have to store address of this also.', 'start': 1816.584, 'duration': 3.022}, {'end': 1826.549, 'text': 'so now this is what x of left, right, x of left is address of this 14.', 'start': 1819.606, 'duration': 6.943}, {'end': 1830.01, 'text': 'so you can store that thing in another variable, that is y.', 'start': 1826.549, 'duration': 3.461}, {'end': 1831.971, 'text': 'y is equal to x of left.', 'start': 1830.01, 'duration': 1.961}, {'end': 1834.813, 'text': 'so y is a pointer variable which is containing now address of 14.', 'start': 1831.971, 'duration': 2.842}, {'end': 1835.353, 'text': 'now this is y.', 'start': 1834.813, 'duration': 0.54}, {'end': 1838.334, 'text': 'Now, how to do right rotation?', 'start': 1836.713, 'duration': 1.621}, {'end': 1843.015, 'text': 'Now see, steps are after right rotation.', 'start': 1838.894, 'duration': 4.121}], 'summary': 'Creating root node and storing its address, performing right rotation.', 'duration': 28.912, 'max_score': 1814.103, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/1HeIZNP3w4A/pics/1HeIZNP3w4A1814103.jpg'}, {'end': 1956.954, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1923.468, 'weight': 5, 'content': [{'end': 1927.569, 'text': 'we can return right address of this y node.', 'start': 1923.468, 'duration': 4.101}, {'end': 1929.09, 'text': 'see, these are y and x.', 'start': 1927.569, 'duration': 1.521}, {'end': 1930.331, 'text': 'these are pointer variables.', 'start': 1929.09, 'duration': 1.241}, {'end': 1931.432, 'text': "don't get confused.", 'start': 1930.331, 'duration': 1.101}, {'end': 1932.873, 'text': 'i am taking these as a variable.', 'start': 1931.432, 'duration': 1.441}, {'end': 1935.475, 'text': 'so i am not saying that this is a correct.', 'start': 1932.873, 'duration': 2.602}, {'end': 1937.236, 'text': 'i am writing a correct program.', 'start': 1935.475, 'duration': 1.761}, {'end': 1940.198, 'text': 'you need to take care of this thing right now.', 'start': 1937.236, 'duration': 2.962}, {'end': 1941.339, 'text': 'how to do left rotation?', 'start': 1940.198, 'duration': 1.141}, {'end': 1943.801, 'text': 'how to write down steps of left rotation?', 'start': 1941.339, 'duration': 2.462}, {'end': 1945.282, 'text': 'see, here you need to take care.', 'start': 1943.801, 'duration': 1.481}, {'end': 1947.484, 'text': 'first of all, you need to set this link.', 'start': 1945.282, 'duration': 2.202}, {'end': 1956.954, 'text': 'if you write down this line first rather than this one, then see, y of right is equal to x means y of right is equal to x.', 'start': 1947.484, 'duration': 9.47}], 'summary': 'Discussion about pointer variables for left rotation in a program.', 'duration': 33.486, 'max_score': 1923.468, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/1HeIZNP3w4A/pics/1HeIZNP3w4A1923468.jpg'}, {'end': 2001.712, 'src': 'embed', 'start': 1969.085, 'weight': 2, 'content': [{'end': 1970.166, 'text': 'now, what about left rotation?', 'start': 1969.085, 'duration': 1.081}, {'end': 1975.23, 'text': 'suppose, here i want to do left rotation on this 14, right.', 'start': 1970.166, 'duration': 5.064}, {'end': 1977.171, 'text': 'i want to play 16.', 'start': 1975.23, 'duration': 1.941}, {'end': 1978.552, 'text': 'right. 16 is right child.', 'start': 1977.171, 'duration': 1.381}, {'end': 1980.032, 'text': 'so i want to do left rotation.', 'start': 1978.552, 'duration': 1.48}, {'end': 1989.358, 'text': 'so after left rotation, the tree would be something like this see the left child of the 16, left child of 16,', 'start': 1980.032, 'duration': 9.326}, {'end': 1992.625, 'text': 'and it would become the right child of now, the 14.', 'start': 1989.358, 'duration': 3.267}, {'end': 1996.648, 'text': 'so I guess you can easily write down this encoding first of all, set this link.', 'start': 1992.625, 'duration': 4.023}, {'end': 2001.712, 'text': 'after that you can set this link, the left tail of the 16.', 'start': 1996.648, 'duration': 5.064}], 'summary': 'Left rotate 14, 16 to change tree structure.', 'duration': 32.627, 'max_score': 1969.085, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/1HeIZNP3w4A/pics/1HeIZNP3w4A1969085.jpg'}, {'end': 2065.312, 'src': 'heatmap', 'start': 2048.567, 'weight': 6, 'content': [{'end': 2049.427, 'text': 'and you can return.', 'start': 2048.567, 'duration': 0.86}, {'end': 2051.708, 'text': 'y see, these are pointer variables.', 'start': 2049.427, 'duration': 2.281}, {'end': 2057.27, 'text': 'these are going to return address of these nodes, not value of the nodes, right.', 'start': 2051.708, 'duration': 5.562}, {'end': 2059.949, 'text': 'so this is all about insertion in splateries.', 'start': 2057.27, 'duration': 2.679}, {'end': 2064.351, 'text': "in the next video we will discuss how to do deletion in splateries, so i'll see you in the next video.", 'start': 2059.949, 'duration': 4.402}, {'end': 2065.312, 'text': 'till then, bye, bye, take care.', 'start': 2064.351, 'duration': 0.961}], 'summary': 'Pointer variables return addresses of nodes for insertion in splateries.', 'duration': 13.604, 'max_score': 2048.567, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/1HeIZNP3w4A/pics/1HeIZNP3w4A2048567.jpg'}], 'start': 1787.587, 'title': 'Binary and splay tree rotations', 'summary': 'Covers the process of right and left rotation in binary trees, emphasizing the importance of maintaining links between nodes. it also explains left rotation in splay trees, preparing for the next video on deletion.', 'chapters': [{'end': 1969.085, 'start': 1787.587, 'title': 'Binary tree rotation', 'summary': 'Explains the process of right and left rotation in a binary tree, using specific node addresses and pointer variables, emphasizing the importance of maintaining and setting links between nodes.', 'duration': 181.498, 'highlights': ['The chapter emphasizes the use of pointer variables and specific node addresses, such as 14 and 16, in explaining the process of right and left rotation in a binary tree.', 'The process of right rotation involves setting the left child of a node to a specific address and then establishing the link between nodes by storing addresses in pointer variables y and x.', 'The process of left rotation emphasizes the importance of setting specific links between nodes, highlighting the sequence of setting the links between nodes of the binary tree.']}, {'end': 2065.312, 'start': 1969.085, 'title': 'Left rotation in splay trees', 'summary': 'Explains left rotation in splay trees, demonstrating the transformation of a tree by rotating a node, setting links, and returning pointer addresses, preparing for the next video on deletion.', 'duration': 96.227, 'highlights': ['The chapter demonstrates the left rotation on a node 14 to accommodate the insertion of 16, showcasing the transformation of the tree structure. (relevance: 5)', 'The process involves setting links and updating the left and right child of the nodes using pointer variables, emphasizing the manipulation of address pointers in the tree structure. (relevance: 4)', 'The explanation emphasizes that the operations involve manipulating pointer addresses and not the values of the nodes, reinforcing the concept of pointer manipulation in splay trees. (relevance: 3)', "The chapter concludes by mentioning the upcoming discussion on deletion in splay trees, providing a preview of the next video's topic. (relevance: 2)"]}], 'duration': 277.725, 'thumbnail': 'https://coursnap.oss-ap-southeast-1.aliyuncs.com/video-capture/1HeIZNP3w4A/pics/1HeIZNP3w4A1787587.jpg', 'highlights': ['The chapter emphasizes the use of pointer variables and specific node addresses, such as 14 and 16, in explaining the process of right and left rotation in a binary tree.', 'The process of right rotation involves setting the left child of a node to a specific address and then establishing the link between nodes by storing addresses in pointer variables y and x.', 'The process of left rotation emphasizes the importance of setting specific links between nodes, highlighting the sequence of setting the links between nodes of the binary tree.', 'The chapter demonstrates the left rotation on a node 14 to accommodate the insertion of 16, showcasing the transformation of the tree structure.', 'The process involves setting links and updating the left and right child of the nodes using pointer variables, emphasizing the manipulation of address pointers in the tree structure.', 'The explanation emphasizes that the operations involve manipulating pointer addresses and not the values of the nodes, reinforcing the concept of pointer manipulation in splay trees.', "The chapter concludes by mentioning the upcoming discussion on deletion in splay trees, providing a preview of the next video's topic."]}], 'highlights': ["The video also covers splay trees' advantages, drawbacks, and applications, as well as their differences from other balancing binary search trees, providing comprehensive insights into splay tree operations.", 'The chapter explains the insertion operation in splay trees, including the algorithm and a demonstration using an example.', 'The process of inserting and splaying nodes in a splay tree.', 'The final tree structure after each insertion.', "Detailed explanation of inserting a new node (16) and determining the required rotation based on the node's position in the tree.", 'Identifying the need for a left rotation due to 16 being to the right of 13, resulting in the final tree structure.', 'Performing left rotation on parent right results in 16 moving upward and becoming the left child of 15.', 'Subsequently, performing right rotation on the grandparent leads to 16 becoming the root node.', 'Highlight the importance of performing rotation on the parent first, instead of the grandparent, in a zigzag situation.', 'The process of splaying involves checking various cases, such as when the inserted node 14 is already the root, and performing a loop while the parent of the node is not null to ensure the node becomes the root (Relevance: 4)', 'The algorithm covers cases of zig, zag, and zigzag situations for tree balancing, involving parent and grandparent nodes, with corresponding left and right rotations', 'In case of both N and P being left child, two right rotations are performed, first on the grandparent and then on the parent', 'If both N and P are right child, two left rotations are performed, first on the grandparent and then on the parent', 'In a zigzag situation, a right rotation is performed on the parent followed by a left rotation on the grandparent', 'The chapter emphasizes the use of pointer variables and specific node addresses, such as 14 and 16, in explaining the process of right and left rotation in a binary tree.', 'The process of right rotation involves setting the left child of a node to a specific address and then establishing the link between nodes by storing addresses in pointer variables y and x.', 'The process of left rotation emphasizes the importance of setting specific links between nodes, highlighting the sequence of setting the links between nodes of the binary tree.', 'The chapter demonstrates the left rotation on a node 14 to accommodate the insertion of 16, showcasing the transformation of the tree structure.', 'The process involves setting links and updating the left and right child of the nodes using pointer variables, emphasizing the manipulation of address pointers in the tree structure.', 'The explanation emphasizes that the operations involve manipulating pointer addresses and not the values of the nodes, reinforcing the concept of pointer manipulation in splay trees.']}